His pieces, particularly his cellos, are sought after by orchestras, notable musicians or collectors, and many form parts of collections in museums. Prices for authentic pieces can reach millions of US dollars at auction.
Montagnana was born in Lendinara, Italy in 1686. His father, Paolo, was a shoemaker. He made stringed musical instruments (violins, violas, cellos and double basses) in Venice. He was apprenticed in Matteo Sella's workshop (probably also associated with Matteo Goffriller) and after that he opened his own shop, active from 1712, located in Calle degli Stagneri, with insignia "Alla Cremona".
Typically 1cm shorter than a "forma B" cello made by Stradivarius, and 2cm wider between the C bouts, the signature sound of a Montagnana cello is "uncomplicated" to play (according to Jacqueline du Pré's description of the Montagnana cello played by Martin Lovett of the Amadeus Quartet ). One can hit the bow hard on a Montagnana cello while playing, and the sound will continue to come out and become more interesting. As a contrast, for a Stradivarius cello, in general, you have to coax it out (based on a famous description of Jacqueline du Pré's Davidov Stradivarius reputedly made by Yo-Yo Ma: "Jackie's unbridled dark qualities went against the Davydov. You have to coax the instrument. The more you attack it, the less it returns").
Montagnana met a Venetian woman living in the Calle degli Stagneri/Santo Bartolomeo district, Caterina Berti, whom he married. The couple lived in Venice and had six daughters.
Following the birth of their last child, Caterina began suffering from progressive paralysis, which eventually led to her death in 1748. It seems that this final blow was too much for Montagnana, who until then had been seeking refuge in his workshop and spending much longer time than usual on the meticulous details of his instruments. His health began to decline rapidly, for unspecified causes and, by February 1750, he was bedridden. His death certificate states that he died after being confined to his bed for one month with "hypochondria".
He died in Venice, Italy in 1750. His workshop was then inherited by Giorgio Serafin, the nephew of Sanctus Seraphin.
Many of his pieces are still in circulation, used by famous musicians or are part of public or private collections. Artists who play or have played on Montagnanas include Stephen Kates, Lionel Tertis, Lynn Harrell, Mischa Maisky, Truls Mørk, Alfred Wallenstein, Josef Roismann, Steven Isserlis, Raphael Wallfisch, Yo-Yo Ma, Paul Watkins, Maurice Eisenberg, Emanuel Feuermann, Daniel Saidenberg, Orlando Cole, Sevak Avanesyan, Nathaniel Rosen, Boris Andrianov, Galen Kelch, Virgil Boutellis-Taft, Sylvia Lent, Ralph Kirshbaum, István Várdai, and Heinrich Schiff.
- Petunia (1733) - owned by Yo-Yo Ma
- Ex-Romberg (1733) - on loan to Raphael Wallfisch
- Esquire (1723) - on loan to Truls Mørk
- Feuermann (1735) - Swiss collector, previously owned by Emmanuel Feuermann
- Ex-Servais (1738) - owned by Nathaniel Rosen
- Mighty Venetian (1738) - owned by Nathaniel Rosen, previously owned by Adrien-Francois Servais (1807-1866)
- Kates-Hancock (1739) - owned by Stephen Kates until 2003
- Sleeping Beauty (1739) - owned by Heinrich Schiff
- Baron Steinheil (1740) (unknown)
- Duchess of Cleaveland (1740) (unknown)
- Montagnana (1710) - owned by Guilhermina Suggia
An international festival with concerts where some of Montagnana's instruments are used is held every year in his native town, Lendinara.
- Pio, Stefano (2004). Violin and Lute Makers of Venice 1640 - 1760. Venezia, Italy: Venice research. p. 383. ISBN 978-88-907252-2-7. Archived from the original on 2018-03-13. Retrieved 2006-08-22.
- Virgil Boutellis-Taft
- "Sylvia Lent Possesses Rare Old Montagnana" Washington Post (March 4, 1928): F1.
- "István Várdai receives 'Du Pré-Harrell' Stradivarius cello on extended loan". The Strad. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
- Violin and Lute Makers of Venice 1640 - 1760 by Stefano Pio. Ed. Venice research, Venice, Italy, 2004 ISBN 978-88-907252-2-7