This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Known as the “Dean of American flintknappers” he was mostly self-educated, however he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree by the University of Idaho. His 1972 publication An Introduction to Flintworking still serves as one of the primary terminology sources for students of lithic technology. Crabtree is well known for “Crabtree’s Law”, which states that “the greater the degree of final finishing applied to a stone artifact, whether by flaking, grinding, and/or polishing, the harder it is to conclude the lithic reduction process which produced the stone artifact.” Through practical experimentation and study of archaeological finds (both completed tools and the chips of stone left by their production) Crabtree learned to produce replicas of a variety of different ancient flint and obsidian blades.
Life and death
Don E. Crabtree was born in Heyburn, Idaho on June 8, 1912. He finished high school in Twin Falls in 1930, after which he worked for the Idaho Power Company. After a brief period he traveled to California where he enrolled in Long Beach Junior College in the mid-1930s with the intent to major in geology and paleontology. Crabtree was noted as being a thinker-while-doing, highly active, and not enjoying studying; due to this he dropped out of Long Beach Junior College after only one term to go his own route. In 1939 he discovered he had cancer, and this discovery briefly impeded his self-study in archeology. During the war years he met his wife, Evelyn, and married in 1943 while working for the Bethlehem Steel Company in California. Crabtree would spend the next 30 years educating and assisting some of the biggest names in archeology at the time such as Alfred Kroeber. Crabtree was also asked for his advice at influential sites like the Clovis type site. After a highly successful career he died in Twin Falls, Idaho on November 16, 1980 of complications due to heart disease.
After graduation from high school Don Crabtree first worked for the Idaho Power Company. After dropping out of Long Beach Junior College in California he began working in paleontological laboratories. By the late 1930s he was the preparator in the vertebrate paleontology laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. It was during this time he became acquainted with Alfred L. Kroeber and E.W.Gifford of the Lowie Museum at Berkeley. His time at Berkeley also included conducting flint knapping demonstrations for scholars and students and occasionally for museum visitors. After his battle with cancer was over in 1941 he worked for several months at the Lithic Laboratory of the Ohio Historical Society. It was during this period that Crabtree was called upon as an advisor in lithic studies to the University of Pennsylvania, where he was associated with Edgar B. Howard and the Clovis point type site at Black Water Draw. Frank H. H. Roberts of the Smithsonian Institution also called upon him around this time to consult on the analysis of the Lindenmeier Folsom point collection. When the U.S. entered into World War II the Lithic lab was discontinued and Crabtree returned to California to assist in the war effort as a coordination engineer for Bethlehem Steel Company, which built the ships for the Pacific effort until the war ended. After WWII he returned to Twin Springs, Idaho and became a successful real estate salesman in the postwar market. Crabtree was employed from 1952 until 1962 as a county supervisor for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) in Twin Falls. In March 1962 he opened the First Conference of Western Archaeologists on Problems of Point Typology at the Idaho State College Museum with a demonstration of his flintworking skills. In 1964 he was appointed Research Associate in Lithic Technology at the Pocatello Museum - a job he maintained until 1975.
Awards and honors
Don Crabtree was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Idaho for his outstanding contributions to the field of experimental archeology. As a rule he was apprehensive to speak at lectures and publish his work therefore the majority of the archeological community did not realize the depth of his contributions until most of his papers were published in the Idaho State University Museum journal, Tebiwa. After this he became a household name in the U.S. and the “Crabtree School” of Flintknapping was begun during which he taught some 33 pupils from 1969 to 1975 many of which would produce dissertations that would educate students across the country in lithic technology. In 1969 some of Crabtree’s work was featured in a special exhibition at New York’s American Museum of Natural History. He is also credited with the creation of “Crabtree’s Law” which is integral in the modern study of lithics. Don Crabtree donated his entire collection of work to the University of Idaho for current and future archeologists to study. The Crabtree Award of the Society for American Archaeology is also named after him.
- Mastodon Bone with Artifacts in California. 1939. American Antiquity 5(2):148-149.
- Crabtree, Don E; Butler, Robert B (4 May 1964). "Notes on experiments in flint knapping. 1. Heat treatment of silica materials". Tebiwa. 7 (1). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1967). "Notes on experiments in flintknapping. 3. The flintknapper's raw material". Tebiwa. 10 (1). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1967). "Notes on experiments in flintknapping. 4. Tools used for making flaked stone artifacts". Tebiwa. 10 (1). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Archaeological Evidence of Acculturation Along the Oregon Trail. 1968. Tebiwa 11(2):38-42.
- A Technological Description of Artifacts in Assemblage I, Wilson Butte Cave, Idaho. 1969. Current Anthropology (10)4:366-367.
