INS Dolphin (2010)
|Builders:||Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW)|
|Preceded by:||Gal class|
|Active:||3 (another 2 fitting-out and undergoing sea trials, plus 1 on order)|
|Beam:||6.8 m (22 ft)|
|Draught:||6.2 m (20 ft)|
|Propulsion:||Diesel-electric, 3 diesels, 1 shaft, 4,243 shp (3,164 kW)|
|Test depth:||At least 350 m (1,150 ft)|
|Complement:||35 + 10 additional|
|STN Atlas ISUS 90-55 combat system|
|Notes:||Unless noted, characteristics listed are those of the original 1990s non-AIP-capable model|
The Dolphin class is actually two related sub-classes of diesel-electric submarine developed and constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW), Germany for the Israeli Navy. The first boats of the class were based on the export-only German 209-class submarines, but modified and enlarged. The Dolphin 1 sub-class is slightly larger than the German Navy Type 212 in length and displacement. The three newer air-independent propulsion (AIP) equipped boats are similar to the Type 212 vessels in underwater endurance, are 12 metres (39 ft) longer, nearly 500 tonnes heavier in submerged displacement and have a larger crew than either the Type 212 or the Type 214.
The Dolphin 2-class are the largest submarines to have been built in Germany since World War II. The Dolphin class boats are the most expensive single vehicles in the Israel Defense Forces. The Dolphin-class replaced the aging Gal-class submarines, which had served in the Israeli navy since the late 1970s. Each Dolphin-class submarine is capable of carrying a combined total of up to 16 torpedoes and SLCMs. The cruise missiles have a range of at least 1,500 km (930 mi) and are widely believed to be equipped with a 200-kilogram (440 lb) nuclear warhead containing up to 6 kilograms (13 lb) of plutonium. The latter, if true, would provide Israel with an offshore nuclear second strike capability.
- Dolphin – delivered May 1998 – commissioned 1999
- Leviathan (trans. "Leviathan" or "whale") – delivered 1999 – commissioned 2000
- Tekumah (trans. "Revival") – delivered 2000 – commissioned 2000
AIP Dolphin 2 class
- Tanin (trans. "Tannin" or "Crocodile") – delivered 23 Sept 2014 – expected to enter service in 2014 - Arrived in Israel 2014
- Rahav (trans. "Rahab" or "Splendour") – delivered 29 April 2013 – expected to enter service in 2014 - Arrived in Israel in 2016
- Dakar (trans. "Grouper") Ordered 21 March 2012. Expected to enter service in 2018.
First budgeted in July 1989 and ordered in January 1990, by November the order was cancelled due to budget reallocation aimed at countering Iraqi threats leading up to the 1991 Gulf War. The first two (Dolphin and Leviathan) were fully donated by Germany to restart the program and the third (Tekumah) received a 50% subsidy. During the first Gulf War, it was revealed that German firms had assisted Iraq with modernizing its ballistic missile and chemical weapon programs, thanks in part to lax enforcement by German customs; these enhanced missiles bringing Israeli cities into Iraqi targeting range for the first time and included supplies and factories for modern weaponized mustard and nerve gas. Though not a belligerent in the Gulf War, Israeli cities were nevertheless bombarded with these upgraded Iraqi missiles. To compensate Israel for war related damage and economic losses and keep German shipyards occupied with a high profile project in the post Cold War defense spending downturn then Chancellor of Germany Helmut Kohl approved an assistance package to German industry including the construction of two Dolphin-class submarines.
The names Dolphin and Leviathan hail from the retired Israeli WWII-era submarines of the British T class; the third boat Tekuma (translation: Revival) refers in memory of Dakar, the third Israeli boat of the T class which was lost in 1968 with all Israeli crew in the Mediterranean Sea during delivery. The forthcoming boats Tanin and Rahav are names taken from retired Gal-class submarines, which were themselves named after even older Israeli S class boats.
In 2006 Israel signed a contract with ThyssenKrupp to purchase two additional submarines from its HDW subsidiary. The two new boats are an upgraded version displacing 28% heavier than the older Dolphins, featuring an air-independent propulsion system, similar to the one used on German Type 212 submarines. On 6 July 2006, the Government of Germany decided to finance an advance to start the construction, about €170 million, planned for delivery in 2012. The two submarines cost, overall, around €1.3 billion, of up to one-third was subsidized by Germany. In 2010, both Israel and Germany denied having talks regarding the potential purchase of a sixth submarine. Yet in 2011, Israel ordered a sixth Dolphin-class submarine, for which it was reported to pay the unsubsidized cost of US$1 billion. However, in July 2011, during a meeting between German Defense Minister Thomas de Maizière and Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and Defense minister Ehud Barak, an agreement was reached to subsidize €135 million of the US$500–700 million cost of the sixth submarine.
