Donetsk People's Republic

Extended-protected article
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Donetsk People's Republic
Донецкая Народная Республика
Coat of arms of Donetsk People's Republic
  • Location of the Donetsk People's Republic, occupying parts of Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast, in Europe
  •   Russian control within Donetsk Oblast[1]
  •   Russian claimed territories within Donetsk Oblast[2]
DPR declared7 April 2014[3]
Annexation by Russia30 September 2022
Administrative centreDonetsk
Government
 • BodyPeople's Council
 • HeadDenis Pushilin
 • Prime MinisterYevgeny Solntsev
Population
 (2019)[4]
 • Total2,220,500[a]

The Donetsk People's Republic (Russian: Донецкая Народная Республика, romanizedDonetskaya Narodnaya Respublika, IPA: [dɐˈnʲetskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə]; abbreviated as DPR or DNR, Russian: ДНР) is an internationally unrecognized republic of Russia, comprising the occupied parts of eastern Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast,[5][6] with its capital in Donetsk. The DPR was created by Russian-backed paramilitaries in 2014,[7][8] and it initially operated as a breakaway state until it was annexed by Russia in 2022.

Following Ukraine's Revolution of Dignity in 2014, pro-Russian, counter-revolutionary unrest erupted in the eastern part of the country. Russia annexed Crimea from Ukraine, while armed separatists seized government buildings and proclaimed the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) as independent states. This sparked the war in Donbas, part of the wider Russo-Ukrainian War. The DPR and LPR are often described as puppet states of Russia during this conflict.[9][10][11] They received no international recognition from United Nations member states before 2022.

On 21 February 2022, Russia recognised the DPR and LPR as sovereign states. Three days later, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, partially under the pretext of protecting the republics. Russian forces captured more of Donetsk Oblast, which became part of the DPR. In September 2022, Russia proclaimed the annexation of the DPR and other occupied territories, following referendums widely described as fraudulent by commentators. The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution calling on countries not to recognise what it called the "attempted illegal annexation" and demanded that Russia "immediately, completely and unconditionally withdraw".[12][13]

The Head of the Donetsk People's Republic is Denis Pushilin, and its parliament is the People's Council. The ideology of the DPR is shaped by right-wing Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism and Orthodox fundamentalism.[14] Russian far-right groups played an important role among the separatists, especially at the beginning of the conflict.[15] Organizations such as the UN Human Rights Office and Human Rights Watch have reported human rights abuses in the DPR, including internment, torture, extrajudicial killings, and forced conscription,[16] as well as political and media repression. The DPR People's Militia has also been held responsible for war crimes, among them the shooting down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.[17] Ukraine views the DPR and LPR as terrorist organisations.[18]

History

Ukrainian riot police guarding the entrance to the RSA building on 7 March 2014
Ukrainian military roadblocks in Donetsk oblast on 8 May 2014

The Luhansk and Donetsk Peoples Republics are located in the historical Donbas region of Eastern Ukraine. Since Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Eastern and Western Ukraine typically have voted for different candidates in presidential elections. Viktor Yanukovych, a Donetsk native, was elected as President of Ukraine in 2010. Eastern Ukrainian dissatisfaction with the government can also be attributed to the Euromaidan Protests which began in November 2013,[19] as well as Russian support[20] due to tension in Russia–Ukraine relations over Ukraine's geopolitical orientation.[21] President Yanukovych's overthrow in the 2014 Ukrainian revolution led to protests in Eastern Ukraine, which gradually escalated into an armed conflict between the newly formed Ukrainian government and the local armed militias.[22] The pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine was originally characterised by riots and protests which had eventually escalated into the storming of government offices.[23]

Formation (2014–2015)

Foundations

Pro-Russian separatists occupying the Donetsk RSA building on 7 April 2014
Sloviansk city council under the control of heavily armed men on 14 April 2014

On 6 April, 2014, pro-Russian rebel leaders announced that a referendum on whether Donetsk Oblast should "join the Russian Federation", would take place "no later than May 11th, 2014."[24] Additionally, the group's leaders appealed to Russian President Vladimir Putin to send Russian peacekeeping forces to the region.[24][25]

On 7 April, between 1,000 and 2,000[26] people attended a rally in Donetsk pushing for a Crimea-style referendum on independence from Ukraine. Ukrainian media claimed that the proposed referendum had no status quo option.[27] Afterwards, 200–1,000 separatists[28][26] stormed and took control of the first two floors of the government headquarters of the Regional State Administration (RSA), breaking down doors and smashing windows. The separatists demanded a referendum to join Russia, and said they would otherwise take unilateral control and dismiss the elected government.[29][30][31] When the session was not held, the unelected separatists held a vote within the RSA building and overwhelmingly backed the declaration of a Donetsk People's Republic.[32] According to the Russian ITAR-TASS, the declaration was voted by some regional legislators, while Ukrainian media claimed that neither the Donetsk city council nor district councils of the city delegated any representatives to the session.[33][34]

The political leadership initially consisted of Denis Pushilin, self-appointed as chairman of the government,[35][36] while Igor Kakidzyanov was named as the commander of the People's Army.[37] Vyacheslav Ponomarev became the self-proclaimed mayor of the city of Sloviansk.[38] Ukrainian-born pro-Russian activist Pavel Gubarev,[39][40] an Anti-Maidan activist, a former member of the neo-Nazi Russian National Unity paramilitary group in 1999–2001 and former member of the nazbol Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine, proclaimed himself the People's Governor of the Donetsk Region.[41][42][43][44] He was arrested on charges of separatism and illegal seizure of power but released in a hostage swap.[45][39] Alexander Borodai, a Russian citizen claiming to be involved in the Russian annexation of Crimea, was appointed as Prime Minister, while Igor Girkin was made Defence Minister. Borodai had a past working for an openly anti-semitic and fascist Russian newspaper Zavtra which had called for pogroms against Jews.[46][47]

On the morning of 8 April, the 'Patriotic Forces of Donbas', a pro-Kyiv group that was formed on 15 March earlier that year by 13 pro-Kyiv NGOs, political parties and individuals,[48][49] issued a statement "cancelling" the other group's declaration of independence, citing complaints from locals.[50][51][52]

The Donetsk Republic organisation continued to occupy the RSA and upheld all previous calls for a referendum and the release of their leader Pavel Gubarev.[53][b] On 8 April, about a thousand people rallied in front of the RSA listening to speeches about the Donetsk People's Republic and to Soviet and Russian music.[54] Ukrainian media stated that a number of Russian citizens, including one leader of a far-right militant group, had also taken part in the events.[55]

12 April saw the start of a military conflict. Russian nationalist and former intelligence officer Igor "Strelkov" Girkin led an armed team of 52 volunteers and mercenaries from Crimea, where he had participated in the Russian occupation of the peninsula, to seize police and government buildings in Sloviansk, Donetsk Oblast.[56]: 14–17  Girkin's unit drove off an initial response by the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) and successive assaults by government, in what was to become an eighty-four day siege.[56]: 14–17  Girkin later said that he had been "the one who pulled the trigger of war".[57]

On 15 April 2014, acting Ukrainian President Olexander Turchynov announced the start of a military counteroffensive to confront the pro-Russian militants, and on 17 April, tensions de-escalated as Russia, the US, and the EU agreed on a roadmap to eventually end the crisis.[58][59] However, officials of the People's Republic ignored the agreement and vowed to continue their occupations until a referendum was accepted or the government in Kyiv resigned.[60]

The OSCE reported that all the main institutions of the city observed by the Monitoring Mission seemed to be working normally as of 16 April.[61] On 22 April, separatists agreed to release the session hall of the building along with two floors to state officials.[62] The ninth and tenth floors were later released on 24 April.[63] On the second day of the Republic, organisers decided to pour all of their alcohol out and announce a prohibition law after issues arose due to excessive drinking in the building.[64]

On 7 May, Russian president Vladimir Putin asked the separatists to postpone the proposed referendum to create the necessary conditions for dialogue. Despite Putin's comments, the Donetsk Republic group said they would still carry out the referendum.[65] The same day, Ukraine's security service (SBU) released an alleged audio recording of a phone call between a Donetsk separatist leader and leader of one of the splinter groups of former Russian National Unity Alexander Barkashov.[66] In the call, the voice said to be Barkashov insisted on falsifying the results of the referendum.[67] SBU stated that this tape is a definitive proof of the direct involvement of Russian government with preparations for the referendum.[66]

Ukrainian authorities released separatist leader Pavel Gubarev and two others in exchange for three people detained by the Donetsk Republic.[68]

Polling during this period indicated that around 18 per cent of Donetsk Oblast residents supported the seizures of administrative buildings while 72 per cent disapproved. Twelve per cent were in favour of Ukraine and Russia uniting into a single state, a quarter were in favour of regional secession to join Russia, 38.4 per cent supported federalisation, 41.1 per cent supported a unitary Ukraine with decentralised power, and 10.6 per cent supported the status quo.[69][70] In an August 2015 poll, with 6500 respondents from 19 cities of Donetsk Oblast, 29 per cent supported the DPR and 10 per cent considered themselves to be Russian patriots.[71]

11 May independence referendum

The planned referendum was held on 11 May, disregarding Vladimir Putin's appeal to delay it.[72] The organisers claimed that 89% voted in favour of self-rule, with 10% against, on a turnout of nearly 75%. The results of the referendums were not officially recognised by any government;[73] Germany and the United States also stated that the referendums had "no democratic legitimacy",[74] while the Russian government expressed respect for the results and urged a civilised implementation.[75]

On the day after the referendum, the People's Soviet of the DPR proclaimed Donetsk to be a sovereign state with an indefinite border and asked Russia "to consider the issue of our republic's accession into the Russian Federation".[citation needed] It also announced that it would not participate in the Ukrainian presidential election which took place on 25 May.[76]

The first full Government of the DPR was appointed on 16 May 2014.[77] It consisted of several ministers who were previously Donetsk functionaries, a member of the Makiivka City Council, a former Donetsk prosecutor, a former member of the special police Alpha Group, a member of the Party of Regions (who allegedly coordinated "Titushky" (Viktor Yanukovych supporters) during Euromaidan) and Russian citizens.[77] This government imposed martial law on 16 July.[78]

Elections in the DPR and LPR were held on 2 November 2014, after the territories had boycotted the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election on 26 October.[79] The results were not recognised by any country.[80][81]

The DPR adopted a memorandum on 5 February 2015, declaring itself the successor to the Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic and Bolshevik revolutionary Fyodor Sergeyev—better known by his alias "Artyom"—as the country's founding father.[82]

Static war period (2015–2022) | Peace proposals and stalemate

On 12 February 2015, the DPR and LPR leaders, Alexander Zakharchenko and Igor Plotnitsky, signed the Minsk II agreement.[83] According to the agreement, amendments to the Ukrainian constitution should be introduced, including "the key element of which is decentralisation" and the holding of elections in the LPR and DPR within the lines of the Minsk Memorandum. In return, the rebel-held territory would be reintegrated into Ukraine.[83][84] In an effort to stabilise the ceasefire in the region, particularly the disputed and strategically important town of Debaltseve, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko called for a UN-led peacekeeping operation in February 2015 to monitor compliance with the Minsk agreement.[85] The Verkhovna Rada did not ratify the changes in the constitution needed for the Minsk agreement.[86][87][88]

On 20 May 2015, the leadership of the Federal State of Novorossiya, a proposed confederation of the DPR and LPR, announced the termination of the confederation project.[89][90]

On 15 June 2015, several hundred people protested in the centre of Donetsk against the presence of BM-21 "Grad" launchers in a residential area. The launchers had been used to fire at Ukrainian positions, provoking return fire and causing civilian casualties.[91] A DPR leader said that its forces were indeed shelling from residential areas (mentioning school 41 specifically), but that "the punishment of the enemy is everyone's shared responsibility".[92]

Issuance of the first DPR passports in March 2016 by DPR leader Alexander Zakharchenko. Zakharchenko was assassinated in 2018.[93]

On 2 July 2015, DPR leader Aleksandr Zakharchenko ordered local elections to be held on 18 October 2015 "in accordance with the Minsk II agreements".[94] The 2015 Ukrainian local elections were set for 25 October 2015.[95] This was condemned by Ukraine.[94]

On 4 September 2015, there was a sudden change in the DPR government, where Denis Pushilin replaced Andrey Purgin in the role of speaker of the People's Council and, in his first decision, fired Aleksey Aleksandrov, the council's chief of staff, Purgin's close ally. This happened in absence of Purgin and Aleksandrov who were held at the border between Russia and DPR, preventing their return to the republic. Aleksandrov was accused of "destructive activities" and an "attempt to illegally cross the border" by the republic's Ministry of Public Security. Russian and Ukrainian media commented on these events as yet another coup in the republic's authorities.[96][97]

After a Normandy four meeting in which the participants agreed that elections in territories controlled by DPR and LPR should be held according to Minsk II rules, both postponed their planned elections to 21 February 2016.[98] Vladimir Putin used his influence to reach this delay.[99] The elections were then postponed to 20 April 2016 and again to 24 July 2016.[100] On 22 July the elections were again postponed to 6 November.[101]

In July 2016, over a thousand people, mainly small business owners, protested in Horlivka against corruption and taxes, which included charging customs fees on imported goods.[102]

On 2 October 2016, the DPR and LPR held primaries in were voters voted to nominate candidates for participation in the 6 November 2016 elections.[103] Ukraine denounced these primaries as illegal.[103] The DPR finally held elections on 11 November 2018. These were described as "predetermined and without alternative candidates"[104] and not recognised externally.[105]

On 16 October 2016, a prominent Russian citizen and DPR military leader Arsen Pavlov was killed by an improvised explosive device in his Donetsk apartment's elevator.[106] Another DPR military commander, Mikhail Tolstykh, was killed by an explosion while working in his Donetsk office on 8 February 2017.[107] On 31 August 2018, Head and Prime Minister Alexander Zakharchenko was killed in an explosion in a cafe in Donetsk.[108] After his death Dmitry Trapeznikov was appointed as head of the government until September 2019 when he was nominated mayor of Elista, capital of Kalmyk Republic in Russia.[109] According to Ukrainian authorities, 50 Ukrainian soldiers were killed in clashes with Donbas separatists in 2020.[110]

In January 2021, the DPR and LPR stated in a "doctrine Russian Donbas" that they aimed to seize all of the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk Oblast under control by the Ukrainian government "in the near future".[111] The document did not specifically state the intention of DPR and LPR to be annexed by Russia.[111]

Russian invasion of Ukraine

The general mobilization in the Donetsk People's Republic began on 19 February 2022; five days before the start of Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine. Tens of thousands of local residents were forcibly mobilized for the war. According to the Eastern Human Rights Group, as of mid-June, about 140,000 people were forcibly mobilized in the DPR and LPR, of which from 48,000 to 96,000 were sent to the front and the rest to logistics support.[112][113]

On 21 February 2022, Russia recognised the independence of the DPR and LPR.[114] The next day, the Federation Council of Russia authorised the use of military force, and Russian forces openly advanced into the separatist territories.[115] Russian president Vladimir Putin declared that the Minsk agreements "no longer existed", and that Ukraine, not Russia, was to blame for their collapse.[116] A Russian military attack into Ukrainian government-controlled territory began on the morning of 24 February,[117] when Putin announced a "special military operation" to "demilitarise and denazify" Ukraine.[118][119]

In the course of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, around 55% of Donetsk Oblast came under the control of Russia and the DPR by June 2022.[120] In the south of Donetsk Oblast, the Russian Armed Forces laid siege to Mariupol for almost three months.[121] According to Ukrainian sources, an estimated 22,000 civilians were killed[122] and 20,000 to 50,000 were illegally deported to Russia by June 2022.[123][124][125] A vehicle convoy of 82 ethnic Greeks was able to leave the city via a humanitarian corridor.[126][127]

On the first day of the referendum, 23 September. Denis Pushilin and Andrey Turchak of Putin's United Russia party

On 19 April 2022, a town hall assembly was reportedly organized in Russian-occupied Rozivka, where a majority of attendees (mainly seniors) voted by hand to join the Donetsk People's Republic. This came despite two hurdles: the raion was outside the borders claimed by the DPR, and the raion had not existed since 18 July 2020. The vote was claimed to be rigged, and organizers threatened anyone voting against it with arrest.[128][129]

On 21 May 2022, the town of Oskil in the Kharkiv Oblast was declared part of the DPR.[130] The town was later recaptured by Ukrainian forces during the Kharkiv Counteroffensive.

