Domestic violence in same-sex relationships
|Part of a series on|
|lesbian ∙ gay ∙ bisexual ∙ transgender|
Domestic violence in same-sex relationships is a pattern of violence or abuse that occurs within same-sex relationships. Domestic violence is an issue that affects people of any sexuality, but there are issues that affect victims of same-sex domestic violence specifically. These issues include homophobia, HIV and AIDS stigma, STD risk and other health issues, lack of legal support, and the violence they face being considered less serious than heterosexual domestic violence. Moreover, the issue of domestic violence in same-sex relationships has not been studied as comprehensively as domestic violence in heterosexual relationships. However, there are legal changes being made to help victims of domestic violence in same-sex relationships, as well as organizations that cater specifically to victims of domestic violence in same-sex relationships.
The Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention states, "For several methodological reasons – nonrandom sampling procedures and self-selection factors, among others – it is not possible to assess the extent of same-sex domestic violence. Studies on abuse between gay male or lesbian partners usually rely on small convenience samples such as lesbian or gay male members of an association."
Gay males and lesbians
Some sources state that gay and lesbian couples experience domestic violence at the same frequency as heterosexual couples, while other sources state domestic violence among gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals might be higher than among heterosexual individuals, that gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals are less likely to report domestic violence that has occurred in their intimate relationships than heterosexual couples are, or that lesbian couples experience domestic violence less than heterosexual couples do. By contrast, some researchers commonly assume that lesbian couples experience domestic violence at the same rate as heterosexual couples, and have been more cautious when reporting domestic violence among gay male couples. According to a 2012 report from the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP) of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Intimate Partner Violence Gay men were more likely to require medical attention and suffer injuries as a result of IPV. Gay men were close to two times (1.7) more likely to require medical attention and 16 times more likely to suffer injury as compared to individuals who did not identify as gay men. A 2014 review of the literature found that rates of domestic violence among same-sex couples are similar to or greater than opposite-sexed couples.
In a 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study, reporting on domestic violence in the U.S., 26% of gay men and 37.3% of bisexual men said that they experienced physical violence, stalking, or rape by their partners of which 90.7% and 78.5% (respectively) were male. 29% of heterosexual men reported similar violence in the same study (with 99.5% of perpetrators being female).
The CDC also stated that 43.8% of lesbian women reported experiencing physical violence, stalking, or rape by their partners. However, the study notes that, out of those 43.8%, only two thirds (67.4%) were female (as lesbian women tend to be in heterosexual relationships before they come out), which would narrow the actual statistic down to 29.6%. In contrast, 35% of heterosexual women and 61.1% of bisexual women reported physical violence, stalking, or rape by their partners in the same study with 98.7% and 89.5% (respectively) of perpetrators being male.
Literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-gender female couples; researchers found that internalized homophobia and discrimination were correlated with IPV. In addition, in research done on psychological aggression of lesbian relationships, researchers found that internalized homophobia and social constraints in talking with friends about sexual identity issues showed correlation with IPV. Literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-gender male couples, SES, attachment orientation, HIV status, and public outness, and internalized homophobia showed relationship with intimate partner violence in gay men. Similarly, a study conducted on the predictors of IPA of gay men found a correlation between public outness, alcohol consumption, and internalized homophobia 
Although bisexual people may be in relationships with people of any gender, they are often victims of domestic violence. The CDC reported that 61% of bisexual women said they experienced physical violence, stalking, or rape by their partners. For men in the same study, 37% reported having experienced similar violence.
For both men and women, the percentage of bisexual people who have experienced domestic violence is higher than either gay men or lesbians. The high rate of domestic violence faced by bisexual people may be in part because of the specific challenges bisexual people face in receiving help, as bisexuality is often misunderstood, even by those who administer domestic violence help professionally.
Transgender people may be in relationships with people of any gender, but they experience high rates of domestic violence. Comparatively, little research has been conducted on domestic violence towards transgender individuals, especially within the context of romantic relationships. In a 2009 United States study, 56% to 66% of transgender individuals reported experiencing violence within their homes, though not necessarily by a romantic partner.
Influences and factors
Members of same-sex relationships who face domestic violence often have issues accessing legal recourse, as domestic violence laws are often drafted in such a way as to only include different sex partnerships. Some are worried about being involved in the legal system because they are afraid they will be mistreated or dismissed due to their sexual orientation. Although often the abuser can still be arrested or tried for assault or similar crimes, not classifying the crime as domestic may change how it is dealt with in the court system and change how the victim is treated. Also, studies have shown that law enforcement officers do not treat domestic violence in same-sex relationships as seriously as domestic violence in heterosexual relationships.