Der Spiegel reported that Germany had threatened to pull out of the deal over new Israeli settlement expansion. However, Amos Gilad of the Israeli Ministry of Defense denied the rumors and stated that the contract was continuing. German sources are reported as saying that the submarine deal was continued only on condition that Israel unfreeze funds to the Palestinian Authority.
Armament and systems
Each submarine is fitted with 6 × 533 mm (21.0 in) torpedo tubes, and 4 × 650 mm (26 in) torpedo tubes. The very large 650 mm tubes can be used for laying mines, larger submarine-launched cruise missiles, or swimmer delivery vehicles, and with liners the tubes could be used for standard torpedoes and submarine-launched missiles. According to the German Defense Ministry the 650 mm tubes are to have a liner installed for firing 533 mm UGM-84 Harpoon missiles although the Dolphin class already has six tubes of the 533 mm size. The boats were first armed with Atlas Elektronik DM2A3 torpedoes using wire-guided active homing to deliver a 260 kg (570 lb) warhead at a maximum speed of 35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph) to a target over 13 km (8.1 mi) away, in passive homing mode a speed of 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) and a range up to 28 km (17 mi) is possible. Israel has also procured the DM2A4 torpedo, successor to their DM2A3s, which are electrically propelled, equipped with fiber optic communications and has countermeasure resistant signals processing and mission logic. A wet and dry compartment is installed for deploying underwater special operations teams. According to Defense Industry Daily the IDAS torpedo tube launched anti-helicopter missile, designed to defend against airborne threats while submerged in shallow water found in the Mediterranean where escape to depth is often not possible, is under development for the Dolphin and 212 classes.
Jane's Defence Weekly reports that the Dolphin-class submarines are believed to be nuclear armed, offering Israel a sea based second strike capability. In adherence to Missile Technology Control Regime rules the US Clinton administration refused an Israeli request in 2000 to purchase Tomahawk long range SLCMs. The U.S. Navy has deployed nuclear armed and conventional Tomahawk missiles for its submarine fleet which are launched from standard heavy 533 mm torpedo tubes. The Federation of American Scientists and GlobalSecurity.org report that the four larger torpedo tubes are capable of launching Israeli built nuclear-armed Popeye Turbo cruise missiles (a variant of the Popeye standoff missile), and the U.S. Navy recorded an Israeli submarine-launched cruise missile test in the Indian Ocean ranging 1,500 km (930 mi).
The Dolphin class uses the ISUS 90-1 TCS weapon control system supplied by STN Atlas Elektronik, for automatic sensor management, fire control, navigation, and operations. The installed radar warning receiver is a 4CH(V)2 Timnex electronic support measures system, scanning from 2 GHz to 18 GHz frequency bands and able to pinpoint radar sites with accuracy between 1.4 to 5 degrees of angle (depending on frequency). It is developed by Elbit in Haifa. Active surface search radar is an Elta unit operating on I band. The sonar suite includes the Atlas Elektronik CSU 90 hull-mounted passive and active search and attack sonar. The PRS-3 passive ranging sonar is also supplied by Atlas Elektronik, the flank array is a FAS-3 passive search sonar. The submarines have two Kollmorgen periscopes.
The Dolphins are equipped with three V-16 396 SE 84 diesel engines built by MTU Friedrichshafen (now Tognum), developing 3.12 MW (4,180 hp) sustained power. The submarines are equipped with three Siemens 750 kW alternators, and a Siemens 2.85 MW sustained-power motor driving a single shaft. The propulsion system provides a speed of 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) submerged and a snorkeling speed of 11 knots (20 km/h; 13 mph). The hull is rated for dives up to 350 m (1,150 ft). The maximum unrefuelled range is 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) traveling on the surface at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) and over 400 nautical miles (740 km; 460 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) submerged; they are designed to remain unsupplied for up to 30 days on station.
