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The Dominion Police Force existed between 1868 and 1920, and was one of the predecessors of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
It was organized as a police force for protecting federal government buildings (including the Parliament Buildings on Parliament Hill) and naval yards at Halifax and Esquimalt, providing bodyguards for government leaders, carrying out secret service work arising from the activities of the Fenian raids, and enforcing certain federal laws such as those relating to counterfeiting and human trafficking. Where the Public Works Peace Preservation Act, 1869 was brought into force, the Police also had responsibility for keeping the peace for specified railways and canals that were under construction.
In Ontario, Commissioners were vested with the same powers as police magistrates and justices of the peace in that Province, and constables had the same status as those appointed under provincial law.
In May 1918, the 969-member Dominion Police was assigned under the Department of Militia and Defence and became a civilian wing of the Canadian Military Police Corps. The civilian members of the CMPC were merged with the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (Canada's western police force) on 1 February 1920, to form the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The CMPC was disbanded on 1 December 1920.
It consisted of Commissioners and constables appointed for that purpose, and its authority extended over the provinces and all parts of the territories not patrolled by the RNWMP. The organization was decentralized, with many Commissioners being appointed with either provincial or national responsibility, and it had two national co-commissioners until 1876. The national Commissioner also acted as the Commissioner of the Montreal Water Police, which reported separately to the Minister of the Marine and Fisheries. Although formed under different statutory authority, its constables were appointed as police officers under the 1868 Act.
The commissioners that had responsibility for all of Canada were:
From 1913, Sherwood was Chief Commissioner, to whom all other Commissioners reported.
- Ross, David; May, Robin (1988). The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 1873-1987. Illustrated by Richard Hook. Boxley: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-834-X.
- Williams, David Ricardo (1998). "7: Dominion Police". Call in Pinkerton's: American Detectives at Work for Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press. pp. 115–134. ISBN 1-55002-306-3.
- Wilkinson, Robert (2005). "Canada's First Federal Police Force, 1864-1920" (PDF). The Thin Blue Line (BC Federation of Police Officers) 4 (2): 7–8. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Ross & May 1988, p. 17.
- An Act respecting Police of Canada, S.C. 1868, c. 73 as amended by An Act to amend "An Act respecting Police of Canada", S.C. 1879, c. 37
- Williams 1998, p. 115.
- now protected by House of Commons and Senate Security Service Constables and Scanner operators
- Williams 1998, pp. 115–116.
- as described in Attorney General of Alberta et al. v. Putnam et al. 1981 CanLII 206 at p. 293,  2 SCR 267 (28 May 1981)
- An Act for the better preservation of the Peace in the vicinity of Public Works, S.C. 1869, c. 24
- An Act respecting Commissioners of Police, S.O. 1870-71, c. 16
- Williams 1998, p. 116.
- "Canadian Army Military Police, 1914-1920". Canadian Military Police Virtual Museum.
- An Act respecting Harbor Police, S.C. 1868, c. 62
- "Report of Commissioner of Montreal Water Police". Sessional Papers of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada, Volume 4, Issue 3. 1871. pp. 107–110.
- Previously head of the Western Frontier Constabulary. In 1871-1873, he was the Commissioner of Police for Manitoba.
- Ste. Croix, Lorne (1982). "Coursol, Charles-Joseph". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XI (1881–1890) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police at the Wayback Machine (archived June 22, 2011), Federation of American Scientists
- Dominion Police, 1868–1919, Library and Archives Canada
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