Victims of domestic violence in same sex relationships do have legal rights afforded to them in some U.S. states, whether or not they are married to their partner, although the requirements and protections vary by state. Some of these rights include having a civil protection order or restraining order placed on the abuser to keep them from stalking or harassing the victim.
Some cities and states in the U.S. are working to improve the legal situation for LGBT victims of domestic violence, through policy change and police training. In Washington D.C. the city has created an LGBT unit of their police department to combat homophobic violence and to deal with violence against transgender people by professionals who are also members of the LGBT community.
HIV/AIDS may create additional problems for those in violent relationships, financially, emotionally, and health wise, whether it is the perpetrator or the victim who is living with HIV or AIDS. This specifically affects those in same-sex relationships because men who have sex with men, no matter how they identify, are significantly more likely to have HIV or AIDS than others.
Those living with HIV are often financially dependent on their partners, making it more difficult to leave abusive relationships. If it is the victim who has HIV or AIDS the abuser may take control of their finances in order to have even more control over their life. This issue is compounded by the fact that those living with HIV or AIDS may often become too sick to work and support themselves, and that even when they are able to work they often face discrimination in the workplace or in the hiring process, even though this is technically illegal under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Abusers may use emotional tactics to exert control over their partners, whether it is them or the victim who has HIV or AIDS. Some abusive partners may threaten to reveal their partner's positive HIV status to others as a form of control, as there is a stigma surrounding HIV and AIDS that could affect a victim's life. If it is the abuser who has HIV or AIDS, the victim may fear that leaving someone who is sick makes them seem shallow, uncaring, or discriminatory, or the abuser may insinuate that if their partner leaves the relationship the abuser will become sicker as a result. Oppositionally, if it is the victim who has HIV or AIDS, the abuser may imply that the victim will be unable to find another partner due to their positive HIV status or that they will die alone. The abuser may also claim that it is the victim's fault that the abuser has HIV or AIDS, essentially emotionally blackmailing them to stay in the relationship.
There are many health related ways that HIV or AIDS can affect domestic violence in same-sex relationships. Some perpetrators of domestic violence purposefully try to transmit STDs to their partner or to transmit their partner's STD to themselves, as a tactic to control their partner. Additionally, many people in same-sex relationships who experienced domestic violence experienced violence specifically because they had asked their partners to use condoms or other prophylactics, which are known to limit the spread of HIV. In conjunction with this, abusers may tamper with their partner's pre-exposure prophylaxis medications that prevent the spread of HIV, or may use the social stigma surrounding the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis to convince their partner not to use it. The abuser may also tamper with their partner's or their own HIV medication, or keep their partner from receiving health care in other ways. Furthermore, those with HIV or AIDS may be more affected by physical violence than those who are healthy, as their immune systems are weak and physical injuries will be harder to recover from. Those living with HIV or AIDS may also be more affected by emotional trauma for the same reason.
One way this occurs is through the fear of being "outed," as abusers may use this fear of being outed to control their partners or an abuser may use the fact that they are not out to limit their partner's exposure to other LGBT people who would recognize that their relationship is unhealthy.
Another way homophobia plays a role in domestic violence is that people in same-sex relationships may feel that they have a duty to represent the LGBT community in a positive manner, and that if their relationship is abusive it is proof that homosexuality is inherently wrong, immoral, or otherwise flawed. Further, the abuser may frame the abuse as justified because of the victim's Sexual orientation, or imply that no one will help the victim because of their sexual orientation.
On a systematic level, many resources offered to victims of domestic violence are not offered to victims of domestic violence in same-sex relationships. This refusal to help victims of same-sex domestic violence victims occurs both by private domestic violence help centers and by law enforcement, who may not treat same-sex domestic violence as seriously as domestic violence in heterosexual relationships.
Historically, domestic violence was viewed by many feminists as "a manifestation of patriarchal power." This definition saw domestic violence as a phenomenon acted out by men onto women, therefore leaving out male victims of domestic violence and victims of domestic violence in same-sex relationships. Some abusers even capitalize on the idea that domestic violence cannot occur in same-sex relationships to convince their partner that the abuse is normal or non-abusive.
One idea that persists and is harmful to lesbians, is that sexual assault is less serious or aggressive when perpetrated by women. However, being sexually assaulted can be traumatic to victims regardless of the gender of the perpetrator. Similarly, women stalking other women or men seem as less threatening than the same actions being perpetrated by men, so lesbian victims of stalking may be ignored by law enforcement and other individuals. Part of this problem that specifically impacts lesbians is that lesbians are assumed to have perfect relationships specifically because there is no man involved in the situation. This idea of a "lesbian utopia" makes it more difficult for lesbians to report domestic violence, because often people do not believe it can be true.