- Unusual Milling Stone from Battle Mountain, Nevada. 1974. Tebiwa 17(1):89-91.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1975). "Comments on lithic technology and experimental archaeology". tdar.org. 9, 12. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1972). "The cone fracture principle and the manufacture of lithic materials". Tebiwa. 15 (2). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E; Bordes, François (4 May 1969). "The Corbiac blade technique and other experiments". Tebiwa. 12 (2). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E; Bordes, F (4 May 1969). "The Corbiac blade technique and other experiments". Tebiwa. 12 (2). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E; jr, E H Swanson (4 May 1968). "Edge-ground cobbles and blade-making in the Northwest". Tebiwa. 11 (2). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E; Davis, E L (4 May 1968). "Experimental manufacture of wooden implements with tools of flaked stone". Science. 159 (3813). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1973). "Experiments in replicating Hohokam points". Tebiwa. 16 (1). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1970). "Flaking stone tools with wooden implements". Science. 169 (394). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1973). "The flintknapper's raw materials". tdar.org. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1974). "Grinding and smoothing of stone artefacts". Tebiwa. 17 (1). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1982). "An Introduction to Flint working". tdar.org. 28. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1972). "An introduction to flintworking. Part 1. An introduction to the technology of stone tools". tdar.org. 28. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E; Gould, Richard A (4 May 1970). "Man's oldest craft recreated". Curator. 13 (3). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1968). "Mesoamerican polyhedral cores and prismatic blades". American Antiquity. 33 (4). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1977). "The obtuse angle as a functional edge". tdar.org. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Crabtree, Don E (4 May 1966). "A stoneworker's approach to analyzing and replicating the Lindenmeier Folsom". Tebiwa. 9 (1). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Plew, Mark G.; Woods, James C.; Pavesic, Max G. (4 May 1985). "Stone Tool Analysis: Essays in Honor of Don E. Crabtree". University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via Google Books.
- Don Crabtree's Law: “the greater the degree of final finishing applied to a stone artifact, whether by flaking, grinding and/or polishing, the harder it is to conclude the lithic reduction process which produced the stone artifact."
- "Don E Crabtree". core.tdar.org. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Cutting the Edge - Idaho State University Magazine". www2.isu.edu. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Man's Oldest Craft Recreated - Wiley Online Library
- Desrosiers, Pierre M. (13 March 2012). "The Emergence of Pressure Blade Making: From Origin to Modern Experimentation". Springer Science & Business Media. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via Google Books.
- CRABTREE, DON E.; GOULD, RICHARD A. (1 September 1970). "Man's Oldest Craft Re-created". Curator: The Museum Journal (wiley.com). 13 (3): 179–198. doi:10.1111/j.2151-6952.1970.tb00402.x. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Society for American Archaeology Crabtree Awardees". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "SAAweb - SAA Awards". archive.org. 2 September 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Recycled Flint Cores as Teaching Tools: Flintknapping at Archaeological Open-Air Museums - EXARC". exarc.net. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Crabtree Lithic Technology Collection". www.uidaho.edu. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "A Short History of Flintknapping, page 2". lithiccastinglab.com. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Journal, The Research (21 May 2014). "FLINTKNAPPING MAGAZINE VOL 2 NO 3 MAY 2014". flintknappingmagazine.blogspot.com. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Journal, The Research (26 April 2013). "FLINTKNAPPING DIGEST: FRANCOIS BORDES". flintknappingdigest.blogspot.com. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Andrefsky, William; Jr, William Andrefsky (8 October 1998). "Lithics". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via Google Books.
- Whittaker, John C. (1 May 2004). "American Flintknappers: Stone Age Art in the Age of Computers". University of Texas Press. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via Google Books.
- Ferguson, Jeffrey R. (15 May 2010). "Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology: Examining Technology Through Production and Use". University Press of Colorado. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Knapping". www.primtech.net. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "A brief introduction to lithic analysis" (PDF). cambridge.org. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "DON CRABTREE AT THE OHS LITHIC LABORATORY". www.ohiohistory.org. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Swanson, Earl Herbert (1 January 1975). "Lithic technology: making and using stone tools". Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via Google Books.
- Journal, The Research (17 January 2013). "FLINTKNAPPING HALL OF FAME: DON CRABTREE, HALL OF FAME FLINTKNAPPER # 3". flintknappinghalloffame.blogspot.com. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "FLINTKNAPPING: CRABTREE, the Dean; Modern flintknapping". flintknapping.blogspot.com. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Knudson, Ruthann, (1982) American Antiquities, Society for American Archaeology, Vol. 13, pp. 336-43
- "Traditional Flintknapping / Don Crabtree". vortac.net. 9 May 2008 – via archive.org.
- "Don E. Crabtree". Herrett Center for Arts and Sciences. 12 June 2010 – via archive.org. College of Southern Idaho
- Michael J. Miller. Flintknapping experiments of impact: Schools of thought as reflected in the work of Crabtree, Flenniken, and Pelcin.