Dmitry Medvedev, the former Russian president and as of July 2022 vice chairman of the Russian Security Council, in July 2022 shared a map of Ukraine where most of Ukraine, including DPR, had been absorbed by Russia.[131]

A map of Russia (including illegally annexed territories), with the Donetsk People's Republic highlighted

Der Spiegel reported that forcibly recruited men from Donbas were used as cannon fodder. According to DPR officials, more than 3,000 were killed and over 13,000 wounded, "a casualty rate of 80 percent of the initial fighting force."[132] Human rights activists reported a huge – up to 30,000 people as of August 2022 – death toll among mobilized recruits in clashes with the well-trained Armed Forces of Ukraine.[112][113] On 16 August 2022, Vladimir Putin stated that "the objectives of this operation are clearly defined – ensuring the security of Russia and our citizens, protecting the residents of Donbass from genocide."[133]

Annexation by Russia

On 20 September 2022, the People's Council of the Donetsk People's Republic scheduled a referendum on the republic's entry into Russia as a federal subject for 23–27 September.[134] It was widely described as a sham referendum by commentators and denounced by various countries. On 21 September, Russian President Putin announced a partial mobilization in Russia. He said that "in order to protect our motherland, its sovereignty and territorial integrity, and to ensure the safety of our people and people in the liberated territories", he decided to declare a partial mobilization.[135] On 30 September 2022, Russia's president Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of the DPR along with the Luhansk People's Republic and two other oblasts of Ukraine in an address to both houses of the Russian parliament. On 12 October 2022, the United Nations General Assembly voted in Resolution ES-11/4 to condemn the annexation. The resolution received a vast majority of 143 countries in support of condemning Russia's annexation, 35 abstaining, and only 5 against condemning Russia's annexation.[13]

Government and politics

Then-Chairman of the People's Council, Denis Pushilin, speaks at a Victory Day (9 May) rally in Donetsk in 2014.

In early April 2014, a Donetsk People's Council was formed out of protesters who occupied the building of the Donetsk Regional Council on 6 April 2014.[29][30][136] The New York Times described the self-proclaimed state as neo-Soviet,[137] while Al Jazeera described it as neo-Stalinist and a "totalitarian, North Korea-like statelet".[138] Administration proper in DPR territories is performed by those authorities which performed these functions prior to the war in Donbas.[139] The DPR leadership has also appointed mayors.[140][141] Some sources described the "Donetsk People's Republic" during this period as a Russian puppet government.[142][143][144]

On 5 February 2020, Denis Pushilin unexpectedly appointed Vladimir Pashkov, a Russian citizen and former deputy governor of Russia's Irkutsk Oblast, as the chairman of the government.[145] This appointment was received in Ukraine as a demonstration of direct control over DPR by Russia.[146]

Several Russian officials were appointed to cabinet posts and prime ministership of the DPR in June and July 2022.[147]

Head of the Donetsk People's Republic

The Head of the Donetsk People's Republic (Russian: Глава Донецкой Народной Республики, romanizedGlava Donetskoy Narodnoy Respubliki) is the highest office of the Donetsk People's Republic. The following persons have occupied the post:

Legislature

The parliament of the Donetsk People's Republic is the People's Council[152] and has 100 deputies.[79]

Passports and citizenship

In March 2016, the DPR began to issue passports[153] despite a 2015 statement by Zakharchenko that, without at least partial recognition of DPR, local passports would be a "waste of resources".[153] In November 2016 the DPR announced that all of its citizens had dual Ukrainian/Donetsk People's Republic citizenship.[154]

In June 2019, Russia started giving Russian passports to the inhabitants of the DPR and Luhansk People's Republic under a simplified procedure allegedly on "humanitarian grounds" (such as enabling international travel for eastern Ukrainian residents whose passports have expired).[155] Since December 2019 Ukrainian passports are no longer considered a valid identifying document in the DPR, and Ukrainian licence plates have been declared illegal.[156] Meanwhile, the previous favourable view of Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky in the DPR press was replaced with personal accusations of genocide and "crimes against Donbas", and proposals of organising a tribunal against him in absentia.[156] In March 2020 Russian was declared to be the only state language of the DPR;[157][unreliable source?] previously in its May 2014 constitution, the DPR had declared both Russian and Ukrainian its official languages.[77]

According to the Ukrainian press, by mid-2021, local residents received half a million Russian passports.[158] Deputy Kremlin Chief of Staff Dmitry Kozak stated in a July 2021 interview with Politique internationale that 470,000 local residents had received Russian passports; he added that "as soon as the situation in Donbass is resolved ....The general procedure for granting citizenship will be restored."[159]

Military

Banner of the Ministry of Defence

The Donbas People's Militia was formed by Pavel Gubarev, who was elected People's Governor of Donetsk Oblast and Igor Girkin, appointed the Minister of Defence of the Donetsk People's Republic.[160] The People's Militia of the DPR (Russian: Вооружённые силы ДНР) comprise the Russian separatist forces in the DPR. On 10 January 2020 president of the non-recognised pro-Russian Abkhazia accused DPR of staging a coup in his country. DPR commander Akhra Avidzba was commanding on the spot.[161] Unlike South Ossetia, Abkhazia had not then recognised DPR.[162]

The award Hero of the Donetsk People's Republic (Russian: Герой Донецкой Народной Республики) was bestowed on

Problems of governance

Police in Donetsk wearing insignia related to the Donetsk People's Republic, 20 September 2014
DPR military parade in Donetsk, 9 May 2018

OSCE monitors met with the self-proclaimed mayor of Sloviansk, Volodymyr Pavlenko, on 20 June 2014.[165] According to him, sewage systems in Sloviansk had collapsed, resulting in the release of least 10,000 litres of untreated sewage into the river Sukhyi Torets, a tributary of the Seversky Donets. He called this an "environmental catastrophe", and said that it had the potential to affect both Russia and Ukraine.[165]

As of May 2014, the Ukrainian Government was paying wages and pensions for the inhabitants of the DPR.[166][167][168] The closing of bank branches led to problems in receiving these,[169][170][171] especially since the National Bank of Ukraine ordered banks to suspend financial transactions in places which are not controlled by the Ukrainian authorities on 7 August 2014.[172] Only the Oschadbank (State Savings Bank of Ukraine) continued to function in territories controlled by the DPR, but it also closed its branches there on 1 December 2014.[172][173] In response, tens of thousands of pensioners have registered their address as being in Ukrainian-controlled areas while still living in separatist-controlled areas, and must travel outside of separatist areas to collect their pensions on a monthly basis.[174]

In October 2014, the DPR announced the creation of its own central bank and tax office, obliging residents to register to the DPR and pay taxes to it.[175] Some local entrepreneurs refused to register.[175]

According to the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine a number of local mutinies have taken place due to unpaid wages and pensions, the council claims that on 24 November 2014, the local "Women Resistance Battalion" presented to Zakharchenko an ultimatum to get out of Donetsk in two months.[176]

Since April 2015, the DPR has been issuing its own vehicle number plates.[177]

The OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine reported that in the DPR, "parallel 'justice systems' have begun operating".[178] They found this new judiciary to be "non-transparent, subject to constant change, seriously under-resourced and, in many instances, completely non-functional".[178]

Law and order

The Ministry of Internal Affairs is the DPR's agency responsible for implementing law and order.[179]

In 2014, the DPR introduced the death penalty for cases of treason, espionage, and assassination of political leaders. There had already been accusations of extrajudicial execution.[180] After 2015 a number of DPR and LPR field commanders and other significant figures were killed or otherwise removed from power.[181][182] This included Cossack commander Pavel Dryomov, commander of Private Military Company (ЧВК) Dmitry Utkin ("Wagner"), Alexander Bednov ("Batman"), Aleksey Mozgovoy, Yevgeny Ishchenko, Andrei Purgin and Dmitry Lyamin (the last two arrested).[183][184] In August 2016 Igor Plotnitsky, head of LPR, was seriously injured in a car bombing attack in Luhansk.[185] In September 2016 Evgeny Zhilin (Yevhen Zhylin), leader of the separatist "Oplot" unit, was killed in a restaurant near Moscow.[186][187] In October 2016 military commander Arseniy Pavlov ("Motorola") was killed by an IED planted at his house.[188] In February 2017 a bomb planted in an office killed Mikhail Tolstykh ("Givi").[189] On 31 August 2018 DPR leader Alexander Zakharchenko was killed by a bomb in a restaurant in Donetsk.[149] The DPR and Russia blamed the Security Service of Ukraine; Ukraine rejected these accusations, stating that Zakharchenko's death was the result of civil strife in the DPR.[182]

In May 2015, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko signed four laws concerning decommunisation in Ukraine. Various cities and many villages in Donbas were renamed. The Ukrainian decommunisation laws were condemned by the DPR.[190]

In addition to Ukrainian prisoners of war there are reports of "thousands" of prisoners who were arrested as part of internal fighting between various militant groups inside DPR.[191]

In 2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, three soldiers of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Aiden Aslin, Shaun Pinner, and Brahim Saadoune, were sentenced to death. The DPR lifted the death penalty moratorium.[192]

Ideology

Flags of three far-right separatist groups in Donbas: Rusich, Russian National Unity, and the Russian Imperial Legion.

According to a 2016 report by the French Institute of International Relations (IFRI), Russian ethnic and imperialist nationalism has shaped the official ideology of the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics.[193] During the war in Donbas, especially at the beginning, far-right groups played an important role on the pro-Russian side, arguably more so than on the Ukrainian side.[193][194]

According to Marlène Laruelle, separatist ideologues in Donbas produced an ideology composed of three strands of Russian nationalism: Fascist, Orthodox, and Soviet.[194]

Members and former members of neo-Nazi group Russian National Unity (RNU), as well as the National Bolshevik Party, Eurasian Youth Union, and Cossack groups, formed branches to recruit volunteers for the separatists.[193][195][196][197] A former RNU member, Pavel Gubarev, was founder of the Donbas People's Militia and first "governor" of the Donetsk People's Republic.[193][198] RNU is particularly linked to the Russian Orthodox Army,[193] one of a number of separatist units described as "pro-Tsarist" and "extremist Orthodox" nationalists.[199][193] Neo-Nazi unit 'Rusich'[193] is part of the Wagner Group, a Russian mercenary group in Ukraine which has been linked to far-right extremism.[200][201]

Some of the most influential far-right nationalists among the Russian separatists are neo-imperialists, who seek to revive the Russian Empire.[193] These included Igor 'Strelkov' Girkin, the minister of defence of the Donetsk People's Republic, who espouses Russian neo-imperialism and ethno-nationalism.[193] The Russian Imperial Movement, a white supremacist militant group,[200] has recruited thousands of volunteers to join the separatists.[199] Some separatists have flown the black-yellow-white Russian imperial flag,[193] such as the Sparta Battalion. In 2014, volunteers from the National Liberation Movement joined the Donetsk People's Republic People's Militia bearing portraits of Tsar Nicholas II.[195]

Other Russian nationalist volunteers involved in separatist militias included members of the Eurasian Youth Union, and of banned groups such as the Slavic Union and Movement Against Illegal Immigration.[196] Another Russian separatist paramilitary unit, the Interbrigades, is made up of activists from the National Bolshevik (Nazbol) group Other Russia.[193] An article in Dissent noted that "despite their neo-Stalinist paraphernalia, many of the Russian-speaking nationalists Russia supports in the Donbass are just as right-wing as their counterparts from the Azov Battalion".[202]

In July 2015, the head of the Donetsk People's Republic, Alexander Zakharchenko, said at a press conference that he respected Ukraine's far-right party Right Sector "when they beat up the gays in Kyiv and when they tried to depose Poroshenko".[203]

While far-right activists played a part in the early days of the conflict, their importance was often exaggerated, and their importance on both sides of the conflict declined over time. The political climate in Donetsk further pushed far-right groups into the margins.[193]

In April 2022, news outlets noted that a video posted on Donetsk People's Republic's website showed Denis Pushilin awarding a medal to Lieutenant Roman Vorobyov (Somalia Battalion) while Vorobyov was wearing patches affiliated with neo-Nazism: the Totenkopf used by the 3rd SS Panzer Division, and the valknut. However, the video did not show Vorobyov getting his medal when it was posted on Pushilin's website.[204][205]

The DPR is highly socially conservative. Abortion is banned in the DPR,[206] with its constitution stating that "rights and freedoms are inalienable and belong to everyone from the moment of conception".[207]

Recognition and international relations

Crimea, which Russia annexed in 2014, is shown in pink. Pink in the Donbas region represents areas held by the DPR/LPR in September 2014 (cities in red)

The Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) initially sought recognition as a sovereign state following its declaration of independence in April 2014. Subsequently, the DPR willingly acceded to the Russian Federation as a Russian federal subject in September–October 2022, effectively ceasing to exist as a sovereign state in any capacity and revoking its status as such in the eyes of the international community. The DPR claims direct succession to Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast.

From 2014 to 2022, Ukraine, the United Nations, and most of the international community regarded the DPR as an illegal entity occupying a portion of Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast (see: International sanctions during the Russo-Ukrainian War). The Luhansk People's Republic (LPR), which had a similar backstory, was regarded in the exact same way. Crimea's status was treated slightly differently since Russia annexed that territory immediately after its declaration of independence in March 2014.

Up until February 2022, Russia did not recognise the DPR, although it maintained informal relations with the DPR. On 21 February 2022, Russia officially recognised the DPR and the LPR at the same time,[208] marking a major escalation in the 2021–2022 diplomatic crisis between Russia and Ukraine. Three days later, on 24 February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of the entire country of Ukraine, partially under the pretext of protecting the DPR and the LPR. The war had wide-reaching repercussions for Ukraine, Russia, and the international community as a whole (see: War crimes, Humanitarian impact, Environmental impact, Economic impact, and Ukrainian cultural heritage). In September 2022, Russia made moves to consolidate the territories that it had occupied in Ukraine, including Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, and Zaporizhzhia Oblasts. Russia officially annexed these four territories in September–October 2022.

Between February 2022 and October 2022, in addition to receiving Russian recognition, the DPR was recognised by North Korea (13 July 2022)[209] and Syria (29 June 2022).[210][211] This means that three United Nations member states recognised the DPR in total throughout its period of claimed independence. The DPR was also recognised by three other breakaway entities: the LPR, South Ossetia (19 June 2014),[212] and Abkhazia (25 February 2022).[213]

Relations with Ukraine

The Ukrainian government passed the "Law on the special status of Donbas [uk]" on 16 September 2014, which designated a special status within Ukraine on certain areas of Donetsk and Luhansk regions (CADLR), in line with the Minsk agreements.[citation needed] The status lasted for three years, and then was extended annually several times.[214]

In January 2015, Ukraine declared the Russia-backed separatist republics in Donbas to be terrorist organizations.[215]

Relations with Russia

Russia has recognised identity documents, diplomas, birth, and marriage certificates and vehicle registration plates as issued by the DPR and the LPR since 18 February 2017,[216] enabling people living in DPR-controlled territories to travel, work, or study in Russia.[216] According to the decree, it was signed "to protect human rights and freedoms" in accordance with "the widely recognised principles of international humanitarian law".[217]

On February 21, 2022, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed agreements on friendship, cooperation, and assistance with DPR and the LPR, coinciding with Russia's official recognition of the two quasi-states.[208] The Russian State Duma had approved a draft resolution appealing for him to recognize both quasi-states on 15 February.[218] Shortly afterwards, Abkhazia also recognized the independence of the DPR.

Relations with extremist groups

According to the Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group, a number of European politicians from extreme-right and extreme-left have received all-expenses-paid trips to the Donetsk People's Republic.[219]

Far-right

Members of the far-right group Serbian Action in the Donbas.