Gay men may feel that being battered is a threat to their masculinity, and thus are hesitant to report domestic violence. Some abusers may frame the abuse as simply an "expression of masculinity," which normalizes the physical violence.
Data collection issues
There are several problems with data collection about domestic violence in same-sex relationships, including lack of reporting, biased sampling, and lack of interest in studying same-sex domestic violence. For example, if samples are taken at a center that caters to LGBT individuals, the results may be artifactually high, as those who use these services may also be those in need of help, or artifactually low, as abusers often limit their partner's exposure to others, especially those who may recognize their relationship as abusive.
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (AVP)
The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (AVP) is an organization which "works to prevent, respond to, and end all forms of violence against and within LGBTQ communities." This organization has member organization in 26 U.S. states, Washington D.C., and Canada, which help connect people to resources when they have been abused in a same-sex relationship, been sexually assaulted, or been a victim of a homophobic hate crime.
Community United Against Violence (CUAV)
CUAV is an organization based in San Francisco that has a broad mission of seeking to track anti-LGBT violence and offer support to those affected by it. They offer support groups and counselling for those who are victims of same-sex domestic violence.
New York State Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Intimate Partner Violence Network ("The Network")
"The Network" seeks to advocate for victims of same-sex domestic violence within the state of New York, and hope that through supporting victims of same-sex domestic violence in the social and political realm that they will then have greater access to resources that victims of domestic violence may need.
The Montrose Center is an organization in Houston, Texas that began as a counselling center for LGBT individuals. The Montrose Center offers many services to LGBT individuals, including servicing victims of domestic violence by finding them housing and providing counselling. Although there are other domestic violence shelters in the Houston area, the Montrose Center feels like they can cater better to men, transgender individuals, and lesbian victims of domestic violence.
- Duke, Alysondra; Davidson, Meghan M. (2009) . "Same-sex intimate partner violence: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative outreach and advocacy". Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma. 18 (8): 795–816. doi:10.1080/10926770903291787.
- Anderson, Kristin L. "Theorizing gender in intimate partner violence research." Sex roles 52, no. 11-12 (2005): 853-865.
- Barnes, Patricia G. "'It's Just a Quarrel': Some states offer no domestic violence protection to gays." ABA Journal 84, no. 2 (1998): 24-25.
- Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M. (2005). "Family-of-origin factors and partner violence in the intimate relationships of gay men who are HIV positive". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 20 (7): 777–791. doi:10.1177/0886260505277101. PMC 1255964. PMID 15914700.
- Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M. (2006). "Intimate partner violence and HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 21 (2): 193–208. doi:10.1177/0886260505282104. PMID 16368761.
- Houston, Eric; McKirnan, David J. (2007). "Intimate partner abuse among gay and bisexual men: risk correlates and health outcomes". Journal of Urban Health. 84 (5): 681–690. doi:10.1007/s11524-007-9188-0. PMC 2231846. PMID 17610158.
- Helfrich, Christine A., and Emily K. Simpson. "Improving services for lesbian clients: What do domestic violence agencies need to do?." Health care for women international 27, no. 4 (2006): 344-361.
- McKenry, Patrick C.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Mason, Tina L.; Mosack, Katie (2006). "Perpetration of Gay and Lesbian Partner Violence: A Disempowerment Perspective". Journal of Family Violence. 21 (4): 233–243. doi:10.1007/s10896-006-9020-8.
- Pattavina, April; Hirschel, David; Buzawa, Eve; Faggiani, Don; Bentley, Helen (2007). "A comparison of the police response to heterosexual versus same-sex intimate partner violence". Violence Against Women. 13 (4): 374–394. doi:10.1177/1077801207299206. PMID 17420516.
- Poorman, Paula B., Eric P. Seelau, and Sheila M. Seelau. "Perceptions of domestic abuse in same-sex relationships and implications for criminal justice and mental health responses." Violence and Victims 18, no. 6 (2003): 659-669.
- Sorenson, Susan B.; Thomas Kristie, A. (2009). "Views of Intimate Partner Violence in Same- and Opposite-Sex Relationships". Journal of Marriage and Family. 71 (2): 337–52. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00602.x. JSTOR 40262883.
- Murray, Christine E.; Mobley, A. Keith (2009). "Empirical research about same-sex intimate partner violence: A methodological review" (PDF). Journal of Homosexuality. 56 (3): 361–386. doi:10.1080/00918360902728848. PMID 19319742.
