Doom (franchise)

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Doom
Doom – Game’s logo.svg
Created by
Original workDoom (1993)
Owned byId Software
(ZeniMax Media)
(Microsoft)
Print publications
Novel(s)Novel Series
ComicsDoom (1996)
Films and television
Film(s)Doom (2005)
Doom: Annihilation (2019)
Games
TraditionalDoom: The Boardgame (2004)
Video game(s)List of video games

Doom (stylized as DooM, and later DOOM) is a video game series and media franchise created by John Carmack, John Romero, Adrian Carmack, Kevin Cloud, and Tom Hall.[1] The series focuses on the exploits of an unnamed space marine operating under the auspices of the Union Aerospace Corporation (UAC), who fights hordes of demons and the undead.

Doom is considered one of the pioneering first-person shooter games, introducing to IBM-compatible computers features such as 3D graphics, third-dimension spatiality, networked multiplayer gameplay, and support for player-created modifications with the Doom WAD format. Since its debut in 1993, over 10 million copies of games in the Doom series have been sold; the series has spawned numerous sequels, novels, comic books, board games, and film adaptations.

Games[edit]

Main series[edit]

Title Details

Original release date:
  • NA: December 10, 1993
  • EU: December 1993
Release years by system:
Notes:
  • Originally developed by id Software and published by GT Interactive Software.
  • On April 30, 1995, an updated version of the game, The Ultimate Doom, was released; it included a new fourth episode, "Thy Flesh Consumed", in addition to the original three episodes.
  • On December 23, 1997, John Carmack released the source code of Doom on MS-DOS under a proprietary Doom Source License.
  • On October 3, 1999, John Carmack relicensed the source code of Doom on MS-DOS to GNU GPL-2.0-or-later. Since then the list of Doom ports has grown from game consoles and operating systems that never saw an official release (including some pre-Android and pre-iOS early smart phones), to unusual devices such as oscilloscopes and other embedded systems.
  • On November 3, 2009, John Carmack released the source code of Doom on iOS under GNU GPL-2.0-or-later.
  • On May 22, 2019, John Romero released an unofficial 5th episode titled "Sigil" to commemorate the game's 25th anniversary.
  • On July 14, 2020, Randal Linden released the source code of Doom on SNES under GNU GPL-3.0-or-later.[2]



Original release date:
  • WW: October 10, 1994
Release years by system:
  • 1994 – MS-DOS
  • 1995 – Mac OS
  • 2002 – Game Boy Advance
  • 2010 – Xbox 360 (original Activision release)
  • 2012 – Xbox 360 (Bethesda re-release)
  • 2019 – Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, iOS, Android
Notes:
  • Originally developed by id Software and published by GT Interactive Software.
  • On December 26, 1995, an expansion pack, Master Levels for Doom II, was released; it included 21 additional levels.
  • On May 26, 2010, an expansion pack, Doom II: No Rest for the Living, was released for the Xbox 360 release of the game, developed by Nerve Software.



Original release date:
  • NA: June 17, 1996
  • EU: 1996
Release years by system:
Notes:
  • Developed by TeamTNT and published originally by id Software.
  • Final Doom is a compilation of two standalone Doom II modifications, TNT: Evilution and The Plutonia Experiment, which include full sets of new levels (both of them use the same level structure as Doom II with 30 regular levels and two secret levels), new graphics and textures, new music (for TNT: Evilution), and new text interlude screens in addition to most of the resources from Doom II and some from Doom.



Original release dates:
  • NA: March 31, 1997
  • PAL: December 2, 1997
Release years by system:
  • 1997 – Nintendo 64
  • 2020 – Microsoft Windows, Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, Stadia, Xbox One (Bethesda re-release)
Notes:
  • Originally developed and published by Midway Games.
  • The 2020 port is higher-resolution than the original, and includes a new multi-level sequel chapter.[4]



Original release dates:
  • NA: August 3, 2004
  • EU: August 13, 2004
Release years by system:
Notes:
  • Originally developed by id Software and published by Activision.
  • The Xbox version contains the full versions of The Ultimate Doom and Doom II, but they are only available in the limited collector's edition.
  • On November 22, 2011, id Software released the source code under GNU GPL-3.0-or-later.



