Dongzhi (solar term)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Dongzhi festival is a traditional holiday of China that has a long history and specific customs. Dongzhi means the arrival of winter. The history of Dongzhi was arrived since the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) and it became important until Tang and Song Dynasty, when they decided to officially made a day to worship their god and ancestors. In the present days, in some regions of China, people still gather around to eat a special meal or to visit their ancestral tombs.

Dongzhi
Chinese name
Chinese冬至
Literal meaningwinter's extreme
(i.e. winter solstice)
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetđông chí
Chữ Hán冬至
Korean name
Hangul동지
Hanja冬至
Japanese name
Kanji冬至
Hiraganaとうじ

Korea[edit]

Solar term
  Longitude     Term     Calendar
  Spring
  315°   Lichun    4 – 5 February
  330°   Yushui   18–19 February
  345°   Jingzhe    5 – 6 March
  0°   Chunfen   20–21 March
  15°   Qingming    4 – 5 April
  30°   Guyu   20–21 April
  Summer
  45°   Lixia    5 – 6 May
  60°   Xiaoman   21–22 May
  75°   Mangzhong    5 – 6 June
  90°   Xiazhi   21–22 June
  105°   Xiaoshu    7 – 8 July
  120°   Dashu   22–23 July
  Autumn
  135°   Liqiu    7 – 8 August
  150°   Chushu   23–24 August
  165°   Bailu    7 – 8 September
  180°   Qiufen   23–24 September
  195°   Hanlu    8 – 9 October
  210°   Shuangjiang     23–24 October
  Winter
  225°   Lidong    7 – 8 November
  240°   Xiaoxue   22–23 November
  255°   Daxue    7 – 8 December
  270°   Dongzhi   21–22 December
  285°   Xiaohan    5 – 6 January
  300°   Dahan   20–21 January

In Korea, the winter solstice is also called the "Small Seol," and there is a custom of celebrating the day. People make porridge with red beans and round rice cakes(saealsim) with sticky rice. In the past, red bean porridge soup was sprayed on walls or doors because it was said to ward off bad ghosts. In addition, there was a custom in the early days of the Goryeo and Joseon Period in which people in financial difficulty settled all their debts and enjoyed the day.[1]

China[edit]

Sunlight directed through the 17 arches of Seventeen Arch Bridge, Summer Palace, Beijing around winter solstice

The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms.[2] Dōngzhì, Tōji, Dongji, Tunji (in Okinawan), or Đông chí (in Vietnamese) is the 22nd solar term, and marks the winter solstice. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 270° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 285°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 270°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 21 December (22 December East Asia time) and ends around 5 January.

Along with equinoxes, solstices (traditional Chinese: 至點; simplified Chinese: 至日; "extreme day") mark the middle of Traditional Chinese calendar seasons. Thus, in "冬至", the Chinese character "" means "extreme", which implies "solstices", and therefore the term for the winter solstice directly signifies the summit of winter, as "midwinter" is used in English.

In China, Dongzhi was originally celebrated as an end-of-harvest festival. Today, it is observed with a family reunion over the long night, when pink and white tangyuan are eaten in southern China in sweet broth to symbolise family unity and prosperity. Whereas in Northern China, the traditional Dongzhi food would be the jiaozi.

Japan[edit]

In Japan, Toshiba is also one of the 24 solar terms. On this day, it is customary to drink grapefruit hot water and eat pumpkin in certain places. The とうじ‐カボチャ【冬至カボチャ】.The habit of eating pumpkin during the winter solstice is because it makes sense to provide products for the festival during the winter when vegetables are lacking. とうじ‐ばい【冬至梅】is a variety of plum. White flowers begin to bloom around the winter solstice. とうじ It is still a surname in Japan and has a long history.

Pentads[edit]

  • 蚯蚓結, 'Earthworms form knots', referring to the hibernation of earthworms.
  • 麋角解, 'Deer shed their antlers'
  • 水泉動, 'Spring water moves'

Date and time[edit]

Date and Time (UTC)
year begin end
辛巳 2001-12-21 19:21 2002-01-05 12:43
壬午 2002-12-22 01:14 2003-01-05 18:27
癸未 2003-12-22 07:03 2004-01-06 00:18
甲申 2004-12-21 12:41 2005-01-05 06:03
乙酉 2005-12-21 18:34 2006-01-05 11:46
丙戌 2006-12-22 00:22 2007-01-05 17:40
丁亥 2007-12-22 06:07 2008-01-05 23:24
戊子 2008-12-21 12:03 2009-01-05 05:14
己丑 2009-12-21 17:46 2010-01-05 11:08
庚寅 2010-12-21 23:38 2011-01-05 16:54
辛卯 2011-12-22 05:30 2012-01-05 22:43
壬辰 2012-12-21 11:11 2013-01-05 04:33
癸巳 2013-12-21 17:11 2014-01-05 10:24
甲午 2014-12-21 23:03 2015-01-05 16:20
乙未 2015-12-22 04:45 2016-01-05 22:09
丙申 2016-12-21 10:43 2017-01-05 03:54
丁酉 2017-12-21 16:29 2018-01-05 09:47
戊戌 2018-12-21 22:23 2019-01-05 15:41
己亥 2019-12-22 04:17 2020-01-05 21:31
庚子 2020-12-21 10:01 2021-01-05 03:22
Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "동지". terms.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  2. ^ Zhang, Peiyu; Hunag, Hongfeng( (1994). "The Twenty-four Solar Terms of the Chinese Calendar and the Calculation for Them". Purple Mountain Observatory.


Preceded by
Daxue (大雪)
Solar term (節氣) Succeeded by
Xiaohan (小寒)