Operations and deployment
According to news reports the submarines are normally based in the Mediterranean. One Dolphin was sent to the Red Sea for exercises, briefly docking in the naval base in Eilat in June 2009, which Israeli media interpreted as a warning to Iran. In 2009 the Israeli newspaper Haaretz, quoting an Israeli defense official, reported that the small Eilat naval station is unsuited strategically to base the Dolphin-class boats, specifically noting the tight entrance of the Gulf of Aqaba at the Straits of Tiran as one held by potential adversaries including Saudi Arabia on the east and the demilitarized Egyptian Sinai to the west. Eilat is a 10 km (6.2 mi) strip of coast between Egypt and Jordan, the only two Arab states that currently have peace treaties with Israel. According to The London Sunday Times, the Israeli Navy decided in May 2010 to keep at least one submarine equipped with nuclear missiles there permanently as a deterrent in response to rumored ballistic missiles moved from Syria to Lebanon.
If the boats are based at the larger Haifa naval base, access to the Persian Gulf area either requires openly sailing on the surface through the Egyptian controlled Suez Canal as permitted in the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty or a long voyage sailing around Africa. According to the Convention of Constantinople signed by the ruling great powers of the time including the UK, France, and the Ottoman Empire in March 2, 1888; "The Suez Maritime Canal shall always be free and open, in time of war as in time of peace, to every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag." Denied crossing at the Suez Canal and blockade of the Straits of Tiran occurred in both in 1956 and 1967 leading to Israel twice seizing the Sinai to break the blockade. The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty allows for the free passage of Israeli vessels through the Suez Canal, and recognizes the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways. Even if a Red Sea or Indian Ocean base is unavailable other nations have used submarine tenders, ships that resupply, rearm, and refuel submarines at sea, when nearby friendly bases are unavailable.
In response to rumors that Israeli submarines might be allowed to secretly base in Bahrain, an island kingdom in the Persian Gulf near Iran, the commander in chief of Bahrain's defense forces, Sheikh bin Ahmad Al-Khalifa stated to the Iranian ambassador Hossein Amir Abdollahian "We view the Zionist regime as our enemy and the enemy of all Muslim world. Bahrain in no way allows Tel Aviv [Israeli military forces] to be present in its territorial waters."
According to two contradictory Sudanese media reports, in November or December 2011 two Israeli air raids against Gaza-bound weapon smugglers in Sudan were accompanied by Israeli submarine activity off the Sudanese coast. The Sudanese government claims no strikes took place.
In February 2012, Ynet, the online version of the Israeli newspaper Yediot Achronot, reported that for security reasons applicants for the submarine service with dual citizenship or citizenship in addition to Israeli, which is common in Israel with a relatively high percentage of olim (immigrants), must officially renounce all other citizenships to be accepted into the training program.
Israel National News and the Jerusalem Post both had articles on Sunday, July 14, 2013, which quote that day's London Sunday Times saying that the July 5 Israeli missile strike against the Syrian port of Latakia, previously reported by CNN as an Israel Air Force strike, was made in coordination with the United States, and long range missiles were launched from a Dolphin-class submarine. The attack targeted newly unloaded Russian-made Yakhont long range high performance anti-ship missiles and associated radars.
- Eshel, Tamir (6 May 2011). "Israel to Receive a Third Enhanced Dolphin Submarine". Defense Update. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Sixth Submarine: "The Contract Continues"". israeldefense.com. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Cavas, Christopher P. (15 August 2014). "Israel's Deadliest Submarines Are Nearly Ready". Intercepts. Defense News. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Israel's Navy Receives the Fifth Dolphin Submarine". Defense-Update.com. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Israel gets fifth 'nuclear-capable' sub". RT. 30 April 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "'Spy tool': Commander touts strategic role of new Israeli submarines". World Tribune. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Friedman, Norman (2006). The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapon systems. Naval Institute Press. p. 505.
- Bergman, Ronen (3 June 2012). "Report: Dolphin subs equipped with nuclear weapons". ynetnews.com. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "International and Professional Press about the new Dolphin Submarines". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Popeye Turbo". Weapons of Mass Destruction. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Mahnaimi, Uzi; Campbell, Matthew (18 June 2000). "Israel Makes Nuclear Waves With Submarine Missile Test". Sunday Times. London.
- Cirincione, Joseph; Wolfsthal, Jon B.; Rajkumar, Miriam (2005). Deadly arsenals: nuclear, biological, and chemical threats. Carnegie Endowment. pp. 263–4.