Original release dates:
  • NA: April 3, 2005
  • EU: April 8, 2005
Release years by system:
2005 – Microsoft Windows, Linux, Xbox
Notes:
  • Developed by Nerve Software and published by Activision.
  • Expansion pack for Doom 3, which requires Doom 3 to play on Microsoft Windows.
  • The Xbox version does not require Doom 3 to play and also contains the full versions of The Ultimate Doom, Doom II, and Master Levels for Doom II.



Original release dates:
  • NA: October 16, 2012
  • AU: October 18, 2012
  • EU: October 19, 2012
Release years by system:
Notes:
  • Originally developed by id Software and published by Bethesda Softworks.
  • HD remasters of Doom 3 and its expansion Resurrection of Evil. A new expansion pack is also included in the game titled The Lost Mission.
  • The game also includes the full versions of The Ultimate Doom and Doom II, as well as the No Rest for the Living expansion pack by Nerve Software.
  • On November 26, 2012, id Software released the source code under GNU GPL-3.0-or-later.



Original release date:
  • WW: May 13, 2016
Release years by system:
  • 2016 – Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One
  • 2017 – Nintendo Switch
  • 2020 – Stadia
Notes:
  • Developed by id Software and published by Bethesda Softworks.
  • Multiplayer co-developed with Certain Affinity.
  • SnapMap co-developed with Escalation Studios.



Original release date:
  • WW: March 20, 2020
Release years by system:
2020 – Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch, Stadia
Notes:
  • Developed by id Software and published by Bethesda Softworks.
  • Sequel to the 2016 reboot.


Spin-offs[edit]

Title Details

Original release date:
  • WW: September 13, 2005
Release years by system:
2005 – mobile
Notes:



Original release date:
  • WW: June 26, 2009
Release years by system:
2009 – iOS
Notes:
  • Developed by Escalation Studios and published by id Software.
  • Set in parallel to Doom 3.



Original release date:
  • WW: November 23, 2009
Release years by system:
Notes:
  • Developed and published by id Software.



Original release date:
  • WW: December 1, 2017
Release years by system:
2017 – Windows Mixed Reality, HTC Vive, PS VR
Notes:
  • Developed by id Software and published by Bethesda Softworks.
  • Virtual-reality game, set during the events of Doom (2016).


Common elements[edit]

The Doom video games consist of first-person shooters in which the player controls an unnamed space marine commonly referred to as Doomguy by fans (in the 2016 Doom game and Doom Eternal the protagonist is called "Doom Slayer" or just "Slayer"). The player has to battle the forces of Hell, consisting of demons and the undead. In the games, the player's character will often go back and forth through hell. Doom II: Hell on Earth follows after the events in Doom, the player once again assumes the role of the unnamed space marine. After returning from Hell, the player finds that Earth has also been invaded by the demons, who have killed billions of people.[5]

Development and history[edit]

Release timeline
Main series in bold
1993Doom
1994Doom II: Hell on Earth
1995Master Levels for Doom II
The Ultimate Doom
1996Final Doom
1997Doom 64
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004Doom 3
2005Doom 3: Resurrection of Evil
Doom RPG
2006
2007
2008
2009Doom Resurrection
Doom II RPG
2010Doom II: No Rest for the Living
2011
2012Doom 3: BFG Edition
2013
2014
2015
2016Doom
2017Doom VFR
2018
2019
2020Doom Eternal

The development of the original Doom started in 1992, when John Carmack developed a new game engine, the Doom engine, while the rest of the id Software team finished the Wolfenstein 3D prequel, Spear of Destiny. The game launched in an episodic format in 1993- with the first episode available as shareware and two more episodes available by mail order. The title proved extremely popular, with the full version of the game selling one million copies. The term "Doom clone" became the name for new genre now known as first person shooters for several years.[6] Doom II: Hell on Earth was released in 1994, a technically similar title exclusively released in a commercial format. This was followed by two other official releases based on its version of the Doom engine: Master Levels for Doom II in 1995, and Final Doom in 1996. The latter was partially developed by fan group TeamTNT. Under the supervision of id Software, Midway Games released Doom 64 in 1997.[7]

Doom 3 was announced in 2000 and launched in 2004, the first Doom title in seven years. A reboot to the original Doom, it used new graphics technology. Doom 3 was hyped to provide as large a leap in realism and interactivity as the original game and helped renew interest in the franchise. Doom 3 had its own expansion pack released in 2005, titled Doom 3: Resurrection of Evil.