As well as Russian far-right groups (see #Right-wing nationalism), the DPR has cultivated relations with other European far-right groups and activists. The Lansing Institute for Global Threats and Democracies Studies acquired a memorandum of cooperation between the DPR and the far-right Russian Imperial Movement, which trains foreign volunteers; including members of the neo-Nazi Atomwaffen Division and Der Dritte Weg.[220][221][222][223][224] Anton Shekhovtsov, an expert on far-right movements in Russia and abroad, reported in 2014 that Polish neo-fascist group "Falanga", Italian far-right group "Millennium" and French Eurasianists had joined the Donbas separatists.[225][226][227] Members of Serbian Action have also joined the Donbas separatists.[228]

According to Italian newspaper la Repubblica, well-known Italian neo-fascist Andrea Palmeri (former member of the far-right New Force party) has been fighting for the DPR since 2014, and was hailed by DPR leader Gubarev as a "real fascist".[229] Other far-right activists with links to the DPR include French far-right MEP Jean-Luc Schaffhauser, Italian nationalist Alessandro Musolino, German neo-Nazi journalist Manuel Ochsenreiter, and Emmanuel Leroy, a far-right adviser to Marine Le Pen, former leader of the National Rally.[230][231]

Finnish neo-Nazis have been recruited for pro-Russian forces by Johan Bäckman and Janus Putkonen, who are aligned with the local far-right pro-Russian party Power Belongs to the People.[232][233][234][235] Putkonen also runs the Russian-funded DONi (Donbass International News Agency) and MV-media, which publish pro-Russian propaganda about the DPR.[236][237]

Far-left

The DPR has also cultivated relations with various far-left groups. A small number of Spanish socialists travelled to Ukraine to fight for the separatists, with some explaining they were "repaying the favour" to Russia for the USSR's support to Republicans during the Spanish Civil War.[238] Spanish fighters founded the 'Carlos Palomino International Brigade', which flew the flag of the Second Spanish Republic. In 2015, it reportedly had less than ten members, and was later disbanded.[239]

A female member of the Israeli Communist Party also reportedly fought for the separatists in 2015.[240] Other examples of far-left groups fighting for the separatists were the 'DKO' (Volunteer Communist Unit) and the Interunit, which has been inactive since 2017.[241][242]

The Italian communist ska punk group Banda Bassotti has also been active in support of the DPR and has organized trips to Donetsk, one of which saw the participation of Eleonora Forenza, a member of the European Parliament for the Communist Refoundation Party.[243] Andrej Hunko, a member of the German parliament for the far-left party Die Linke, also travelled to Donetsk to support the separatists.[244]

Economy

The DPR has its own central bank, the Donetsk Republican Bank. The republic's economy is frequently described as dependent on contraband and gunrunning,[245] with some labelling it a mafia state. Joining DPR military formations or its civil services has become one of the few guarantees for a stable income in the DPR.[139]

By late October 2014, many banks and other businesses in the DPR were shut, and people were often left without social benefits payments.[175] Sources (who declined to be identified, citing security concerns) inside the DPR administration have told Bloomberg News that Russia transfers 2.5 billion Russian rubles ($37 million) for pensions every month.[246] By mid-February 2016 Russia had sent 48 humanitarian convoys to rebel-held territory that were said to have delivered more than 58,000 tons of cargo including food, medicines, construction materials, diesel generators and fuel and lubricants.[247] President Poroshenko called this a "flagrant violation of international law" and Valentyn Nalyvaychenko said it was a "direct invasion".[248]

Reuters in late October 2014 reported long lines at soup kitchens.[175] In the same month in at least one factory, workers no longer received wages, only food rations.[249]

By June 2015, due to logistical and transport problems, prices in DPR-controlled territory are significantly higher than in territory controlled by Ukraine.[139] This led to an increase of supplies (of more expensive products and those of lower quality) from Russia.[139] Mines and heavy-industry facilities damaged by shelling were forced to close, undermining the wider chain of economic ties in the region.[249] Three industrial facilities were under DPR "temporary management" by late October 2014.[249] By early June 2015, 80% of companies physically located in the Donetsk People's Republic had re-registered on territory under Ukrainian control.[245]

The new ruling elites of the DPR have displaced the previous oligarchic structures in the region.[250] The new powerholders expropriated profitable businesses. For instance, Rinat Akhmetov lost control over his assets in the region after they were nationalised. Under Russia's guidance, the republic set up trade and production monopolies through which the trade in coal and steel is organised. Lacking private banks, its own currency, and direct access to the Black Sea, DPR's survival depends exclusively on Russia's economic support and trade through the common border.[251]

A DPR official often promised financial support from Russia without giving specific details.[175] Prime Minister Aleksandr Zakharchenko in late October 2014 stated that "We have the Russian Federation's agreement in principle on granting us special conditions on gas (deliveries)".[175] Zakharchenko also claimed that "And, finally, we managed to link up with the financial and banking structure of the Russian Federation".[175] When Reuters tried to get more details from a source close to Zakharchenko the only reply was "Money likes silence".[175] Early October 2014 Zakharchenko stated, "The economy will be complete, if possible, oriented towards the Russian market. We consider Russia our strategic partner". According to Zakharchenko this would "secure our economy from impacts from outside, including from Ukraine".[252] According to Yury Makohon, from the Ukrainian National Institute for Strategic Studies, "Trade volume between Russia and Donetsk Oblast has seen a massive slump since the beginning of 2014".[253] Since Russia did not recognise the legal status of the self-proclaimed republic, all the trade it did with it was on the basis of Ukrainian law.[245]

DPR authorities have created a multi-currency zone in which both the rouble (Russia's currency) and the hryvnia (Ukraine's currency) can be used, and also the Euro and U.S. Dollar.[139][252] Cash shortages are widespread and, due to a lack of roubles, the hryvnia is the most-used currency.[139] According to Ukraine's security services in May 2016 alone the Russian government has passed US$19 million in cash to fund the DPR administration as well as 35,000 blank Russian passports.[254]

Since late February 2015, DPR-controlled territories receive their natural gas directly from Russia.[255] According to Russia, Ukraine should pay for these deliveries; Ukraine claims it does not receive payments for the supplies from DPR-controlled territory.[255][256] On 2 July 2015, Ukrainian Energy Minister Volodymyr Demchyshyn announced that he "did not expect" that Ukraine would supply natural gas to territory controlled by separatist troops in the 2015–2016 heating season.[257] Since 25 November 2015 Ukraine has halted all its imports of (and payments for) natural gas from Russia.[258]

The DPR set up its own mobile network operator called Feniks, which was to be fully operational by the end of the summer of 2015.[259] On 5 February 2015, Kyivstar claimed that Feniks illegally used equipment that they officially gave up in territories controlled by pro-Russian separatists.[259] On 18 April 2015, Prime Minister Zakharchenko issued a decree stating that all equipment given up by Kyivstar fell under the control of the separatists in order to "meet the needs of the population in the communication services".[259] The SIM cards of Feniks display the slogan "Connection for the victory".[260]

In mid-March 2017, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko signed a temporary ban on the movement of goods to and from territory controlled by DPR and LPR. Ukraine has not bought coal from the Donets Black Coal Basin since then.[261]

Anthracite mines under DPR control reportedly supply coal to Poland through Russian shell companies to disguise its real origin.[262]

According to Ukrainian and Russian media, the coal export company Vneshtorgservis, owned by Serhiy Kurchenko, owes massive debts to coal mines located in separatist-controlled territory and other local companies.[263]

Sergey Zdrilyuk ("Abwehr"), former deputy of DPR militia, stated in an interview in 2020 that large-scale disassembly of mining equipment for scrap metal and other forms of looting took place routinely during Igor Girkin's time as a militia commander, and that Girkin took significant amounts of money with him to Moscow. Militia groups such as "Vostok" and "Oplot" as well as various "Cossack formations", were involved in looting on systematic basis.[264][265]

Human rights

An early March 2016 United Nations OHCHR report stated that people that lived in separatist-controlled areas were experiencing "complete absence of rule of law, reports of arbitrary detention, torture and incommunicado detention, and no access to real redress mechanisms".[266]

Freedom House evaluates the eastern Donbas territories controlled by the DPR and LPR as "not free", scoring 4 out of 100 in its 2022 Freedom in the World index, noting issues with severe political and media repression, numerous reports of torture, and arbitrary detention.[267] The Guardian noted on 17 February 2022 that "Public opposition in the DPR is virtually non-existent."[251]

War crimes

Protest in Donetsk against OSCE's inaction in Donbas, 23 October 2021

An 18 November 2014 United Nations report on eastern Ukraine stated that the DPR was in a state of "total breakdown of law and order".[268] The report noted "cases of serious human rights abuses by the armed groups continued to be reported, including torture, arbitrary and incommunicado detention, summary executions, forced labour, sexual violence, as well as the destruction and illegal seizure of property may amount to crimes against humanity".[268] The November report also stated "the HRMMU continued to receive allegations of sexual and gender-based violence in the eastern regions. In one reported incident, members of the pro-Russian Vostok Battalion "arrested" a woman for violating a curfew and beat her with metal sticks for three hours. The woman was also raped by several pro-Russian rebels from the battalion. The report also states that the UN mission "continued to receive reports of torture and ill-treatment by the Ukrainian law enforcement agencies and volunteer battalions and by the (pro-Russian separatist) armed groups, including beating, death threats, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, and lack of access to medical assistance".[269] In a 15 December 2014 press conference in Kyiv, UN Assistant Secretary-General for human rights Ivan Šimonović stated that the majority of human rights violations were committed in areas controlled by pro-Russian rebels.[270]

The United Nations report also accused the Ukrainian Army and Ukrainian (volunteer) territorial defence battalions, including the [Azov Battalion]],[271][272] of human rights abuses such as illegal detention, torture and ill-treatment of DPR and LPR supporters, noting official denials.[268][273] Amnesty International reported on 24 December 2014 that pro-government volunteer battalions were blocking Ukrainian aid convoys from entering separatist-controlled territory.[274]

On 24 July, Human Rights Watch accused the pro-Russian fighters of not taking measures to avoid encamping in densely populated civilian areas."[275][276] It also accused Ukrainian government forces and pro-government volunteer battalions of indiscriminate attacks on civilian areas, stating that "The use of indiscriminate rockets in populated areas violates international humanitarian law, or the laws of war, and may amount to war crimes."[275][276]

A report by the OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights that was released on 2 March 2015 described media postings and online videos which indicated that the pro-Russian armed groups of the DPR carried out "summary, extrajudicial or arbitrary executions" of captured Ukrainian soldiers. In one incident, corpses of Ukrainian servicemen were found with "their hands tied with white electrical cable" after the pro-Russian rebel groups captured Donetsk International Airport. In January a DPR leader claimed that the rebel forces were detaining up to five "subversives" between the ages of 18 and 35 per day. A number of captured prisoners of war were forced to march in Donetsk while being assaulted by rebel soldiers and onlookers. The report also said that Ukrainian law enforcement agencies had engaged in a "pattern of enforced disappearances, secret detention and ill-treatment" of people suspected of "separatism" and "terrorism".[277] The report also mentions videos of members of one particular pro-Russian unit talking about running a torture facility in the basement of a Luhansk library. The head of the unit in question was the pro-Russian separatist commander Aleksandr Biednov, known as "Batman" (who was later killed) and the "head" of the torture chamber was a rebel called "Maniac" who "allegedly used a hammer to torture prisoners and surgery kit to scare and extract confessions from prisoners".[277][278]

In September 2015, OSCE published a report on the testimonies of victims held in places of illegal detention in Donbas.[279] In December 2015, a team led by Małgorzata Gosiewska published a comprehensive report on war crimes in Donbas.[280]

Allegations of anti-semitism

Alleged members of the Donetsk Republic carrying the flag of the Russian Federation,[281] passed out a leaflet to Jews that informed all Jews over the age of 16 that they would have to report to the Commissioner for Nationalities in the Donetsk Regional Administration building and register their property and religion. It also claimed that Jews would be charged a $50 'registration fee'.[282] If they did not comply, they would have their citizenship revoked, face 'forceful expulsion' and see their assets confiscated. The leaflet stated the purpose of registration was because "Jewish community of Ukraine supported Bandera Junta," and "oppose the pro-Slavic People's Republic of Donetsk".[281] The authenticity of the leaflet could not be independently verified.[283] The New York Times, Haaretz, and The New Republic said the fliers were "most likely a hoax".[284][285][286] France 24 also reported on the questionable authenticity of the leaflets.[287] According to Efraim Zuroff of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, the leaflets looked like some sort of provocation, and an attempt to paint the pro-Russian forces as anti-semitic.[288] The chief rabbi of Donetsk Pinchas Vishedski stated that the flyer was a fake meant to discredit the self-proclaimed republic,[289] and saying that anti-Semitic incidents in eastern Ukraine are "rare, unlike in Kyiv and western Ukraine"[290] and believes the men were 'trying to use the Jewish community in Donetsk as an instrument in the conflict;'[291] however, he also called the DPR Press Secretary Aleksander Kriakov "the most famous anti-Semite in the region" and questioned DPR's decision to appoint him.[292]

Religion

Religion in Donbas (Donetsk + Luhansk) (2016)[293]

  Not religious, agnostics and atheists (43%)
  Eastern Orthodoxy (28.9%)
  Simply Christianity (6.8%)
  Islam (3.4%)
  Protestantism (1.4%)
  Hinduism (0.3%)
  Other religions (16.1%)

At first the DPR adopted a constitution which stated that the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate was the official religion of the self-declared state.[294][295] This was changed with the promulgation of a law "on freedom of conscience and religious organisation" in November 2015, backed by three deputies professing Rodnovery (Slavic native faith), whose members organised the Svarozhich Battalion (of the Vostok Brigade) and the Rusich Company.[296][297] The new law caused the dissatisfaction of Metropolitan Hilarion of Donetsk and Mariupol of the Moscow Patriarchate church.[298]

Donetsk separatists consider Christian denominations such as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and wider Roman Catholic Church, and Protestantism, as all being anti-Russian and see them as obstacles in the path of the separatist goal of uniting the region with Russia.[295]

Romani people

Hundreds of Romani families fled Donbas in 2014.[299] The News of Donbas reported that members of the Donbas People's Militia engaged in assaults and robbery on the Romani (also known as gypsies) population of Sloviansk. The armed separatists beat women and children, looted homes, and carried off the stolen goods in trucks, according to eyewitnesses.[300][better source needed][301][302][303] Romani fled en masse to live with relatives in other parts of the country, fearing ethnic cleansing, displacement and murder. Some men who decided to remain formed militia groups to protect their families and homes.[302] DPR Mayor Ponomarev said the attacks were only against gypsies who were involved in drug trafficking, and that he was 'cleaning the city from drugs.'[304] The US mission to the OSCE and Ukrainian Prime Minister Yatsenyuk condemned these actions.[300][301][305]

LGBT community

On 8 June 2014, it was reported that armed militants from the Donetsk Republic attacked a gay club in the capital of Donetsk, injuring several. Witnesses said 20 people forced their way into the club, stealing jewellery and other valuables; the assailants fired shots in the club, and several people were hurt.[306] In July 2015, a DPR Ministry of Information spokesperson stated "there are no gays in Donetsk, as they all went to Kyiv".[307] In 2015, the Deputy Minister of Political Affairs of the Donetsk People's Republic stated: "A culture of homosexuality is spreading ... This is why we must kill anyone who is involved in this."[308]

Prejudice against Ukrainian speakers

On 18 April 2014, Vyacheslav Ponomarev asked local residents of Sloviansk to report all suspicious persons, especially if they were speaking Ukrainian. He also promised that the local media would publish a phone number to report them.[309]

An 18 November 2014 United Nations report on eastern Ukraine stated that the DPR violated the rights of Ukrainian-speaking children because schools in rebel-controlled areas teach only in Russian and forbid pupils to speak Ukrainian.[268] In its May 2014 constitution, the DPR regime declared Russian and Ukrainian its official languages.[77] However, in March 2020, Russian was declared to be the sole official language of the DPR.[157]

Abductions

The Committee to Protect Journalists said that separatists had seized up to ten foreign reporters during the week following the shooting down of the Malaysian aircraft.[310] On 22 July 2014, armed men from the DPR abducted Ukrainian freelance journalist Anton Skiba as he arrived with a CNN crew at a hotel in Donetsk.[310] The DPR often counters such accusations by pointing towards non-governmental organisations, such as Amnesty International's reporting that pro-Ukrainian volunteer paramilitary battalions, such as the Aidar Battalion, Donbas Battalion, Azov Battalion often acted like "renegade gangs", and were implicated in torture, abductions, and summary executions.[274][311] Amnesty International and the (OHCHR) also raised similar concerns about Radical Party leader and Ukrainian MP Oleh Lyashko and his militia.[312]

Donetsk has also observed significant rise in violent crime (homicide, rape, including underage victims) under the control of separatist forces.[313] In July 2015 local authorities of Druzhkovka, previously occupied by separatist forces, exposed a previous torture site in one of the town's cellars.[314]

On 2 June 2017 the freelance journalist Stanislav Aseyev was abducted. Firstly the DPR "government" denied knowing his whereabouts but on 16 July, an agent of the DPR's Ministry of State Security confirmed that Aseyev was in their custody and that he was suspected of espionage. Independent media is not allowed to report from the DPR-controlled territory.[315] Amnesty International, the Committee to Protect Journalists, the European Federation of Journalists, Human Rights Watch, the Norwegian Helsinki Committee, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, PEN International, Reporters Without Borders and the United States Mission to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have called for the immediate release of Aseyev.[316][317][318][319][320][321] He was released as part of a prison exchange and handed over to Ukrainian authorities on 29 December 2019.[322]

Sergey Zdrilyuk ("Abwehr"), former deputy of DPR militia, confirmed in 2020 that Igor Girkin personally executed prisoners of war he considered "traitors" or "spies".[264][265] This statement was first made in Girkin's interview earlier that year, although Girkin insisted the executions were part of his "military tribunal based on laws of war". Girkin also confessed that he was involved in the murder of Volodymyr Ivanovych Rybak, a representative of Horlivka who was abducted on 17 April 2014 after trying to raise a Ukrainian flag: "Naturally, Rybak, as a person who actively opposed the "militias", was an enemy in my eyes. And his death, probably, is to some extent also under my responsibility".[323]

Forced Passportization

According to a US study, Ukrainians in occupied territories who refuse Russian passports face threats, intimidation and possible detention or deportation.[324][325] In April 2022, Russia adopted a law that allows authorities to detain or deport residents without Russian passports. Starting July 2024, residents without Russian citizenship would be considered "foreigners" or "stateless". In June 2023, the head of the so-called "Donetsk People’s Republic" announced a planning group to study facilities for detaining residents without Russian passports for deportation.[324]

Education

By the start of the 2015–2016 school-year DPR's authorities had overhauled the curriculum.[326] Ukrainian language lessons were decreased from around eight hours a week to two hours; while the time devoted to Russian language and literature lessons were increased.[326] The history classes were changed to give greater emphasis to the history of Donbas.[326] The grading system was changed from (Ukraine's) 12-point scheme to the five-point grading system that is also used in Russia.[326] According to the director of a college in Donetsk "We give students the choice between the two but the Russian one is taken into greater account".[326] School graduates will receive a Russian certificate, allowing them to enter both local universities and institutions in Russia.[326]

In April 2016 DPR authorities designed "statehood awareness lessons" were introduced in schools (in territory controlled by them).[327]

Residents of Donetsk carry portraits of ancestors who fought in World War II, 9 May 2016

Territorial control

Name Pop. Raion Held by As of More information
Andriivka 71 Bakhmut  Ukraine 26 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia on 30 November 2022.[328]
Recaptured by  Ukraine between 14–15 September 2023.[329]
Avdiivka 31,940 Pokrovsk  Russia[330][331] 17 Feb 2024 See Battle of Avdiivka (2017), Battle of Avdiivka (2022–2024)
Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Mostly recaptured by  Ukraine 21 July 2014.
Recaptured by  Russia on 17 February 2024.[332]
Bakhmut 72,310 Bakhmut  Russia[333] 23 May 2023 See Battle of Artemivsk (2014), Battle of Bakhmut (2022-2023)
Captured by  Donetsk PR in April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 6 July 2014.
Recaptured by  Russia on 20 May 2023.[334][335]
Bakhmutske 612 Bakhmut  Russia[336] 27 Dec 2022 Captured by  Russia 27 December 2022
Berestove 1,278 Bakhmut  Russia[337] 28 Jul 2022 Captured by  Donetsk PR in July 2022.
Blahodatne 564 Volnovakha  Ukraine 24 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR in 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 10 June 2023.[338]
Bohdanivka 77 Bakhmut Contested[339] 18 Jan 2024 Contested by  Russia since before 17 January 2024.[339]
Bohorodychne 794 Kramatorsk  Ukraine 11 Sep 2022 See Sloviansk offensive
Captured by  Russia 11 July 2022.[340]
Recaptured by  Ukraine 11 September 2022.[341][342]
Chasiv Yar 12,557 Bakhmut  Ukraine 1 May 2023 See Chasiv Yar missile strike
Debaltseve 24,316 Horlivka  Russia 20 Feb 2015 See Battle of Debaltseve (2015)
Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 29 July 2014.
Recaptured by  Donetsk PR 18 February 2015.
Donetsk 905,364 Donetsk  Russia[343] 22 Feb 2022 See March 2022 Donetsk attack
Captured by  Donetsk PR 7 April 2014.
Druzhkivka 55,088 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[344] 4 May 2022
Heorhiivka [uk] 1,167 Pokrovsk Contested[345] 15 Jan 2024 Contested by  Russia since around 15 January 2024.[345]
Horlivka 241,106 Horlivka  Russia[346] 9 Mar 2022 See Battle of Horlivka (2014)
Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Ilovaisk 17,620 Donetsk  Russia 20 Feb 2015 See Battle of Ilovaisk (2014)
Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 19 August 2014.
Recaptured by  Donetsk PR 1 September 2014.
Ivanivske 1,369 Bakhmut  Ukraine 18 Mar 2023
Khromove 833 Bakhmut  Russia 31 Dec 2023 Recaptured by  Russia on 29 November 2023.[347][348]
Klishchiivka 512 Bakhmut  Ukraine 26 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia on 19 January 2023.
Recaptured by  Ukraine between 17–22 September 2023.[349][350]
Kostiantynivka 68,792 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[351][352] 10 Mar 2022 Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 7 July 2014.
Kramatorsk 150,084 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[344] 4 May 2022 See Battle of Kramatorsk (2014), Kramatorsk railway station attack
Captured by  Donetsk PR 12 April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 5 July 2014.
Krasna Hora 584 Bakhmut  Russia[353] 11 Feb 2023 Recaptured by  Russia on 11 February 2023.
Krasnohorivka (city) 14,917 Pokrovsk  Ukraine[351][354] 10 Mar 2022
Krasnohorivka (village) 526 Pokrovsk  Russia[355] 17 Mar 2023
Kurdiumivka 737 Bakhmut  Russia 1 Sep 2023
Lastochkyne 617 Pokrovsk  Russia[356] 24 Feb 2024 Recaptured by  Russia on 24 February 2024.[356]
Lyman 20,469 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[357][358] 1 Oct 2022 See Battle of Krasnyi Lyman (2014), First battle of Lyman, Second battle of Lyman
Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 5 June 2014.
Recaptured by  Russia/ Donetsk PR 27 May 2022.[359][360][361][362]
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 1 October 2022.[357][358][363]
Makarivka 258 Volnovakha  Ukraine 24 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR in 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine between 13–14 June 2023.[364]
Makiivka 340,337 Donetsk  Russia[346] 9 Mar 2022 Captured by  Donetsk PR on 13 April 2014.
Marinka 10,722 Pokrovsk  Russia[365] 25 Dec 2023 See Battle of Marinka (2015), Battle of Marinka (2022–2023)
Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 5 August 2014.
Contested by  Russia between around spring 2022 and 24 December 2023.[366][367]
Recaptured by  Russia on 24–25 December 2023.[368][365]
Mariupol 431,859 Mariupol  Russia[369] 17 May 2022 See Battle of Mariupol (2014), 2014 offensive, 2015 attack, Siege of Mariupol, Hospital airstrike, Theatre airstrike, Art school bombing
Partially captured by  Donetsk PR 9 May 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 13 June 2014
Recaptured by  Russia/ DPR on 16 May 2022.[369]
Neskuchne 644 Volnovakha  Ukraine 24 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR in Spring 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 10 June 2023.[338]
New York 9,917 Bakhmut  Ukraine[351][370] 10 Mar 2022
Novoluhanske 3,700 Bakhmut  Russia[371] 26 May 2022 Captured along with Vuhlehirske Power Plant by  Russia/ DPR on 26 July 2022[372]
Novomaiorske 551 Volnovakha  Russia[373] 10 Apr 2022
Novomykhailivka 1,439 Pokrovsk Contested[374] 6 Feb 2024 Contested by  Russia since around 6 February 2024.[374]
Novoselivka 541 Pokrovsk  Russia 14 May 2022
Novosilka 104 Volnovakha  Ukraine[375] 4 May 2022
Novotroitske 6,445 Volnovakha  Russia[376][377] 6 May 2022 Captured by  Donetsk PR 11 March 2022.
Ocheretyne 3,573 Pokrovsk  Ukraine 1 May 2023
Olenivka 4,534 Kalmiuske  Russia[378] 1 May 2022 See Olenivka prison massacre
Captured by  Donetsk PR in September 2014
Orikhovo-Vasylivka 227 Bakhmut  Ukraine[citation needed] 15 Dec 2023
Pavlivka 2,505 Volnovakha  Russia[379] 14 Nov 2022 Captured by  Russia/ DPR 13 March 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 21 June 2022.
Russian sources claimed recaptured by  Russia/ DPR 19 August 2022.[380]
Russian sources claimed  Russia had recaptured it again on 14 November 2022.[379]
Paraskoviivka 2,810 Bakhmut  Russia[381] 18 Feb 2023 See Battle of Artemivsk
Captured by  Donetsk People's Republic during the Battle of Artemivsk.
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 6 July 2014[382].
Recaptured by  Russia on 18 February 2023.[383]
Pervomaiske 2,208 Pokrovsk Contested[384] 28 Jan 2024 Contested by  Russia since around fall 2022.[citation needed]
Pisky 6 Pokrovsk  Russia[385] 31 Aug 2022 See Battle of Pisky
Population was 2,160 in 2001, but most residents left during the War in Donbas.
Pobieda 144 Pokrovsk  Russia[386] 21 Feb 2024 Recaptured by  Russia on 21 February 2024.[386]
Pokrovsk 61,161 Pokrovsk  Ukraine[387] 25 May 2022 Subject to repeated rocket attacks since late May 2022.
Pokrovske 1,333 Bakhmut  Russia 27 Jul 2022
Raihorodok 3,342 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[388] 9 Sep 2022
Rivnopil 98 Volnovakha  Ukraine 24 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR before the 2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive.
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 26 June 2023.[389]
Sakko i Vantsetti 3 Bakhmut  Russia 6 Feb 2023 Recaptured by  Russia on 31 January 2023.
Selydove 21,916 Pokrovsk  Ukraine[351][390] 10 Mar 2022
Serebrianka 869 Bakhmut  Ukraine[388] 4 Sep 2022
Shandryholove 1,035 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[391] 27 Sep 2022
Shchurove 264 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[392] 19 Sep 2022
Shevchenko 1,682 Pokrovsk  Ukraine[393] 26 Sep 2022
Sieverne 40 Pokrovsk  Russia[394] 27 Feb 2024 Recaptured by  Russia between 22–26 February 2024.[356][395]
Siversk 11,068 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[396] 25 May 2022 See Battle of Siversk
Sloviansk 106,972 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[344] 4 May 2022 See Murder of Pentecostals in Sloviansk (2014), Siege of Sloviansk
Captured by  Donetsk PR in mid-April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine 5 July 2014.
Soledar 10,692 Bakhmut  Russia[397] 16 Jan 2023 See Battle of Soledar
Captured by  Donetsk PR in April 2014.
Recaptured by  Ukraine in July 2014.
Recaptured by  Russia 16 January 2023.
Solodke 525 Volnovakha  Russia[380] 5 Jul 2022 Recaptured by  Ukraine 5 July 2022.
Recaptured by  Russia/ DPR 19 August 2022.
Spirne 80 Bakhmut Contested[398] 27 Dec 2023 See Battle of Siversk
Contested by  Russia around August–September 2022.[399][400][401]
Contested by  Russia since around 27 December 2023.[398]
Staromaiorske 839 Volnovakha  Ukraine 26 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR in 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine between 27–28 July 2023.[402]
Staromlynivka 2,635 Volnovakha  Russia[403] 13 Mar 2022 Captured by  Russia/ DPR 13 March 2022.
Stepove 62 Pokrovsk  Russia[394] 27 Feb 2024 Contested by  Russia between around 10 November 2023 and 23 February 2024.[404]
Recaptured by  Russia around 23 February 2024.[356][394]
Storozheve 96 Volnovakha  Ukraine 24 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR in 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 11 June 2023.[338]
Sviatohirsk 4,309 Kramatorsk  Ukraine 11 Sep 2022 See Battle of Sviatohirsk
Captured by  Russia/ DPR between 8[405] and 14 June 2022.[406]
Recaptured by  Ukraine 11 September 2022.[407][342]
Svitlodarsk 11,281 Bakhmut  Russia[408][409] 24 May 2022 Captured by  Russia/ DPR on 24 May 2022.[408][409]
Terny 764 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[410] 3 Oct 2022 Captured by  Russia 23 April 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine first week of October 2022.[410]
Torske 1,652 Kramatorsk  Ukraine 28 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR around 19–20+ April 2022.[411]
Urozhaine 1,000 Volnovakha  Ukraine[412] 26 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR in 2022.
Recaptured by  Ukraine between 15–16 August 2023.[413]
Vasiukivka 601 Bakhmut  Ukraine[citation needed] 15 Dec 2023
Vesele 102 Bakhmut  Russia[374] 6 Feb 2024 Recaptured by  Russia on 18 January 2024.[339][374]
Volnovakha 21,441 Volnovakha  Russia[414] 11 Mar 2022 See Volnovakha bus attack (2015), Battle of Volnovakha
Captured by  Donetsk PR 11 March 2022.
Volodymyrivka 6,325 Volnovakha  Russia[415] 20 Aug 2022
Vuhledar 14,144 Volnovakha  Ukraine[416] 12 Mar 2023 See Battle of Vuhledar
Yampil 1,944 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[417] 30 Sep 2022 Captured by  Russia/ DPR in May 2022.[418][419]
Contested between 28 September and 1 October 2022.[420][421]
Recaptured by  Ukraine on 1 October 2022.[417]
Yenakiieve 77,053 Horlivka  Russia[422] 24 Jun 2015 Captured by  Donetsk PR 13 April 2014.
Zaitseve 1,160 Bakhmut  Russia[423][424] 16 Nov 2022 Capture by Russia claimed 6 October 2022.[424]
Zarichne 2,571 Kramatorsk  Ukraine[410] 28 Sep 2023 Captured by  Russia/ DPR between 24–27 April 2022.[425][419]
Recaptured by  Ukraine in the first week of October 2022.[410]
Zelene Pole 578 Volnovakha  Ukraine[426] 1 May 2022

Notes

  1. ^ The population of the entire Donetsk Oblast in 2019 was estimated to be 4,165,900, while 2,220,500 resided in areas under the control of the Donetsk People's Republic. Figures are from before the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
  2. ^ The group stated they:
    1) do not recognise the Ukrainian government;
    2) consider themselves the legitimate authority;
    3) "dismiss" of all law enforcement officials appointed by the central government and Governor Serhiy Taruta;
    4) "appoint" on the 11 May referendum about self-determinat Donetsk;
    5) require the extradition of their leader Pavel Gubarev and other already detained separatists;
    6) require Ukraine to withdrawal its troops and paramilitary forces;
    7) start the process of finding mechanisms of cooperation with the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (since 2015, the Eurasian Economic Union, also including Armenia and Kyrgyzstan) and other separatist groups (in Kharkiv and Luhansk).[53]