- "What Rights Do I Have As An LGBT Victim of Domestic Violence?" (PDF). www.americanbar.org. American Bar Association. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Liaison Unit (LGBTLU) | mpdc". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "The National Domestic Violence Hotline | LGBTQ Abuse". www.thehotline.org. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- Bonnie S. Fisher, Steven P. Lab (2010). Encyclopedia of Gender and Society, Volume 1. SAGE. p. 312. ISBN 978-1412960472. Retrieved August 19, 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Fisher, Bonnie; Lab, Steven (2010). Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. doi:10.4135/9781412979993. ISBN 978-1-4129-6047-2.
- Andrew Karmen (2010). Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology. Cengage Learning. p. 255. ISBN 978-0495599296. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Robert L. Hampton, Thomas P. Gullotta (2010). Interpersonal Violence in the African-American Community: Evidence-Based Prevention and Treatment Practices. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 49. ISBN 978-0387295985. Retrieved August 19, 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Who is Doing What to Whom? Determining the Core Aggressor in Relationships Where Domestic Violence Exists." National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. https://www.speakcdn.com/assets/2497/who_is_doing_what_to_whom.pdf
- Stiles-Shields, C; Carroll, RA (2015). "Same-Sex Domestic Violence: Prevalence, Unique Aspects, and Clinical Implications". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 41 (6): 636–48. doi:10.1080/0092623X.2014.958792. PMID 25189218.
- Walters, Mikel L., Jieru Chen, and Matthew J. Breiding. "The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 findings on victimization by sexual orientation." Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 648, no. 73 (2013): 6.
- Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M. (2005). "Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 29 (3): 258–269. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00220.x.
- Lewis, Robin J.; Milletich, Robert J.; Derlega, Valerian J.; Padilla, Miguel A. (2014). "Sexual Minority Stressors and Psychological Aggression in Lesbian Women's Intimate Relationships". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 38 (4): 535–550. doi:10.1177/0361684313517866.
- Bartholomew, Kim; Regan, Katherine V.; Oram, Doug; White, Monica A. (2008). "Correlates of Partner Abuse in Male Same-Sex Relationships". Violence and Victims. 23 (3): 344–360. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.23.3.344.
- Milletich, Robert J.; Gumienny, Leslie A.; Kelley, Michelle L.; D'Lima, Gabrielle M. (2014). "Predictors of Women's Same-Sex Partner Violence Perpetration". Journal of Family Violence. 29 (6): 653–664. doi:10.1007/s10896-014-9620-7.
- Stotzer, Rebecca L (2009). "Violence against transgender people: A review of United States data". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 14 (3): 170–179. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2009.01.006.
- "For D.C.'s LGBT Community, A Police Liaison Who Can Relate". NPR.org. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "NCAVP :: Issues :: Domestic Violence". www.ncavp.org. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "Men who have sex with men, HIV and AIDS | AVERT". www.avert.org. 2015-07-20. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- Campaign, Human Rights. "HIV & AIDS and Employment Discrimination | Human Rights Campaign". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- Calabrese, Sarah K.; Underhill, Kristen (2016-10-26). "How Stigma Surrounding the Use of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Undermines Prevention and Pleasure: A Call to Destigmatize "Truvada Whores"". American Journal of Public Health. 105 (10): 1960–1964. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302816. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 4566537. PMID 26270298.
- Dean, Tim (2015). "Mediated Intimacies: Raw Sex, Truvada, & the Biopolitics of Chemoprophylaxis". Sexualities (published February 2015). 18 (1–2): 224–246. doi:10.1177/1363460715569137.
- Administrator. "National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs - AVP: The Anti-Violence Project". www.avp.org. Archived from the original on 2016-10-25. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- Nameri, Heysha. "NCAVP Member Directory - AVP: The Anti-Violence Project". www.avp.org. Archived from the original on 2016-11-04. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- Jenness, Valerie; Broad, Kendal (1994). "Antiviolence activism and the (in) visibility of gender in the gay/lesbian and women's movements". Gender & Society. 8 (3): 402–423. doi:10.1177/089124394008003007.
- "CUAV Programs". cuav.org. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
- "NEW YORK STATE LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANSGENDER & QUEER INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE NETWORK". avp.org. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
- Rufca, Sarah (2013-10-23). "New name, new look, same mission for Montrose Center". chron.com. The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2016-10-19.
- "Anti-Violence Program". montrosecenter.org. Retrieved 2016-10-19.
- Tasha Amezcua et al. (2011). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-affected Intimate Partner Violence 2011. New York City, New York. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs.