Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau
|Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau|
Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Rochambeau in the uniform of the Régiment d'Auvergne
7 April 1755|
Paris, Kingdom of France
20 October 1813 (aged 58)|
Leipzig, Kingdom of Saxony
Kingdom of France|
Kingdom of the French
French First Republic
First French Empire
|Years of service||1769–1813|
American Revolutionary War|
French Revolutionary Wars
|Awards||Name inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe|
|Relations||Son of Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau|
Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau (7 April 1755 – 20 October 1813) was a French soldier, the son of Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau.
He served in the American Revolutionary War as an aide-de-camp to his father, spending the winter of 1781-1782 in quarters at Williamsburg, Virginia. In the 1790s, he participated in an unsuccessful campaign to re-establish French authority in Martinique and Saint Domingue. Rochambeau was later assigned to the French Revolutionary Army in the Italian Peninsula, and was appointed to the military command of the Ligurian Republic.
In 1802, he was appointed to lead an expeditionary force against Saint Domingue (Haiti) after General Charles Leclerc's death. His remit was to restore French control of their rebellious colony, by any means. Historians of the Haitian Revolution credit his brutal tactics for uniting black and gens de couleur soldiers against the French. After Rochambeau surrendered to the rebel general Jean-Jacques Dessalines in November 1803, the former French colony declared its independence as Haïti, the second independent state in the Americas.
At the Surrender of Cap Français, Rochambeau was captured aboard the frigate Surveillante by a British squadron under the command of Captain John Loring and returned to England as a prisoner on parole, where he remained interned for almost nine years.
He was exchanged in 1811, and returned to the family château, where he resumed the work of classifying the family's growing collection of maps, which his father had begun. He also enriched the collections with new acquisitions, in particular ones contributed by the military campaigns of his son, Auguste-Philippe Donatien de Vimeur, who served as the aide-de-camp for Joachim Murat and was with Murat's cavalry in the Russian campaign in 1812.
In addition to his legitimate son, Vimeur was survived by an illegitimate son, Lewis Warrington, conceived in Williamsburg, Virginia, when Vimeur was a young officer serving with his father in America during the Revolutionary War.
Motto and Coat of Arms
|Coat of Arms||Motto|
- "Rochambeau, Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 425.
- "American War of Independence". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 843–844.
- Haynsworth IV, James Lafayette (2003). The early career of Lieutenant General Donatien Rochambeau and the French campaigns in the Caribbean, 1792--1794. University of Florida.
- Johannes Baptist Rietstap, Armorial général : contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe : précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason, G.B. van Goor, 1861, 1171 p