Dominion of Pakistan
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|Dominion of Pakistan|
Iman, Ittehad, Tanzeem
ایمان ، اتحاد ، تنظیم
"Faith, Unity, Discipline"
Qaumī Tarāna (1954–1956)
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1956
|Languages||Englisha, Urdub, Bengalic,|
|-||1947–1948||Muhammad Ali Jinnah|
|-||1951–1955||Malik Ghulam Muhammad|
|-||1955–1956||Iskander Mirza (Last)|
|-||1947–1951||Liaquat Ali Khan|
|-||1953–1955||Muhammad Ali Bogra|
|-||1955–1956||Chaudhry Muhammad Ali|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|-||Indian Independence Act||15 August 1947|
|-||Indo-Pakistani War||22 October 1947|
|-||Constitution adopted||23 March 1956|
|-||1956||943,665 km² (364,351 sq mi)|
|Today part of|| Pakistan
|a. Official Language: 14 August 1947
b. First National Language: 23 February 1948
c. Second National Language: 29 February 1956
Dominion of Pakistan (Bengali: পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য, Pakistan ôdhirajyô; Urdu: مملکتِ پاکستان, Mumlikāt-ē Pākistān), also usually called Pakistan; was an independent federal Dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 on the Partition of India into two sovereign countries (the other being the Dominion of India). The Dominion, which included modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was to be for the Muslims of South Asia. It became the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956; and East Pakistan seceded from the union to become Bangladesh in 1971.
Partition of British India
Section 1 of the Indian Independence Act 1947 provided that from "the fifteenth day of August, nineteen hundred and forty-seven, two independent Dominions shall be set up in India, to be known respectively as India and Pakistan." India was treated by the United Nations as the successor-state to the former British India. As it was already a member of the United Nations, it continued its seat and did not apply for a new membership. However, Pakistan was a newly independent country and had to apply to join the international organisation. It was admitted as a UN member shortly after its independence on 30 September 1947.
Before 1947, Pakistan was part of the non-independent British India in right of which the Monarch of the United Kingdom was styled Emperor of India. From 1947, the British monarch remained as head of state and Pakistan shared the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms. The monarch's constitutional roles were mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Pakistan. The royal succession was governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701.
The Dominion of Pakistan was a federation of five provinces: East Bengal (later to become Bangladesh), West Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh, and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). In addition, those Princely States which were enclaves within those provinces also joined the federation: these included Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Swat, Dir, Hunza, Chitral, Makran and the Khanate of Kalat. Each province had its own governor, who was appointed by the Governor-General of Pakistan.
The controversial Radcliffe Award, not published until 17 August 1947, specified the Radcliffe Line which demarcated the border between India and Pakistan. The Radcliffe Boundary Commission sought to separate the Muslim-majority regions in the east and northwest from the rest of India with a Hindu majority. This entailed the partition of two provinces which did not have a uniform majority — Bengal and Punjab. The western part of Punjab became Pakistani province of Punjab and the eastern part became the Indian state of Punjab. Bengal was similarly divided into East Bengal (in Pakistan) and West Bengal (in India).
Reign of Elizabeth II
During the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, she swore as Queen of Pakistan, since Pakistan was still a dominion during her coronation in 1953, whereas India was not (the Dominion of India had dissolved in 1950).
The Dominion of Pakistan ceased to exist and was succeeded by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan following the adoption of the Constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956. Pakistan became a republic within the Commonwealth.
The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh visited Pakistan as Head of the Commonwealth in 1961 and 1997.
Pakistan left the Commonwealth in 1972 over the issue of the former East Pakistan province becoming independent but rejoined in 1989, then suspended from the Commonwealth twice: first 18 October 1999 to 22 May 2004 and 22 November 2007 to 22 May 2008.
List of monarchs
|Portrait||Name||Birth||Death||Monarch From||Monarch Until||Relationship with Predecessor(s)|
|King George VI||14 December 1895||6 February 1952||15 August 1947||6 February 1952||None (position ceded)|
|Queen Elizabeth II||21 April 1926||6 February 1952||23 March 1956||Daughter of George VI|
- Timothy C. Winegard (29 December 2011). Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1107014930. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II". Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- John Stewart Bowman (2000). Columbia chronologies of Asian history and culture. Columbia University Press. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- Chester, Lucy P. (2009) Borders and Conflict in South Asia: The Radcliffe Boundary Commission and the Partition of Punjab. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
- Read, A. and Fisher, D. (1997). The Proudest Day: India's Long Road to Independence. New York: Norton.