References

  1. ^ "Institute for the Study of War".
  2. ^ "Путин: Россия признала ДНР и ЛНР в границах Донецкой и Луганской областей". BBC. 22 February 2022. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  3. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Protesters declare Donetsk 'republic'". BBC News. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  4. ^ "Donetsk oblast". Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  5. ^ Ledur, Júlia (21 November 2022). "What Russia has gained and lost so far in Ukraine, visualized". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  6. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Kagan, Frederick W.; Lawlor, Katherine; Mappes, Grace; Bailey, Riley; Barros, George (30 September 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 30". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  7. ^ Matsuzato, Kimitaka (2022). "The First Four Years of the Donetsk People's Republic". The War in Ukraine's Donbas. Central European University Press. pp. 43–66. doi:10.7829/j.ctv26jp68t.7. ISBN 9789633864203. S2CID 245630627. This state was born as a result of the extreme polarization of Ukrainian society, has survived the military conflict with its former suzerain (Ukraine), and, at a certain stage of state building, began to enjoy Russia's support.
  8. ^ Toal, Gerard (2017). Near Abroad : Putin, the West, and the contest over Ukraine and the Caucasus. New York. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-19-025331-8. OCLC 965543300. this does not mean that the Kremlin was behind all forms of protest against Euromaidan—this is clearly not the case—or that the Kremlin controlled the actions of all secessionist leaders, also clearly not so. Secessionist leaders and later rebel fighters had their own motivations. Having said that, there is considerable evidence to indicate that Russian state security structures worked in partnership with ostensibly private but functionally extended state networks of influence—oligarchic groups, veteran organizations, nationalist movements, biker gangs, and organized criminal networks—to encourage, support, and sustain separatist rebellion in eastern Ukraine from the very outset.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  9. ^ Johnson, Jamie; Parekh, Marcus; White, Josh; Vasilyeva, Nataliya (4 August 2022). "Officer who 'boasted' of killing civilians becomes Russia's first female commander to die". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  10. ^ Bershidsky, Leonid (13 November 2018). "Eastern Ukraine: Why Putin Encouraged Sham Elections in Donbass". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  11. ^ von Twickel, Nikolaus; Sasse, Gwendolyn; Baumann, Mario (19 March 2018). "Russian Analytical Digest No 214: The Armed Conflict in Eastern Ukraine". css.ethz.ch. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  12. ^ "Ukraine: UN General Assembly demands Russia reverse course on 'attempted illegal annexation'". The United Nations. 12 October 2022.
  13. ^ a b "Ukraine war: UN General Assembly condemns Russia annexation". BBC News. 13 October 2022. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  14. ^ Likhachev, Vyacheslav (July 2016). "The Far Right in the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine" (PDF). Russie.NEI.Visions in English. pp. 25–26. Retrieved 1 March 2022. The ideas of Russian imperial (and, to some extent, ethnic) nationalism and Orthodox fundamentalism shaped the official ideology of the DNR and LNR. ... It can therefore be argued that the official ideology of the DNR and LNR, which developed under the influence of Russian far-right activists, is largely right-wing, conservative and xenophobic in character.
  15. ^ Likhachev, Vyacheslav (July 2016). "The Far Right in the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine" (PDF). Russie.NEI.Visions in English. pp. 21–22. Retrieved 1 March 2022. Members of far-right groups played a much greater role on the Russian side of the conflict than on the Ukrainian side, especially at the beginning.
  16. ^ Bachelet, Michelle (5 July 2022). "Ukraine: High Commissioner updates Human Rights Council". Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights (United Nations). Retrieved 6 February 2023. We are also concerned about confirmed allegations of forced conscription by Russian-affiliated armed groups at the end of February 2022, in Donetsk and Luhansk.
  17. ^ Corder, Mike; Casert, Raf (18 November 2022). "3 convicted in 2014 downing of Malaysian jet over Ukraine". Associated Press.
  18. ^ "Ukraine's prosecutor general classifies self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk republics as terrorist organizations". Kyiv Post. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  19. ^ Steinzova, Lucie; Oliynyk, Kateryna (22 November 2018). "Fight For Dignity: Remembering The Ukrainian Revolution". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  20. ^ Wilson, Andrew (20 April 2016). "The Donbas in 2014: Explaining Civil Conflict Perhaps, but not Civil War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 631–652. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176994. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 148334453.
  21. ^ Walker, Shaun (22 September 2013). "Ukraine's EU trade deal will be catastrophic, says Russia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  22. ^ Petro, Nicolai N., Understanding the Other Ukraine: Identity and Allegiance in Russophone Ukraine (1 March 2015). Richard Sakwa and Agnieszka Pikulicka-Wilczewska, eds., Ukraine and Russia: People, Politics, Propaganda and Perspectives, Bristol, United Kingdom: E-International Relations Edited Collections, 2015, pp. 19–35. Available at SSRN 2574762
  23. ^ "Pro-Russia Protesters Storm Donetsk Offices". NBC News. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Regional legislators proclaim industrial center Donetsk People's Republic". ITAR-TASS. 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  25. ^ "обращение народа Донбасса к Путину В.В." Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2020 – via YouTube.
  26. ^ a b Kendall, Bridget (7 April 2014). "Ukraine: Pro-Russians storm offices in Donetsk, Luhansk, Kharkiv". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 August 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  27. ^ "Pro-Russians fortify barricade of gubernatorial building in Donetsk". Kyiv Post. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014.
  28. ^ Протестующие в Донецке требуют провести референдум о вхождении в РФ [Protesters in Donetsk want to hold a referendum on joining the Russian Federation] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 6 April 2014. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014.
  29. ^ a b Воскресный штурм ДонОГА в фотографиях. novosti.dn.ua (in Russian). 6 April 2014. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
  30. ^ a b Донецькі сепаратисти готуються сформувати "народну облраду" та приєднатися до РФ [Donetsk separatists are preparing to form a "people's regional council" and join Russia]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 6 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  31. ^ Сепаратисты выставили ультиматум: референдум о вхождении Донецкой области в состав РФ. Donbas News (in Russian). 6 April 2014. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  32. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Protesters declare Donetsk 'republic'". BBC News. 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
  33. ^ Донецька міськрада просить громадян не брати участь у протиправних діях [Donetsk city council asks citizens not to participate in unlawful activities]. NGO.Donetsk.ua (in Ukrainian). 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
  34. ^ "Donetsk City Council urges leaders of protests held in the city to hold talks, lay down arms immediately – statement". Interfax-Ukraine. 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  35. ^ Luhn, Alec (8 April 2014). "Donetsk's pro-Russian activists prepare referendum for 'new republic'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  36. ^ Rachkevych, Mark (11 April 2014). "Donetsk separatists hold oblast government headquarters". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  37. ^ "Demonstrators in Donetsk plan to create 'people's army'". Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  38. ^ Harding, Luke (12 June 2014). "Pro-Russian mayor of Slavyansk sacked and arrested". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  39. ^ a b "Pro-Russian Gubarev, a symbol of east Ukraine separatism". GlobalPost. 10 March 2014. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  40. ^ ""Донецька республіка" поки ще є і хоче в Митний союз" ["Donetsk Republic" while there is still and wants the Customs Union]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. require the release of its leader Paul Gubarev and other detained separatists;
  41. ^ Coynash, Halya (18 March 2014). "Far-Right Recruited as Crimea Poll Observers". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016. Pavel Gubarev, a former member of the neo-Nazi, Russian chauvinist Russian National Unity movement
  42. ^ Snyder, Timothy (17 March 2014). "Far-Right Forces are Influencing Russia's Actions in Crimea". The New Republic. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016. In Donetsk Gubarov was known as a neo-Nazi and as a member of the fascist organization Russian National Unity.
  43. ^ Matsuka, Oleksiy (10 April 2014). "Russia's deep ties to Donetsk's Kremlin collaborators". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. In Donetsk, Pavel Gubarev, a Ukrainian citizen and former member of the Russian National Unity movement, attempted to head the protest.
  44. ^ "Kremlin turns a blind eye to the rampant Nazism in the country". TSN. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2015. It is worth noting that Gubarev was recently an activist of the Russian radical nationalist organization – Russian National Unity, which is included in the International Union of National Socialists.
  45. ^ Moyon, Germain (9 March 2014). "Pro-Russian Gubarev, a symbol of east Ukraine separatism". Digital Journal. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  46. ^ Hearst, David (14 July 1999). "Russian neo-Nazi stabs prominent Jew". the Guardian.
  47. ^ Balmforth, Tom (17 August 2014). "From The Fringes Toward Mainstream: Russian Nationalist Broadsheet Basks In Ukraine Conflict". RFE/RL.
  48. ^ "Патриотические силы Донбасса организовались и скоординировались. Манифест". OstroV. 15 April 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  49. ^ В Донецке отменили создание Донецкой республики [The creation of the "Donetsk Republic" was cancelled in Donetsk] (in Russian). News.bigmir.net. 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  50. ^ Донецкая республика не продержалась и дня? [Donestk Republic did not last a day?]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Russian). 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  51. ^ "Решение о создании "Донецкой народной республики" отменено" [Decision to establish a "people's republic of Donetsk" canceled]. Gazeta.ru. 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  52. ^ "Ukraine forces retake Kharkiv building, pro-Russians hold out elsewhere". Euronews. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
  53. ^ a b ""Донецька республіка" поки ще є і хоче в Митний союз" [""Donetsk Republic" while there is still and wants the Customs Union"]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  54. ^ Rosenberg, Steve (8 April 2014). "Pro-Russian terrorists build barricades at Donetsk city hall". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  55. ^ "Граждане России продолжают митинговать в Донецке за отделение Донбасса" [Russian citizens continue to rally in Donetsk Donbas secession]. Novosti Donetsk. 8 March 2014. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  56. ^ a b Galeotti, Mark (2019). Armies of Russia's War in Ukraine. Elite 228. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9781472833440. OCLC 1091651615.
  57. ^ Bidder, Benjamin (18 March 2015). "The Ukraine War from Perspective of Russian Nationalists". Der Spiegel. ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  58. ^ "Ukraine says Donetsk 'anti-terror operation' under way". BBC News. 15 April 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
    "Ukraine crisis: Deal to 'de-escalate' agreed in Geneva". BBC News. 17 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  59. ^ Gordon, Michael R (17 April 2014). "U.S. and Russia Agree on Pact to Defuse Ukraine Crisis". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  60. ^ Sonne, Paul; White, Gregory L. (18 April 2014). "Eastern Ukraine's Pro-Russian Activists Stand Fast". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  61. ^ "Latest from the Special Monitoring Mission in Ukraine – Monday, 14 April 2014". OSCE. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014.
  62. ^ "Сепаратисти в Донецьку вирішили звільнити кілька поверхів" [Separatists in Donetsk decided to release several floors]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 22 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  63. ^ Сепаратисты освободили 9 и 10 этажи Донецкой ОГА ФОТОФАКТ [Separatists give up floors 9 and 10 of the Donetsk Regional Administration offices, in pictures]. Novosti Donetsk. 24 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014.
  64. ^ Ostrovsky, Simon (12 April 2014). "Russian Roulette: The Invasion of Ukraine (Dispatch Twenty Three)". VICE News. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. It's day 2 of the People's Republic of Donetsk, and it smells like there was a huge frat party here because earlier today they decided to pour all their alcohol out onto the barricades out front because apparently there's been a problem with a little bit too much drinking inside the building.
  65. ^ Leonard, Peter (7 May 2014). "Putin: Troops have pulled back from Ukraine border". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  66. ^ a b Vendyk, Yury (7 May 2014). "Баркашов советует "впарить" Донецку итоги референдума". BBC Russian (in Russian). Archived from the original on 9 May 2014.
  67. ^ "SBU Audio Links Donetsk Republic to Russian Involvement". Ukrainian Policy. 7 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  68. ^ "Пленных сотрудников Альфы обменяли на трех лидеров сепаратистов – СБУ" (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 7 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  69. ^ Babiak, Mat (19 April 2014). "Southeast Statistics". Ukrainian Policy. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  70. ^ "The views and opinions of South-Eastern regions residents of Ukraine: April 2014". Kyiv Institute of Sociology. 20 April 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  71. ^ "Poll in DPR: Less than third of residents support separatists". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 12 September 2015. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  72. ^ Chivers, Christopher John; Herzenhorn, David M. (8 May 2014). "Separatists in Ukraine Vow to Proceed With Autonomy Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  73. ^ Kramer, Andrew E.; Cowell, Alan (12 May 2014). "Russia Keeps Its Distance After Ukraine Secession Referendums". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  74. ^ "Ukraine: Donetsk polling stations gear up for Sunday referendum". Euronews. 10 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
  75. ^ Sonne, Paul; Shishkin, Philip (12 May 2014). "Russia Calls for 'Civilized Implementation' of East Ukraine Referendum Results". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  76. ^ Walker, Shaun; Grytsenko, Oksana (12 May 2014). "Donetsk region asks to join Russia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  77. ^ a b c d Naberezhnov, Grigory; Sotnikova, Asya; Artemiev, Alexander (16 May 2014). В самопровозглашенной Донецкой народной республике (ДНР) избрали правительство. Премьер-министром стал гражданин России Александр Бородай [The self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic (DNR) elected a government. Russian citizen Alexander Boroday became Prime Minister.] (in Russian). RBC Information Systems. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  78. ^ Luxmoore, Matthew (16 July 2014). "Donetsk People's Republic imposes martial law, cuts off Ukrainian TV channels". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  79. ^ a b "Date of elections in Donetsk, Luhansk People's republics the same – Nov. 2". tass.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  80. ^ "EU not to recognize elections organized by DPR and LPR". Interfax-Ukraine. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  81. ^ "Russia to respect, but not necessarily recognize elections". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014.
  82. ^ "The DPR became a legal successor of the Donetsk-Krivoy-Rog Republic". novorossia.today. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  83. ^ a b "Package of Measures for the Implementation of the Minsk Agreements" (Press release) (in Russian). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 12 February 2015. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  84. ^ "Minsk agreement on Ukraine crisis: text in full". The Daily Telegraph. 12 February 2015. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  85. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Poroshenko calls for UN peacekeepers". BBC News. 19 February 2015. Archived from the original on 4 September 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  86. ^ Olszański, Tadeusz A. (2 September 2015). "Ukraine is divided over constitutional reform". OSW: Centre for Eastern Studies. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  87. ^ "Ukraine's parliament avoids implementation of Minsk agreements". Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 2 February 2016. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  88. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (18 March 2016). "Ex-Professor Upsets Ukraine Politics, and Russia Peace Accord". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  89. ^ "Russian-backed 'Novorossiya' breakaway movement collapses". Ukraine Today. 20 May 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
    Проект "Новороссия" закрыт [Project "New Russia" is closed] (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. 20 May 2015. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  90. ^ Dergachev, Vladimir; Kirillov, Dmitry (20 May 2015). Проект "Новороссия" закрыт [Project "New Russia" is closed] (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  91. ^ Kanygin, Pavel (15 June 2015). "Глава ДНР Захарченко вышел к митингующим за прекращение войны жителям на костылях (Онлайн)". Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  92. ^ Lilenko, Inna (15 June 2015). "Захарченко, оправдываясь, признался, что его боевики ведут обстрелы с территории школы | InfoResist". Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  93. ^ "Alexander Zakharchenko: Mass turnout for Ukraine rebel's funeral". BBC. 2 September 2018. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  94. ^ a b "Local elections in DPR to take place on October 18 – Zakharchenko" Archived 3 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (2 July 2015)
    "DPR, LPR attempts to hold separate elections in Donbas on Oct 18 to have destructive consequences – Poroshenko" Archived 3 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (2 July 2015)
  95. ^ "Poroshenko says local elections in Ukraine will be held on Oct. 25, date on which they will be held in Donbas is hard to predict – Jun. 11, 2015". Kyiv Post. 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  96. ^ "Глава "народного совета" ДНР отправлен в отставку – BBC Русская служба". 5 September 2015. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  97. ^ MacDonald, Euan; Lavrov, Vlad; Trach, Nataliya (5 September 2015). "'Power struggle' in Donetsk prompts flurry of speculation in Kyiv and beyond". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  98. ^ Zinets, Natalia; Polityuk, Pavel (6 October 2015). "Pro-Russian rebels in Ukraine postpone disputed elections". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
    "Ukraine rebels to delay elections". The Washington Post. 6 October 2015.
  99. ^ Ukraine crisis: Pro-Russian rebels 'delay disputed elections' Archived 7 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (6 October 2015)
    Hollande: Elections In Eastern Ukraine Likely To Be Delayed Archived 5 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (2 October 2015)
    Ukraine Is Being Told to Live With Putin Archived 6 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Bloomberg News (5 October 2015)
  100. ^ "Захарченко відклав "вибори"". pda.pravda.com.ua. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  101. ^ "Захарченко переніс вибори в "ДНР" на листопад" [Zakharchenko postponed elections "DNR" in November]. pda.pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  102. ^ "Large protest in occupied Horlivka against crippling militant 'taxes' :: khpg.org". khpg.org. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