After the Doom 4 project development was scrapped in 2013, id Software's Tim Willits said that the next game in the Doom series was still the team's focus, but it has not been confirmed to be titled Doom 4.[8] It was later renamed to simply Doom in 2014. The game became a second reboot of the series, rather than a continuation or origin story of earlier games and was released in 2016.[9]

A sequel to the 2016 reboot, Doom Eternal, was released in 2020. An expansion of the game, The Ancient Gods, was released in two parts, one in October 2020 and the other in March 2021.

Other media[edit]

Novels[edit]

A set of four novels based on Doom were written by Dafydd ab Hugh and Brad Linaweaver. The books, listed in order, are titled Knee Deep in the Dead, Hell on Earth, Infernal Sky and Endgame. All were published between June 1995 and January 1996 by Pocket Books. The unnamed Marine is called "Flynn Taggart" or "Fly" in the novels. The first two books feature recognizable locations and situations from the first two games.

In 2008, a new series of Doom novels by Matthew J. Costello, an author who had worked on the story and scripts for Doom 3 and Resurrection of Evil, were published. The series of books aim to novelize the story of Doom 3, with the first installment, Worlds on Fire, published on February 26, 2008.[10] The second book in the series, Maelstrom, was released in March 2009.[11]

Comic book[edit]

A one-shot comic book written by Steve Behling and Michael Stewart with art by Tom Grindberg was released in May 1996 by Marvel Comics as a giveaway for a video game convention.

Tabletop games[edit]

In 2004, a board game designed by Kevin Wilson and published by Fantasy Flight Games titled Doom: The Boardgame was released.[12]

In 2020, Critical Role published a fifth edition Dungeons & Dragons module entitled Doom Eternal: Assault on Amaros Station. The game was written by Christopher Lockey and Matthew Mercer, and received a digital release via the Critical Role store on December 16, 2020.[13][14]

Films[edit]

Doom (2005)[edit]

In 2005, Universal Pictures released the first live-action film adaptation, titled Doom, which starred Karl Urban and Dwayne Johnson.

Doom: Annihilation (2019)[edit]

In 2019, Universal released a second live-action film adaptation direct-to-video, titled Doom: Annihilation starring Amy Manson.

Reception[edit]

Aggregate review scores
As of January 21, 2021.
Game GameRankings Metacritic
Doom (1993) (PC) 86.67%[15]
(PS1) 84.00%[16]
(iOS) 82.86%[17]
(X360) 80.16%[18]
(32X) 80.00%[19]
(GBA) 79.87%[20]
(JAG) 78.75%[21]
(SNES) 54.05%[22]
(SAT) 47.00%[23]
(iOS) 84[24]
(X360) 82[25]
(GBA) 81[26]
Doom II: Hell on Earth (PC) 95.00%[27]
(X360) 77.36%[28]
(GBA) 76.64%[29]
(PC) 83[30]
(X360) 77[31]
(GBA) 77[32]
Final Doom (PS1) 80.71%[33]
(MAC) 60.00%[34]
(PC) 56.00%[35]
Doom 64 (N64) 73.47%[36] (XONE) 77[37]
(PS4) 75[38]
(Switch) 77[39]
Doom 3 (Xbox) 87.63%[40]
(PC) 86.63%[41]
(Xbox) 88[42]
(PC) 87[43]
Doom 3: Resurrection of Evil (PC) 79.52%[44]
(Xbox) 78.02%[45]
(PC) 78[46]
(Xbox) 77[47]
Doom RPG (MOBI) 87.45%[48]
Doom Resurrection (iOS) 86.43%[49] (iOS) 79[50]
Doom II RPG (MOBI) 80.00%[51]
(iOS) 79.00%[52]
(iOS) 80[53]
Doom 3: BFG Edition (PS3) 68.00%[54]
(X360) 66.63%[55]
(PC) 51.67%[56]
(PS3) 67[57]
(X360) 67[58]
(PC) 59[59]
Doom (2016) (XONE) 89.04%[60]
(PS4) 85.82%[61]
(PC) 85.38%[62]
(XONE) 87[63]
(PS4) 85[64]
(PC) 85[65]
(Switch) 79[66]
Doom Eternal (XONE) 88[67]
(PS4) 87[68]
(PC) 88[69]
(Switch) 81[70]