- Plushnick-Masti, Ramit (25 August 2006). "Israel Buys 2 Nuclear-Capable Submarines". The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Ben-David, Alon (1 October 2009). "Israel seeks sixth Dolphin in light of Iranian 'threat'". Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Mahnaimi, Uzi (30 May 2010). "Israel stations nuclear missile subs off Iran". The Sunday Times. London. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Israel Defense Forces". 23 May 2014.
- Lappin, Yaakov (28 July 2013). "Navy seeks teenage submarine recruits for Dolphin-class vessels". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Lappin, Yaakov (7 August 2013). "Navy undergoing 'unprecedented' upgrade in capabilities". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Benjamin Netanyahu welcomes new submarine: This sends a clear message to our enemies". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Shoval, Lilach; Tuchfeld, Mati (29 April 2013). "Israel receives fifth Dolphin-class submarine from Germany". Israel Hayom. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Netanyahu, IDF high command tout new German-made submarine". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Lappin, Yaakov (21 March 2012). "Israel purchases sixth submarine from Germany". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Germany Sells Israel More Dolphin Subs". defenseindustrydaily.com. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "IAI seeks foreign investors to develop new missile warship". iStockAnalyst. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- David Leigh. "Britain's dirty secret". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- "Iraq's Missiles" a Brief History". IraqWatch.org. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "The Gulf War (1991)". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- "On This Day: January 18 – 1991: Iraqi Scud missiles hit Israel". BBC. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Williams, Dan (25 November 2009). "Israel seeks discount on two German warships". Reuters. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Guay, Terrence (October 2005). "The European Defense Industry: Prospects for Consolidation" (PDF). UNISCI Discussion Papers. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Israel: Submarines". Weapons of Mass Destruction. GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "German-Israeli Dolphin AIP Sub Contract Signed". Defense Industry Daily. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Fogelson,, Captain(Res.) I.; Keisary, Captain(Res.) M.; Koehler, Commander(Res.) R. D. (11 December 1999). "The Dolphin Project". Zahal (Israel military store). Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- בחיל הים שקלו לקרוא לצוללת החדשה דקר (in Hebrew). nrg.org. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Weinthal, Benjamin (18 January 2010). "First German-Israeli cabinet set to meet". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Katz, Yaakov (23 July 2010). "MOD: No talks with Germany over sub". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Shiffer, Shimon (5 May 2011). "Israel buys Dolphin submarine". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Waffendeal: Deutschland subventioniert U-Boot für Israel". Der Spiegel (in German). 17 July 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- JPost.com Staff (18 July 2011). "'Germany to finalize sale of Dolphin submarine to Israel'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Settlement Protest: Germany Threatens To Halt Submarine Sale to Israel". Der Spiegel. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Report: Israel concession on Palestinian funds forced by German submarine deal.". Haaretz. 4 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Israel Submarine Capabilities".[dead link]
- "A German Success Story". Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter website. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Germany May Sell 2 more Dolphin subs to Israel for 117 billion". Defenseindustrydaily.com. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "IDAS Submarine Launched Surface to Air Missile System". Defense-Update.com. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Thomas, Valerie (1989). "Verification of Limits on Long-range Nuclear SLCMs" (pdf). Science & Global Security. 1: 27–57. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Popeye Turbo - Israel Special Weapons". Federation of American Scientists. 20 June 2000. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Friedman, Norman (February 2003). "Up Periscope Up antenna" (pdf). Waypoint. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Submarines". MTU Online. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Williams, Dan (3 July 2009). "Israeli sub sails Suez, signaling reach to Iran". Reuters. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Israel sends sub as 'a warning'". The New Zealand Herald. 6 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-07-06.[dead link]
- Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal
- Oren, Michael B. (2002). Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515174-7.
- "Commander: Bahrain Not to Allow Israel's Presence in Territorial Waters". FARS News Agency. Retrieved 2012-07-06. Archived June 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Issacharoff, Avi; Harel, Amos (25 December 2011). "Reports in Sudan: Israel struck two weapons convoys in past month". Haaretz. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Paraszczuk, Joanna; Katz, Yaakov (25 December 2011). "Sudanese media report on Israeli air strikes". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Zitun, Yoav (8 February 2012). "IDF submarine fleet bans dual citizenship". Ynet. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
-  (subscription required)
- "Israeli submarine responsible for July attack on Syrian arms depot - report". RT. 14 July 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Benari, Elad (14 July 2013). "Report: Israel Struck in Syria from the Sea". Israelnationalnews.com. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Report: Israeli submarine strike hit Syrian arms depot". The Jerusalem Post. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dolphin-class submarine.|
- FAS: Israel: Submarines