    Более тысячи частных предпринимателей Горловки выразили недоверие администрации города [More than a thousand private entrepreneurs Gorlovka expressed distrust of the city administration] (in Russian). Gorlivka Today. 16 July 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  103. ^ a b Defying Minsk process, Russian-backed separatists hold illegal elections Archived 3 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (2 October 2016)
    Donbass militia leader announces autumn primaries in Donetsk Archived 5 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, TASS news agency (23 May 2016)
  104. ^ Coynash, Halya (9 November 2018). "Russia lies about Minsk Agreement to justify support for fake 'elections' in occupied Donbas". Human Rights in Ukraine. Archived from the original on 11 November 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  105. ^ "Statement by the NATO Spokesperson on the reported elections in eastern Ukraine". NATO. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  106. ^ Walker, Shaun (17 October 2016). "Prominent rebel warlord Arseny 'Motorola' Pavlov dies in Donetsk blast". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  107. ^ "Separatist commander Mikhail Tolstykh, 'Givi', killed in eastern Ukraine". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  108. ^ Zverev, Anton; Vasina, Olena (31 August 2018). "Rebel leader in east Ukraine killed in blast". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  109. ^ "Russian Town Rallies Against New Mayor From Rebel-Held Eastern Ukraine". The Moscow Times. 2 October 2019. Archived from the original on 4 October 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  110. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Moscow could 'defend' Russia-backed rebels". BBC News. 9 April 2021.
  111. ^ a b "Бойовики представили свою "доктрину": передбачає захоплення всього Донбасу" [Militants presented the "doctrine": provides capture of all Donbas]. Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  112. ^ a b Golod, Gleb (5 September 2022). "Жизнь здесь катится в хреновую сторону. В ЛНР и ДНР на войну с Украиной забрали десятки тысяч жителей. Без них в тылу не работают предприятия, а спецслужбы преследуют даже жен призывников". Meduza. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  113. ^ a b ""Облавы будут на первое сентября". Правозащитник о принудительной мобилизации в "ДНР", "ЛНР" и охоте на уклоняющихся". Настоящее время. 20 August 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  114. ^ Hernandez, Joe (22 February 2022). "Why Luhansk and Donetsk are key to understanding the latest escalation in Ukraine". NPR. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  115. ^ Hodge, Nathan (22 February 2022). "Russia's Federation Council gives consent to Putin on use of armed forces abroad, Russian agencies report". Moscow: CNN. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  116. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Biden sanctions Russia over 'beginning of invasion'". BBC News. 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  117. ^ Nikolskaya, Polina; Osborn, Andrew (24 February 2022). "Russia's Putin authorises 'special military operation' against Ukraine". Reuters. Moscow. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  118. ^ Grunau, Andrea; von Hein, Matthias; Theise, Eugen; Weber, Joscha (25 February 2022). "Fact check: Do Vladimir Putin's justifications for going to war against Ukraine add up?". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  119. ^ Waxman, Olivia B. (3 March 2022). "Historians on What Putin Gets Wrong About 'Denazification' in Ukraine". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. OCLC 1311479. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  120. ^ "Ukrainian forces now control nearly 45% of Donetsk, says official". Business Standard India. 23 June 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  121. ^ Gunter, Joel; Lukov, Yaroslav (2 March 2022). "Ukrainian city of Mariupol 'near to humanitarian catastrophe' after bombardment". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  122. ^ "At least 22,000 civilians killed in Mariupol – mayor's adviser". Interfax-Ukraine. 25 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  123. ^ "Mariupol Mayor Cites 'Thousands' Dead, Says 'Complete Evacuation' Needed". Radio Free Europe. Radio Liberty. 27 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  124. ^ Bondarenko, Khrystyna; Watson, Ivan; Stapleton, AnneClaire; Booth, Tom; Alasaar, Alaa (19 March 2022). "Mariupol residents are being forced to go to Russia, city council says". CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  125. ^ "Occupying forces have deported more than 50,000 Mariupol residents to Russia and temporarily occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts". Ukrainska Pravda. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  126. ^ Nedos, Vassilis. "Greek convoy makes it out of Mariupol | eKathimerini.com". www.ekathimerini.com. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  127. ^ "Humanitarian corridor for Greek expatriates in Mariupol". www.ekathimerini.com. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  128. ^ "Thomas van Linge on Twitter: "#Ukraine 🇺🇦: the separatist entity #DNR has started to claim areas outside of the #Donbass region as part of its own. Today a sham referendum was held in the village of Rozivka (blue on the map), located in the #Zaporizhzhya oblast, not #Donetsk (orange)" / Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  129. ^ "A hall filled with pensioners in the occupied village of Rozovka in the Zaporizhzhia Oblast voted to join the "DNR" Rozivka - Ukraine Interactive map - Ukraine Latest news on live map - liveuamap.com". Ukraine Interactive map - Ukraine Latest news on live map - liveuamap.com. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  130. ^ "Institute for the Study of War". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  131. ^ "Medvedev dreams of the collapse of Ukraine and showed a "map"". odessa-journal.com. 27 July 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  132. ^ Arsu, Şebnem; Boy, Ann-Dorit; Chernyshev, Alexander; Esch, Christian; Hebel, Christina; Imhof, Oliver; Popp, Maximilian; Schaap, Fritz; Schröder, Thore (23 September 2022). "Putin Bets It All in Ukraine". Der Spiegel.
  133. ^ Teslova, Elena (16 August 2022). "Putin says West tries to contain formation of multipolar world". Anadolu Agency.
  134. ^ "В ДНР заявили, что референдум о вхождении в состав России состоится с 23 по 27 сентября". tass.ru. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  135. ^ "Putin speech on partial mobilisation: What exactly did he say?". Al Jazeera. 21 September 2022.
  136. ^ Сепаратисты выставили ультиматум: референдум о вхождении Донецкой области в состав РФ [Separatists put an ultimatum: a referendum on joining the Donetsk region with the Russian Federation]. novosti.dn.ua (in Russian). 6 April 2014. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  137. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (4 October 2014). "Rebels in Eastern Ukraine Dream of Reviving Soviet Heyday". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  138. ^ Mirovalev, Mansur. "Donetsk and Luhansk: What you should know about the 'republics'". Aljazeera. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  139. ^ a b c d e f Piechal, Tomasz (17 June 2015). "The War republics in the Donbas one year after the outbreak of the conflict". Centre for Eastern Studies. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  140. ^ Quinn-Judge, Paul (3 March 2016). "Ukraine's eastern separatist leaders turn on each other". New Eastern Europe. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  141. ^ Rudenko, Serhiy (3 March 2016). Коментар: Мінськ помер у Москві [Commentary: Minsk died in Moscow] (in Ukrainian). Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  142. ^ Hutchinson, Bill; Reevell, Patrick (4 March 2022). "What are the Ukraine 'separatist' regions at the crux of the Russian invasion". ABC News. Retrieved 14 October 2022. The Donbas contains two provinces, Donetsk and Luhansk, that touch the Russian border and since 2014 have been controlled by two puppet separatist governments that Moscow armed and helped establish.
  143. ^ "Russia's invasion of Ukraine". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 14 October 2022. And some take in fighters from Russian-backed militias in the Luhansk and Donetsk people's republics—a pair of puppet governments in eastern ...
  144. ^ Danylyuk, Oleksandr (2 February 2022). "Opinion | Why the Donbass is the Key to Putin's Gambit in Ukraine". Politico. Retrieved 14 October 2022. Russia also installed puppet governments inside the two so-called republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. The local councils of Donbass elected before the war did not support Russian aggression, so Moscow created military dictatorships in the occupied territories, which were initially run by Russian citizens. Later, the Russians were replaced by local collaborators.
  145. ^ Antoniuk, Daryna (7 February 2020). "Ex-Russian official becomes 'prime minister' of Donetsk militants". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  146. ^ "Statement by Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine Mr. Sergiy Kyslytsya at the United Nations Security Council briefing on Ukraine". Permanent Mission of Ukraine to the United Nations. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020. How local is the recently appointed so-called acting head of "government of Donetsk" Vladimir Pashkov? The citizen of Russia, born in Siberia, graduated from the Russian Military Pacific Navy School and, until recently, the vice-governor of the Irkutsk region of Russia? Would you like to know how close is Irkutsk to Donetsk? Some insignificant 6 000 km. Still local enough, in the opinion of Moscow, to rule in Donbas and to be talked to about its future.
  147. ^ "Пушилин назначил министрами "ДНР" четырех чиновников из России для "скорейшего перехода в российское правовое поле"". The Insider (in Russian). 2 July 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  148. ^ The head of Oplot told about lobbying of the Zakharchenko's candidacy on a post of the head of DPR (Глава "Оплота" рассказал о лоббировании кандидатуры Захарченко на пост главы "ДНР"). TV Rain. 4 November 2014
  149. ^ a b "Pro-Russian rebel leader killed in eastern Ukraine blast". The Washington Post. 31 August 2018.
  150. ^ "Парламент ДНР сменил исполняющего обязанности главы республики". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  151. ^ "Head of self-proclaimed 'DNR' 'promises new phase of combat operations' after 'becoming part of Russia'". Meduza. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  152. ^ Rosenberg, Steve (8 June 2014). "The Ukrainians who are nostalgic for their Soviet past". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014.
  153. ^ a b Grigas, Agnia (23 March 2016). "Separatists Launch New "Passportization" Strategy in Eastern Ukraine". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  154. ^ У "ДНР" заявили, що запровадили "подвійне громадянство" [The "DNR" said that they have introduced "dual citizenship"]. Espreso TV. 22 November 2016. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  155. ^ "Russia starts giving passports to Ukrainians". dw.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  156. ^ a b Kazanskyi, Denys (7 March 2020). "The march of dis-integration". The Ukrainian Week. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  157. ^ a b Shilov, Vladimir (6 March 2020). Русский признали в ДНР единственным государственным языком [The Russian language has become the sole state language in the DPR]. Российская газета (in Russian). Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  158. ^ (in Ukrainian) The leader of fighters Pushilin gathered in "United Russia" Archived 15 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainska Pravda (15 July 2021)
    (in Ukrainian) "United Russia" went on the offensive in the Donbass Archived 15 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine, The Ukrainian Week (15 July 2021)
  159. ^ "У Путіна запевняють: Роздаємо паспорти РФ на Донбасі не для анексії ОРДЛО" [At Putin assure: We distribute passports of the Russian Federation in Donbass not for annexation of ORDLO]. Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 20 July 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  160. ^ Gorst, Isabel (1 March 2014). "In northeast Ukraine, pro-Maidan occupiers are routed by counter-demonstrators". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  161. ^ Tadtaev, Georg (10 January 2020). "В Абхазии заявили об участии украинцев в попытке госпереворота" [Abkhazia announces the Involvement of Ukrainians in Attempted Coup]. RBK Group (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  162. ^ Morrison, Thea (3 October 2018). "Russia Advises Abkhazia to Recognize Lugansk and Donetsk". Georgia Today. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  163. ^ "Захарченко сделал Кобзона 20-м "Героем ДНР" (+видео)". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  164. ^ "Chechen armed forces assemble to honour Putin and his ally Kadyrov". Reuters. 7 October 2022.
  165. ^ a b "Latest from the Special Monitoring Mission in Ukraine based on information received until 22 June 2014" (Press release). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 23 June 2014. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  166. ^ "Separatists urge Russia to annex Donetsk in wake of referendum". Financial Times. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022.
  167. ^ Shishkin, Philip (9 July 2014). "Rebel Stronghold in Ukraine Braces for Its Showdown". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  168. ^ "Militants steal Hr 15 million in Donetsk bank". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 3 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  169. ^ McLaughlin, Daniel (23 July 2014). "Fear grips Donetsk as Ukraines forces vow to crush pariah rebels". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  170. ^ Karatnycky, Adrian (8 July 2014). "Putin's Ukraine Assault: In a Shambles but Far From Over". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  171. ^ Kuprijanova, Inna; Jolkver, Nikita (7 December 2014). "Calm before the storm in Donetsk". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  172. ^ a b Tereshchenko, Andriy (8 September 2014). "Навіщо Ощадбанк порушує заборону НБУ на роботу в зоні АТО" [Why Oschadbank violates the NBU's ban on work in the ATO zone]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian and Russian). Archived from the original on 8 September 2014.
  173. ^ "Oschadbank stops operation of departments on rebel-control territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 24 November 2014.[full citation needed]
  174. ^ Sukhov, Oleg (11 December 2014). "Pensioners travel outside of separatist areas to get their cash". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014.
  175. ^ a b c d e f g h Grove, Thomas; Baczynska, Gabriela (30 October 2014). "East Ukraine separatists hold vote to gain legitimacy, promise normalcy". Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017.
  176. ^ "Жінки дали бойовикам 2 місяці на те, щоб забратися з Донецька – РНБО" [Women gave militants two months to get out of Donetsk – NSDC]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 25 November 2014. Archived from the original on 25 November 2014.
  177. ^ "'Donetsk People's Republic' seeks sense of nationhood". Al Jazeera. 17 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017.
  178. ^ a b "Non-transparent 'justice systems' set up in rebel-controlled Donbas areas mostly non-functional – OSCE SMM". Interfax-Ukraine. 25 December 2015. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.
  179. ^ "О Министерстве | МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ ДОНЕЦКОЙ НАРОДНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ". xn–b1aea3ais.xn–p1acf. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  180. ^ "Donetsk Separatists Introduce Death Penalty for Treason". The Moscow Times. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  181. ^ "Russia and the Separatists in Eastern Ukraine" (PDF). International Crisis Group. 5 February 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2016.
  182. ^ a b Janjevic, Darko (31 August 2018). "Ukraine: Top rebel leader killed in blast". dw.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  183. ^ Losh, Jack (10 February 2016). "Paranoia and Purges: The Dark and Dirty Battle for Power in Rebel-Held Ukraine". VICE News. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  184. ^ "Донбасс. Грязь и кровь "братской войны"". Росбалт. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  185. ^ "В Луганске взорвали машину главы ЛНР". tvrain.ru. 6 August 2016. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  186. ^ "Pro-Russian militant leader from Eastern Ukraine shot dead near Moscow – media". Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  187. ^ Balmforth, Tom (20 September 2016). "Prominent Ukrainian Anti-Maidan Activist Killed in Moscow Restaurant". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  188. ^ Pavlov, Arsen (16 October 2016). Командир ополчения ДНР Моторола убит в Донецке. Interfax.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  189. ^ "В ДНР погиб командир батальона "Сомали" Гиви". tvrain.ru. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  190. ^ "Ukraine lawmakers ban 'Communist and Nazi propaganda'". Deutsche Welle. 9 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  191. ^ ""Газета.ру" рассказала о том, как в плену "ДНР" и "ЛНР" пытали своих же". Gazeta.ru. 16 October 2015. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  192. ^ "Ukraine: Russia-backed separatists lift death penalty moratorium". www.aljazeera.com.
  193. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Likhachev, Vyacheslav (July 2016). "The Far Right in the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine" (PDF). Russie.NEI.Visions in English. pp. 18–28. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  194. ^ a b Averre, Derek (2018). Wolczuk, Kataryna (ed.). The Ukraine Conflict: Security, Identity and Politics in the Wider Europe. Routledge. pp. 90–91. doi:10.4324/9781315170770-9. ISBN 978-1-315-17077-0. S2CID 240042370. Separatist ideologues in the Donbas, such as they are, have therefore produced a strange melange since 2014. Of what Marlène Laruelle (2016) has called the 'three colours' of Russian nationalism designed for export—red (Soviet), white (Orthodox) and brown (fascist) ... there are arguably more real fascists on the rebel side than the Ukrainian side
  195. ^ a b Yudina, Natalia (2015). "Russian nationalists fight Ukrainian war", in: Journal on Baltic Security, Volume 1, Issue 1 (de Gruyter). pp.47–69. doi:10.1515/jobs-2016-0012.
  196. ^ a b Laruelle, Marlene (26 June 2014). "Is anyone in charge of Russian nationalists fighting in Ukraine?". The Washington Post. Many mercenaries are related, directly or indirectly, to the Russian National Unity (RNU) movement of Alexander Barkashov ... The RNU is supposedly closely associated to members of the self-proclaimed government of Donetsk and in particular of Dmitri Boitsov, leader of the Orthodox Donbass organization ... The volunteers come from several other Russian nationalist groups: the Eurasianist Youth inspired by the Fascist and neo-Eurasianist geopolitician Alexander Dugin; the now-banned Movement Against Illegal Immigration led by Alexander Belov; the group 'Sputnik and Pogrom'; the national-socialist Slavic Union of Dmitri Demushkin; several small groups inspired by monarchism such as the Russian Imperial Movement
  197. ^ Saunders, Robert; Strukov, Vlad (2019). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing. pp. 581–582. ISBN 978-0-8108-5475-8. OCLC 465681761. Russian National Unity (RNU), banned ultranationalist political party ... a number of RNU members joined separatist forces in the breakaway republics of Donetsk and Lugansk
  198. ^ Snyder, Timothy (17 March 2014). "Far-Right Forces are Influencing Russia's Actions in Crimea". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  199. ^ a b Kuzio, Taras (2015). Ukraine: Democratization, Corruption, and the New Russian Imperialism. ABC-CLIO. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-1-4408-3502-5. OCLC 898167438. the Russian Orthodox Army, one of a number of separatist units fighting for the "Orthodox faith," revival of the Tsarist Empire, and the Russkii Mir. Igor Girkin (Strelkov [Shooter]), who led the Russian capture of Slovyansk in April 2014, was an example of the Russian nationalists who have sympathies to pro-Tsarist and extremist Orthodox groups in Russia. ... the Russian Imperial Movement ... has recruited thousands of volunteers to fight with the separatists. ... such as the Russian Party of National Unity who uses a modified swastika as their party symbol and Dugin's Eurasianist movement. The paramilitaries of both of these ... are fighting alongside separatists.
