28 June 1943 |
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Institutions||Arizona State University|
|Alma mater||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Chicago
|Known for||Discovery of a new hominid, Australopithecus afarensis ("Lucy")|
Donald Carl Johanson (born June 28, 1943) is an American paleoanthropologist. He is known for discovering the fossil of a female hominin australopithecine known as "Lucy" in the Afar Triangle region of Hadar, Ethiopia.
Early life and education
Johanson was born in Chicago, Illinois to Swedish parents and is the nephew of Ivar Johansson. He earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1966, and his master's degree (1970) and PhD (1974) from the University of Chicago. At the time of the discovery of Lucy, he was an associate professor of anthropology at Case Western Reserve University. In 1981, he established the Institute of Human Origins in Berkeley, California which he later moved to Arizona State University in 1997. Johanson holds an honorary doctorate from Case Western Reserve University, and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by Westfield State College in 2008.
Lucy was discovered in Hadar, Ethiopia on November 24, 1974, when Johanson, coaxed away from his paperwork by graduate student Tom Gray for a spur-of-the-moment survey, caught the glint of a white fossilized bone out of the corner of his eye, and recognized it as hominin. Forty percent of the skeleton was eventually recovered, and was later described as the first known member of Australopithecus afarensis. Johanson was astonished to find so much of her skeleton all at once. Pamela Alderman, a member of the expedition, suggested she be named "Lucy" after the Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" which was played repeatedly during the night of the discovery.
A bipedal hominin, Lucy stood about three and a half feet tall; her bipedalism supported Raymond Dart's theory that australopithecines walked upright. Johanson and his team concluded from Lucy's rib that she ate a plant-based diet, and from her curved finger bones that she was probably still at home in trees. They did not immediately see Lucy as a separate species, but considered her an older member of Australopithecus africanus. The discovery, however, of several more skulls of similar morphology persuaded most palaeontologists to classify her as a species called afarensis.
AL 333, commonly referred to as the "First Family," is a collection of prehistoric hominin teeth and bones of at least thirteen individuals that were also discovered in Hadar by Johanson's team in 1975. Generally thought to be members of the species Australopithecus afarensis, the fossils are estimated to be about 3.2 million years old.
- Johanson, Donald; Maitland Edey (1981). Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-25036-1.
- Johanson, Donald; James Shreeve (1989). Lucy's Child: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor. London: Viking. ISBN 0-670-83366-5.
- Johanson, Donald; Blake Edgar (1996). From Lucy to Language. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81023-9.
- Johanson, Donald; Giancarlo Ligabue (1999). Ecce Homo: Writings in Honour of Third Millennium Man. Milan: Electa. ISBN 88-435-7170-2.
- Johanson, Donald; Kate Wong (2009). Lucy's Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-307-39639-8.
- Australopithecus afarensis
- Dawn of Humanity (2015 PBS film)
- List of fossil sites (with link directory)
- List of hominina (hominin) fossils (with images)
- Multi-regional origin
- Single-origin hypothesis
- This was the 1982 award for paperback Science.
From 1980 to 1983 in National Book Awards history there were dual hardcover and paperback awards in most categories, and multiple nonfiction subcategories. Most of the paperback award-winners were reprints of books eligible for previous awards but the 1982 Science was original, Taking the Quantum Leap by Fred Alan Wolf.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Donald Johanson.|
- Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University
- Lucy´s Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins: Video
- NPR. Science Friday. "Human Origins" - May 9, 1997 interview with Johanson.
- NPR. Science Friday. "Lucy's Legacy" - March 6, 2009 interview with Johanson.
- "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?" by Donald Johanson