In 1996, Next Generation ranked the series as the 19th top game of all time, for how "despite the hundreds of copycat titles, no one has ever been able to equal id's original, pulsing classic."[71] In 1999, Next Generation listed the Doom series as number 25 on their "Top 50 Games of All Time," commenting that, "despite the graphic advances since Doom was released, the pixilated Barons of Hell and Cyber Demons still rank as some of the scariest things that can grace your screen."[72]

The series' unnamed protagonist, a marine, has had a mostly positive reception. In 2009, GameDaily included "the Marine" on its list of "ten game heroes who fail at the simple stuff" for his inability to look up and down in the original series.[73] UGO Networks ranked him fourth on its 2012 list of best silent protagonists in video games, noting his courage to continue in silence even when he faces Hell's army.[74] In 2013, Complex ranked Doomguy at number 16 on its list of the greatest soldiers in video games for being "the original video game space marine" and "one of the classic silent protagonists."[75] Both CraveOnline and VGRC ranked him the fifth most "badass" male character in the video game's history.[76][77]

Sales[edit]

The original Doom sold 2-3 million physical copies[78] and 1.15 million shareware copies[79] from its 1993 release up through 1999. Doom II sold 1.55 million copies of all types in the United States during the same period,[79] with about a quarter of that number also sold in Europe,[80] a total of some 5-6 million sales for the original duology. Doom 3 sold 3.5 million copies along with many copies of the expansion pack Resurrection of Evil from its 2004 release up through 2007, making it the most successful game in the series at that point.[81] The sales of Doom 64 were not disclosed.

The 2016 reboot sold over 2 million copies on the PC alone from its May 2016 release up to July 2017.[82]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "We Play Doom with John Romero". IGN. Ziff Davis. December 10, 2013. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  2. ^ "RandalLinden/DOOM-FX". May 17, 2021 – via GitHub.
  3. ^ Wales, Matt (December 10, 2019). "Bethesda's Doom 1 & 2 console ports adding Final Doom, Sigil for free".
  4. ^ "Doom Eternal Deluxe Edition – What's included". Fanatical.com. March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  5. ^ Transcripts from printed manuals by Ledmeister. "DOOMTEXT.HTM: Storylines for Doom, Doom II, Final Doom, Doom 64". Retrieved June 25, 2011.
  6. ^ "A Brief History of Doom". Prima Games.
  7. ^ IGN staff (November 11, 1996). "Doom 64 News". IGN. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  8. ^ "id Software and Bethesda's Cancelled 'Doom 4' Just Wasn't 'Doom' Enough". Multiplayerblog.mtv.com. August 5, 2013. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
  9. ^ Griffin McElroy (July 17, 2014). "The new Doom game is just titled 'Doom,' runs on id Tech 6, and more details". Polygon. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  10. ^ "Doom 3: Worlds on Fire". Simon & Schuster. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
  11. ^ "Doom 3: Maestrom". Simon & Schuster. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
  12. ^ "Doom". Fantasy Flight Games. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
  13. ^ "DOOM Eternal: Assault on Armaros Station". Critical Role.
  14. ^ "Log In or Sign Up to View". www.facebook.com.
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  71. ^ Next Generation 21 (September 1996), p.64.
  72. ^ "Top 50 Games of All Time". Next Generation. No. 50. Imagine Media. February 1999. p. 77.
  73. ^ "Character Flaws: Ten Game Heroes Who Fail at the Simple Stuff Gallery by GameDail". April 25, 2009. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
  74. ^ Basile, Sal (March 15, 2012). "Best Silent Protagonists In Video Games". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
  75. ^ Chad Hunter, Michael Rougeau, The 50 Greatest Soldiers In Video Games, Complex.com, May 25, 2013.
  76. ^ "Top 10 Biggest Gaming Bad Asses". CraveOnline. October 17, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  77. ^ McCabe, Sean (June 17, 2010). "The Top 10 Male Badasses in Gaming". VGRC. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  78. ^ Armitage, Grenville; Claypool, Mark; Branch, Philip (2006). Networking and Online Games: Understanding and Engineering Multiplayer Internet Games. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. p. 14. ISBN 0470030461. Archived from the original on February 21, 2017.
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  80. ^ Kushner, David (2003). Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created An Empire And Transformed Pop Culture. Random House. 182, 210. ISBN 0-375-50524-5.
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