  200. ^ a b Townsend, Mark (20 March 2022). "Russian mercenaries in Ukraine linked to far-right extremists". The Guardian. Russian mercenaries fighting in Ukraine, including the Kremlin-backed Wagner Group, have been linked to far-right extremism ... Much of the extremist content, posted on Telegram and the Russian social media platform VKontakte (VK), relates to a far-right unit within the Wagner Group called Rusich ... One post on the messaging app Telegram, dated 15 March, shows the flag of the Russian Imperial Movement (RIM), a white-supremacist paramilitary ... Another recent VK posting lists Rusich as part of a coalition of separatist groups and militias including the extreme far-right group, Russian National Unity.
  201. ^ Šmíd, Tomáš; Šmídová, Alexandra (1 June 2021). "Anti-government Non-state Armed Actors in the Conflict in Eastern Ukraine". Mezinárodní vztahy. 56 (2): 48–49. doi:10.32422/mv-cjir.1778. ISSN 2570-9429. S2CID 236341469. Another group of Russian citizens who became involved in the armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine were members of the so-called right-wing units of the Russian Spring
  202. ^ Afrinogenov, Gregory (2 March 2022). "The Seeds of War". Dissent.
  203. ^ "Захарченко заявил, что зауважал Правый сектор". Korrespondent.net (in Russian). 18 July 2015.
  204. ^ Cole, Brendan (5 April 2022). "Pro-Russian Fighter With Nazi Patches Gets Medal for Killing 'Nazis'". Newsweek. Retrieved 1 May 2022. Video shared by Storyful shows a soldier, named as Lieutenant Roman Vorobyov from the "Somalia" motorized rifle battalion, receiving the "St. George's Cross II" award while wearing far-right insignia.
  205. ^ Loh, Matthew (6 April 2022). "A soldier with neo-Nazi symbols on his arm was given a medal by a Russia-backed separatist republic for killing Ukrainian 'nationalists'". Business Insider. The head of the breakaway Donetsk People's Republic in Ukraine has been seen in a video awarding a medal to a fighter ... Published on April 3 through the Russia-backed republic's website, the footage also shows the fighter wearing symbols used by neo-Nazis. [...] the video posted on Pushilin's official website did not show Vorobyov receiving his medal
  206. ^ "Constitution of Donetsk People's Republic: Russian nationalism, clericalism and capitalism". Кампанія Солідарності з Україною. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  207. ^ "Constitution of Donetsk People's Republic: Russian nationalism, clericalism and capitalism". Нігіліст (in Ukrainian). 22 May 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  208. ^ a b "Путин подписал указы о признании ЛНР и ДНР". TASS (in Russian). 22 February 2022. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  209. ^ "Ukraine cuts N Korea ties over recognition of separatist regions". Al Jazeera. 13 July 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  210. ^ Wagdy, Lilian; Najem, Lina (29 June 2022). Evans, Catherine (ed.). "Syria recognizes independence, sovereignty of Donetsk, Luhansk -state news agency". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 July 2022. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  211. ^ McFall, Caitlin (16 June 2022). "Syria to become first to recognize Donetsk, Luhansk 'republics' in Ukraine in support of Russia's war". Fox News. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  212. ^ "South Ossetia Recognizes 'Luhansk People's Republic'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 19 June 2014. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  213. ^ "Abkhazia recognises Ukraine's Donetsk and Luhansk". OC Media. 26 February 2022. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  214. ^ "Ukraine Extends Donbas Special Status Law By One Year". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  215. ^ "Pro-Russian rebels officially labelled terrorists by Ukraine government". CBC News. 27 January 2015.
  216. ^ a b Maria Kiselyova; Pavel Polityuk (18 February 2017). Adrian Croft (ed.). "Putin orders Russia to recognize documents issued in rebel-held east Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  217. ^ "Putin Signs Decree Temporarily Recognizing Passports Issued By Separatists In Ukraine". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 18 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  218. ^ Light, Felix (15 February 2022). "Russian Parliament Backs Plan to Recognize Breakaway Ukrainian Regions". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 15 February 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  219. ^ Coynash, Halya (11 May 2014). "Four years of Kremlin's 'Donbas republics' and their far-right and left-wing friends". Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group. Retrieved 6 April 2022. politicians, usually from the far-right or extreme left, give when they appear for their all-expenses-paid visits, via Russia, to Donbas.
  220. ^ Sierra, Gustavo (14 June 2020). "Club Partizan, el campo de entrenamiento militar en Rusia para los neonazis del mundo (Club Partizan, the military training ground in Russia for the neo-Nazis of the world)". Infobae. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  221. ^ "Washington's Defunct Atomwaffen Division had Deep Ties to the Terrorist Org, Russia Imperialist Movement". Malcontent News. 6 August 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  222. ^ "MMP: Russian Imperial Movement". cisac.fsi.stanford.edu.
  223. ^ "Combat training for European neo-Nazis in Russia". Lansing Institute. 14 January 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  224. ^ Vorkapić, Mirko (14 October 2022). "V 'denacifikacijo' Ukrajine tudi ruski neonacisti" [Russian neo-Nazis are also involved in the 'denazification' of Ukraine]. 24ur.com.
  225. ^ Shekhovtsov, Anton (6 June 2014). "Polish fascists are joining with pro-Russian right-wing extremists". Anton Shekhovtsov's blog.
  226. ^ Shekhovtsov, Anton (11 June 2014). "Anton Shekhovtsov's blog: Italian fascists from Millennium ally with pro-Russian right-wing extremists". Anton Shekhovtsov's blog.
  227. ^ Shekhovtsov, Anton (27 August 2014). "Anton Shekhovtsov's blog: French Eurasianists join (pro-)Russian extremists in Eastern Ukraine". Anton Shekhovtsov's blog.
  228. ^ Šmíd, Tomáš & Šmídová, Alexandra. (2021). Anti-government Non-state Armed Actors in the Conflict in Eastern Ukraine. Czech Journal of International Relations, Volume 56, Issue 2. pp.51–52.
  229. ^ Bulfon, Floriana (5 April 2022). "Simboli nazisti sull'uniforme del combattente premiato dai filo-russi di Donetsk". la Repubblica (in Italian).
  230. ^ Vaux, Pierre (14 May 2015). "Marine Le Pen's Closest Advisor Comes Out of the Shadows in Donetsk". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  231. ^ "German neo-Nazi demonstrators with a Kremlin-backed militant cause". khpg.org. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  232. ^ "Itä-Ukrainassa Venäjän puolesta taistelleet suomalaiset kehuskelevat kokemuksillaan – muualla Euroopassa vierastaistelijoita on tuomittu rikoksista". Finnish Broadcasting Company. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  233. ^ "Wednesday's papers: Neo-nazi training, employment discrimination, fighting swans". Finnish Broadcasting Company. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  234. ^ "Finnish Neo-Nazis attend paramilitary trainings in Russia". European Jewish Congress. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  235. ^ "Suomen uusnatsit hankkivat nyt oppia Venäjältä: järjestön koulutuskeskus järjestää haulikko- ja pistooliammuntaa, "partisaanikursseja" ja kieltää kiroilun". Helsingin Sanomat. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  236. ^ "The curious case of Janus Putkonen. How propaganda abroad becomes a threat at home". Uacrisis.org. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  237. ^ "Analyysi: Itä-Ukrainan propagandisti Janus Putkonen lyö Putinin leiman Helsingin Convoy-protestiin – monologeissa talvisota sotketaan Venäjän uhkapuheisiin". Kaleva (in Finnish). Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  238. ^ Jackson, Patrick (1 September 2014). "Ukraine war pulls in foreign fighters". British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  239. ^ "Un grupo de españoles resucitan las Brigadas Internacionales y acuden a Ucrania a combatir" [A group of Spaniards resuscitate the International Brigades and go to Ukraine to fight] (in Spanish). Europapress. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  240. ^ Sokol, Sam (20 August 2015). "Israeli communist joins Ukrainian rebels to fight 'fascists and neo-Nazis'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  241. ^ Координационный центр помощи Новороссии [Coordinational Centre for the assistance of Novorossia] (in Russian). kcpn.info/. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  242. ^ Susan Witt-Stahl (17 September 2016). "Ucraina, un reportage sulla Brigata Fantasma". contropiano.org (in Italian).
  243. ^ Rubino, Monica (8 May 2017). "Ucraina, Forenza e "Banda Bassotti" in Donbass con la Carovana antifascista. Kiev li vuole processare per terrorismo". la Repubblica (in Italian).
  244. ^ Tsalov, Yordan (28 July 2020). "Andrej Hunko and the Party Borotba: Propaganda from the Kremlin to the Bundestag". Bellingcat.
  245. ^ a b c "Енріке Менендес: Чи є сенс у блокаді Донбасу?" [Enrique Menendez: Does it make sense to blockade Donbas?]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Russian). 6 June 2015. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  246. ^ The Central Bank With No Currency, No Interest Rates, But ATMs Archived 20 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Bloomberg News (16 16 September 2015)
  247. ^ Official: Moscow will return control over eastern border to Kiev after crisis is settled Archived 9 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Russian News Agency TASS (15 February 2016)
  248. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Russia aid convoy 'invades Ukraine'". BBC News. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  249. ^ a b c "Ukraine Oligarch Put on Spot as Pro-Russian Rebels Nibble at His Empire". The Moscow Times. 26 October 2014. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  250. ^ Ion Marandici & Alexandru Leșanu (2021) The Political Economy of the Post-Soviet De Facto States: A Paired Comparison of Transnistria and the Donetsk People's Republic, Problems of Post-Communism, 68:4, 339–351, doi:10.1080/10758216.2020.1785317 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  251. ^ a b Roth, Andrew (17 February 2022). "What is the background to the separatist attack in east Ukraine?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  252. ^ a b Donetsk Republic PM speaks in favour of economic cooperation with Russia Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Information Telegraph Agency of Russia (12 October 2014)
  253. ^ "Separatists cause economic slump in Donbas". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  254. ^ "Ukraine's intel reveals how much cash Moscow forwards to militants in May". uatoday.tv. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  255. ^ a b Russian gas for the Donbas: the games being played with Kyiv and Brussels Archived 4 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for Eastern Studies (25 February 2015)
  256. ^ "Russia, Ukraine Clash Over Politics, Gas". Voice of America. Reuters. 2 July 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  257. ^ "Ukraine not planning to supply gas to uncontrolled areas of Donbas in 2015/2016 heating season – energy minister". Interfax-Ukraine. 2 July 2015. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  258. ^ Ukraine closes airspace to all Russian planes Archived 23 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (25 November 2015)
  259. ^ a b c Kremlin-separatist area gets its own mobile operator Archived 6 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (5 June 2015)
    Kyivstar switches off mobile network in militant-controlled areas of Donetsk and Luhansk region Archived 22 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (5 February 2015)
  260. ^ "Mobile connection partially restored in war-torn east Ukraine". Yahoo! News. 19 January 2018. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  261. ^ Ukrainian energy industry: thorny road of reform Archived 10 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (10 January 2018)
  262. ^ "Less gas, more coal: Poland's contradictory approach to Russian energy imports". Notes From Poland. 28 November 2019. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  263. ^ The age of marauders Archived 3 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine, The Ukrainian Week (2 February 2020)
  264. ^ a b ""Интервью с Гордоном – просто фарс": Герой Донбасса рассказал о "работе на понты" Стрелкова-Гиркина". tsargrad.tv (in Russian). 2 June 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  265. ^ a b Kazanskiy, Denis (2020). "Соратник Стрелкова рассказал всю правду о преступлениях "ополчения" ДНР". YouTube. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  266. ^ Ukraine: growing despair among over three million civilians in a conflict zone – UN report Archived 20 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, United Nations (3 March 2016)
    Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine 16 November 2015 to 15 February 2016 (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 3 March 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  267. ^ "Eastern Donbas: Freedom in the World 2022 Country Report". Freedom House. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  268. ^ a b c d Almost 1,000 dead since east Ukraine truce – UN Archived 3 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (21 November 2014)
    Ukraine death toll rises to more than 4,300 despite ceasefire – U.N. Archived 16 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters (21 November 2014)
  269. ^ "7th Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine 15 November 2014" (PDF). OHCHR. 20 November 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  270. ^ Majority of human rights violations in Ukraine committed by militants – UN Archived 15 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (15 December 2014)
  271. ^ Bershidsky, Leonid (12 June 2015). "Ukraine's Neo-Nazis Won't Get U.S. Money". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  272. ^ Parfitt, Tom (11 August 2014). "Ukraine crisis: the neo-Nazi brigade fighting pro-Russian separatists". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  273. ^ "Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine 15 November 2014" (PDF). OHCHR. 15 November 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  274. ^ a b "Eastern Ukraine: Humanitarian disaster looms as food aid blocked" (Press release). Amnesty International. 24 December 2014. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  275. ^ a b "Human Rights Watch: Ukrainian forces are rocketing civilians Archived 20 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine". The Washington Post. 25 July 2014.
  276. ^ a b "Ukraine: Unguided Rockets Killing Civilians – Stop Use of Grads in Populated Areas". Human Rights Watch. 24 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  277. ^ a b "Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine: 1 December 2014 to 15 February 2015" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2 March 2015. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  278. ^ "Who killed Batman? Pro-Russian separatist's death blamed on Ukraine and other separatists". International Business Times. 4 January 2015. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  279. ^ "Surviving hell – testimonies of victims on places of illegal detention in Donbas". Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights. osce.org. 25 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  280. ^ Gosiewska, Małgorzata (2 March 2016). "Report: Russian War Crimes in Eastern Ukraine in 2014 (First published December 2015)" (PDF). donbasswarcrimes.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  281. ^ a b "Jews ordered to register in east Ukraine". USA Today. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014. Michael Salberg, director of the international affairs at the New York City-based Anti-Defamation League, said it's unclear if the leaflets were issued by the pro-Russian leadership or a splinter group operating within the pro-Russian camp.
  282. ^ Margalit, Michal. "Donetsk leaflet: Jews must register or face deportation". Ynet. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  283. ^ Mezzofiore, Gianluca (16 April 2014). "Donetsk Pro-Russians Order Jews to 'Register or be Deported' for Supporting Kiev Rule". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  284. ^ Nyhan, Brendan (24 April 2014). "The Downside of Registering Outrage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  285. ^ "Flier calling on Donetsk Jews to register now widely seen as fake". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  286. ^ "Relax Ukraine is Not Ordering Its Jews to Register". New Republic. Archived from the original on 10 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  287. ^ "Ukraine: authenticity of anti-Semitic leaflets under scrutiny in Donetsk". France 24. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  288. ^ "Ukraine Leaflets Calling for Jewish Registration 'Were Faked'". International Business Times. 19 April 2014. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  289. ^ Luhn, Alec. "Antisemitic flyer 'by Donetsk People's Republic' in Ukraine a hoax". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  290. ^ Vasovic, Aleksandar; MacDonald, Alastair (19 April 2014). "Ukraine rabbi seeks end to anti-Semitism row – in vain". Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  291. ^ Luhn, Alec (18 April 2014). "Antisemitic flyer 'by Donetsk People's Republic' in Ukraine a hoax". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  292. ^ Nemtsova, Anna (17 April 2014). "Jews in East Ukraine Are Being Threatened, But By Whom?". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  293. ^ РЕЛІГІЯ, ЦЕРКВА, СУСПІЛЬСТВО І ДЕРЖАВА: ДВА РОКИ ПІСЛЯ МАЙДАНУ (Religion, Church, Society and State: Two Years after Maidan) Archived 22 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 2016 report by Razumkov Center in collaboration with the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches. pp. 27–29.
  294. ^ Blair, David (18 June 2014). "Beaten and threatened: the 'Donetsk People's Republic' turns on city's priests". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  295. ^ a b Miletitch, Nicolas (3 June 2014). "Ukraine crisis deepens rift between Orthodox Churches". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  296. ^ Pistone, Luca (15 August 2015). "Paganos de Rodnovery también participan en el conflicto ucraniano" [Rodnovery Pagans are also involved in the Ukrainian conflict] (in Spanish). es-us.noticias.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015.
  297. ^ "Locked up in the Donbas A look at the mass arrests and torture of civilians in Donetsk and Lugansk" Archived 2 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Meduza, 7 March 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  298. ^ "Донецкий митрополит недоволен "законом ДНР" "О свободе совести"". 62.ua – Сайт города Донецка. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015.
  299. ^ "Ukrainian Roma: The government treats us like stepchildren". Romea.cz. 13 June 2014. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  300. ^ a b "Pro-Russian Separatists Loot, Assault Romani in Sloviansk". Ukrainian Policy. 19 April 2014. Archived from the original on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  301. ^ a b "Statement of Concern Regarding Attacks on gypsies in Ukraine". USOSCE. 9 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  302. ^ a b "Russia and Fascism: When the thief cries "Stop thief!"". Romea.cz. 30 April 2014. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  303. ^ "В Славянске снова устроили ромский погром" [Another pogrom against the gypsies occurred in Sloviansk]. Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 23 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  304. ^ Сепаратисты объяснили погромы ромов в Славянске [Separatists explained the gypsy pogroms in Sloviansk] (in Russian). Novosti Donetsk. 20 April 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  305. ^ Яценюк поручил привлекать к ответственности за распространение антисемитизма и ксенофобии [Yatsenyuk orders prosecutions of those spreading anti-Semitism and xenophobia] (in Russian). Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 19 April 2014. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  306. ^ "Ukraine News One: Donetsk gay club attacked by separatists (VIDEO)". Kyiv Post. 10 June 2014. Archived from the original on 10 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  307. ^ Gays in Donetsk face fear as Russian influence takes grip Archived 1 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (31 July 2015)
  308. ^ "Violation of LGBTI Rights in Crimea and Donbass: The Problem of Homophobia in Territories Beyond Ukraine's Control" (PDF). Center for Civil Liberties. 2016. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  309. ^ "Сепаратисты в Славянске объявили "охоту" на украиноязычных – СМИ" [Sloviansk separatists declared a "hunt" for people speaking the Ukrainian language]. Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 18 April 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  310. ^ a b Watson, Ivan; Formanek, Ingrid (24 July 2014). "Journalist working for CNN detained in Ukraine". CNN. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  311. ^ "Ukraine: Mounting evidence of war crimes and Russian involvement" (Press release). Amnesty International. 5 September 2014. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  312. ^ "Impunity reigns for abductions and ill-treatment by pro-Kyiv vigilantes in eastern Ukraine" (Press release). Amnesty International. 6 August 2014. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  313. ^ "Robbery, rape and murder: Life in occupied Ukraine becomes a nightmare". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.[better source needed]
  314. ^ "Ужасные кадры из пыточной террористов в Дружковке (ВИДЕО)". Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  315. ^ "Urgent Action: Imprisoned Journalist Must Be Released" (PDF) (Press release). Amnesty International. 21 July 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  316. ^ "OSCE Representative calls for immediate release of Donetsk journalist Stanislav Aseev one year after his illegal detention" (Press release). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 1 June 2018. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  317. ^ "The land of Stas". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 13 December 2018. Archived from the original on 13 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  318. ^ "EFJ calls again for immediate release of Donetsk journalist Stanislav Aseev". European Federation of Journalists. 21 August 2018. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  319. ^ "Украина: Блогер удерживается про-российскими сепаратистами" (in Russian). Human Rights Watch. 18 July 2017. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  320. ^ "STANISLAV ASEYEV'S DETENTION APPROACHES TWO-YEAR MARK AMID GLOBAL PLEAS FOR HIS RELEASE". PEN America. 31 May 2019. Archived from the original on 2 June 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  321. ^ "US at OSCE urges to release Stanislav Aseyev and other imprisoned Ukrainians". Ukrinform. 4 October 2019. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  322. ^ "For a Ukrainian Journalist, War Evokes Scars From Captivity". The New York Times. 8 April 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  323. ^ "Гиркин признался в убийстве трех украинцев". gordonua.com. 18 May 2020. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  324. ^ a b Sullivan, Helen (3 August 2023). "Russia 'systematically' forcing Ukrainians to accept citizenship, US report finds". the Guardian. Retrieved 3 August 2023.
  325. ^ Conflict Observatory Publication Portal Redirection. 25 May 2023 https://hub.conflictobservatory.org/portal/apps/sites/#/home/pages/passport-1. Retrieved 3 August 2023. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  326. ^ a b c d e f Losh, Jack (16 August 2015). "Rebel-held Ukraine overhauls education system as it aligns itself with Russia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 August 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  327. ^ "Self-proclaimed Donetsk republic introduces 'statehood lessons' at schools". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 8 April 2016. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  328. ^ "Russian Armed Forces take full control of Andreevka village". News.am. 30 November 2022. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  329. ^ Balmforth, Tom; Pruchnicka, Anna (15 September 2023). "Ukraine troops retake village south of Bakhmut, military says". Reuters. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  330. ^ Lukiv, Jaroslav (17 February 2024). "Avdiivka: Ukraine troops leaving embattled eastern town". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  331. ^ Walker, Shaun (17 February 2024). "Ukrainian forces withdraw from Avdiivka to avoid encirclement, army chief says". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  332. ^ "Avdiivka, Longtime Stronghold for Ukraine, Falls to Russians". New York Times. 17 February 2024. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  333. ^ Ilyushina, Mary (23 May 2023). "Russia controls Bakhmut, for now, but holding it will be difficult". The Washington Post.
  334. ^ "Putin congratulates Russia troops, Wagner for 'capturing Bakhmut'". Al Jazeera. 20 May 2023. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  335. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 21, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  336. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, December 27". The Institute for the Study of War. 27 December 2022.
  337. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, July 26". ISW. 27 July 2022.
  338. ^ a b c Mappes, Grace; Wolkov, Nicole; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Barros, George; Clark, Mason. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 11, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 12 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  339. ^ a b c Harward, Christina; Hird, Karolina; Bailey, Riley; Mappes, Grace; Evans, Angelica; Barros, George; Kagan, Frederick W. (18 January 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, January 18, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 19 January 2024. Russian sources, including the Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD), claimed that Russian forces captured Vesele (northeast of Bakhmut) on January 18 [...] Geolocated footage published on January 17 shows that Russian forces recently made a marginal gain in the residential area in northern Bohdanivka (northwest of Bakhmut).
  340. ^ "LPR Interior Ministry confirms preparations for advance on Slavyansk". TASS. 11 July 2022.
  341. ^ "Ukrainian forces regained Bohorodychne and likely moved forward in Donetsk Oblast". Euromaidan Press. 12 September 2022.
  342. ^ a b Khurshudyan, Isabelle; Hendrix, Steve; Lamothe, Dan; Rauhala, Emily; Stern, David L. (12 September 2022). "Ukraine extends battlefield gains as Kremlin reels from setback". The Washington Post. Kyiv, Ukraine.
  343. ^ "Hope and fear on Donetsk streets after Putin move". Reuters. 22 February 2022. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  344. ^ a b c Grynszpan, Emmanuel (4 May 2022). "War in Ukraine: Le Monde's reporter covering the Donbas answers readers' questions". Le Monde. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  345. ^ a b Harward, Christina; Wolkov, Nicole; Mappes, Grace; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Kagan, Frederick W. (15 January 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, January 15, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 16 January 2024. Geolocated footage published on January 15 shows that Russian forces advanced on the eastern outskirts of Heorhiivka (west of Donetsk City)
  346. ^ a b "Russia invades Ukraine". Reuters. 9 March 2022.
  347. ^ Bailey, Riley; Hird, Karolina; Wolkov, Nicole; Evans, Angelica; Barros, George; Kagan, Frederick W. (29 November 2023). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, November 29, 2023". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 30 November 2023. Retrieved 29 November 2023. The Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD) claimed that Russian forces captured Khromove (on the western outskirts of Bakhmut).
  348. ^ Wolkov, Nicole; Harward, Christina; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Bailey, Riley; Kagan, Frederick W. (30 December 2023). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, December 30, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 31 December 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  349. ^ "Institute for the Study of War".
  350. ^ [1]
  351. ^ a b c d Balachuk, Iryna (10 March 2022). "За добу російські війська на Донбасі вбили 11 людей, серед них – дитина" [During the day, Russian troops in the Donbas killed 11 people – among them, a child]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  352. ^ "Five civilians injured in Russia's shelling of Kostiantynivka". www.ukrinform.net. 17 September 2022.
  353. ^ "Institute for the Study of War". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  354. ^ "Russians kill four civilians in Krasnohorivka". Ukrainska Pravda. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  355. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 17, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. 17 March 2023.
  356. ^ a b c d Bailey, Riley; Wolkov, Nicole; Harward, Christina; Mappes, Grace; Kagan, Frederick W. (24 February 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, February 24, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  357. ^ a b Harding, Luke (1 October 2022). "Ukrainian forces perform victory dance after liberating eastern city of Lyman". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  358. ^ a b "Ukraine troops say they take key town, Putin ally mulls possible nuclear response". Reuters. 1 October 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  359. ^ Hird, Karolina; Clark, Mason; Barros, George (26 May 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 26". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  360. ^ "Russia squeezes Ukrainian strongholds in eastern Donbas region". AP NEWS. 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  361. ^ "Russia claims seizure of key Ukrainian transport hub in boost for Putin". The Daily Telegraph. 28 May 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  362. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 12". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  363. ^ Grove, Thomas (2 October 2022). "Ukraine Gains Full Control of Lyman, Days After Putin Claimed Russia Rules There". The Wall Street Journal. Kyiv, Ukraine.
  364. ^ Bailey, Riley; Hird, Karolina; Wolkov, Nicole; Clark, Mason. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 14, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  365. ^ a b "Ukraine war: Russia captures key town near Donetsk". BBC. 26 December 2023. Archived from the original on 26 December 2023. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  366. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 24". ISW. 24 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  367. ^ Kagan, Frederick W.; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina (23 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 23". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  368. ^ "Ukraine Hits Major Russian Warship, but Loses Ground in the East". The New York Times. 26 December 2023.
  369. ^ a b Stashevskyi, Ciaran McQuillan and Oleksandr (17 May 2022). "Longest battle ends as Ukrainian troops evacuated from Mariupol steel mill". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  370. ^ "Russia-Ukraine war: US secretary of state Blinken tells Zelenskiy war is at 'pivotal moment' – as it happened". The Guardian. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  371. ^ "В Светлодарске появится "администрация ДНР"" ["DPR administration" will appear in Svitlodarsk]. Kochegarka (in Russian). Chasiv Yar. 26 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  372. ^ Zinets, Natalia (27 July 2022). "Russian forces capture Ukraine's second biggest power plant, Ukraine says". Reuters. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  373. ^ "Ukraine war: Ukrainians say they have hit an ammunitions site used by the Russians". Sky News. 10 April 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  374. ^ a b c d Wolkov, Nicole; Harward, Christina; Mappes, Grace; Hird, Karolina; Barros, George; Kagan, Fredrick W. (6 February 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, February 6, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 7 February 2024. Geolocated footage published on February 3 confirms that Russian forces captured Vesele (northwest of Bakhmut). [...] Russian milbloggers claimed that Russian forces advanced up to the eastern outskirts of Novomykhailivka - claims consistent with available geolocated evidence.
  375. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina; Clark, Mason (4 May 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 4". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  376. ^ WION Video Team (13 March 2022). "Russia releases village of Novotroitske, 'Z' painted on military convoy vehicles". WION. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  377. ^ Redattore Sociale (6 May 2022). "Festa della mamma, due madri ucraine: grazie Italia, i nostri figli sono salvi". Redattore Sociale (in Italian). Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  378. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 1". Institute for the Study of War. 1 May 2022.
  379. ^ a b "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, November 14". Institute for the Study of War. 14 November 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  380. ^ a b "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 19". Institute for the Study of War. 19 August 2022. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  381. ^ "In Artemivsk, DPR supporters captured city council and obstructed journalists". imi.org.ua. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  382. ^ "Ukraine says forces retake two more rebel-held cities". BBC News. 6 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  383. ^ "Latest Developments in Ukraine: Feb. 17". VOA. 17 February 2023. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  384. ^ Evans, Angelica; Harward, Christina; Wolkov, Nicole; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Kagan, Frederick W. (28 January 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, January 28, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 30 January 2024. Geolocated footage published on January 28 indicates that Russian forces advanced north of Stepove (northwest of Avdiivka) and in southeastern Pervomaiske (southwest of Avdiivka).
  385. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 31". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  386. ^ a b Stepanenko, Kateryna; Harward, Christina; Mappes, Grace; Evans, Angelica; Barros, George; Soltani, Amin; Braverman, Alexandra; Carter, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Kitaneh; Kagan, Frederick W. (21 February 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, February 21, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  387. ^ Polityuk, Pavel; Hunder, Max (25 May 2022). "Russian assault targets key towns in eastern Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  388. ^ a b Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Bergeron, Thomas. "Interactive Map: Russia's Invasion of Ukraine". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  389. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Mappes, Grace; Wolkov, Nicole; Barros, George; Kagan, Frederick W. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 26, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  390. ^ "Russians advance near Lyman and suffer devastating losses - Head of Donetsk Regional Military Administration". news.yahoo.com. 12 May 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  391. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna (26 September 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 26". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  392. ^ "For Russia's Putin, military and diplomatic pressures mount". AP. 19 September 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  393. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina; Kagan, Frederick W.; Barros, George (25 September 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 25". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  394. ^ a b c Bailey, Riley; Harward, Christina; Hird, Karolina; Mappes, Grace; Kagan, Frederick W. (27 February 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, February 27, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  395. ^ Hird, Karolina; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Mappes, Grace; Wolkov, Nicole; Kagan, Frederick W. (26 February 2024). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, February 26, 2024". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  396. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina; Kagan, Frederick W.; Barros, George (25 May 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 25". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  397. ^ "Ukraine confirms that Russia has taken control of disputed town of Soledar". MSN. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  398. ^ a b Evans, Angelica; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Wolkov, Nicole; Bailey, Riley; Barros, George; Kagan, Frederick W. (27 December 2023). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, December 27, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023. Geolocated footage published on December 27 indicates that Russian forces advanced closer to the eastern outskirts of Spirne (northeast of Bakhmut). [...] Geolocated footage published on December 26 shows that Russian forces advanced in the western part of Krynky on the east bank and north of Bilohrudove (9.5km southwest of Kherson City).
  399. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 17". Institute for the Study of War. 17 August 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022. Russian troops also reportedly conducted a ground attack near Spirne, about 20km southeast of Siversk.
  400. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Lawlor, Katherine; Mappes, Grace; Barros, George; Kagan, Frederick W. (15 September 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 15". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 16 September 2022. Retrieved 22 November 2023. Both Ukrainian and Russian official sources confirmed fighting in Spirne (east of Siversk)
  401. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 21, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. 21 June 2023. Retrieved 21 November 2023. Geolocated combat footage posted on June 20 shows Ukrainian forces repelling a Russian armored assault east of Spirne [...] ISW geolocated footage published on June 21 that shows continued Ukrainian control of Pyatykhatky.
  402. ^ Karolina Hird; Riley Bailey; Grace Mappes; Angelica Evans; Christina Harward; Frederick W. Kagan (27 July 2023). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, July 27, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 28 July 2023. Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky posted footage on July 27 showing that Ukrainian forces liberated Staromayorske (9km south of Velyka Novosilka) in western Donetsk Oblast following heavy fighting in the area.
  403. ^ Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (13 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 13". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  404. ^ Hird, Karolina; Mappes, Grace; Harward, Christina; Evans, Angelica; Kagan, Frederick W. (11 November 2023). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, November 11, 2023". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 12 November 2023. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  405. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina; Clark, Mason; Barros, George (8 June 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 8". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  406. ^ Ochman, Oleksandra; Kesaiev, Yulia; Krever, Mick; Smith, Karen (14 June 2022). "Mayor of captured Ukrainian town switches sides". CNN. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  407. ^ "Ukraine's National Guard confirms recapture of Sviatohirsk". Ukrinform. 12 September 2022.
  408. ^ a b Novikov, Sergey (24 May 2022). "Російські війська увійшли до Світлодарська, - місцева ВГА" [Russian troops entered Svitlodarsk - local CMA]. РБК-Україна (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  409. ^ a b "Російські загарбники зайняли Світлодарськ, що у Бахмутському районі, — очільник ВЦА" [Russian invaders occupied Svitlodarsk in the Bakhmut area — the head of the CMA]. Вільне Радіо (in Ukrainian). 24 May 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  410. ^ a b c d Batashvili, David (3 October 2022). "The Battle of Ukraine, Special Issue 76, from 30 September, 13:00 to 3 October, 15:00 Kyiv Time". Rondeli Foundation. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  411. ^ "Institute for the Study of War".
  412. ^ "У Міноборони підтвердили звільнення Урожайного (карта)". Зеркало недели | Дзеркало тижня | Mirror Weekly. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  413. ^ "Institute for the Study of War".