Door County, Wisconsin

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Door County, Wisconsin
DoorCountyWisconsinCourthouse.jpg
Door County Government Center
Map of Wisconsin highlighting Door County
Location within the U.S. state of Wisconsin
Map of the United States highlighting Wisconsin
Wisconsin's location within the U.S.
Founded1861
Named forDoor Peninsula
SeatSturgeon Bay
Largest citySturgeon Bay
Area
 • Total2,370 sq mi (6,138 km2)
 • Land482 sq mi (1,248 km2)
 • Water1,888 sq mi (4,890 km2), 80%
Population
 • (2010)27,785
 • Density58/sq mi (22/km2)
Congressional district8th
Time zoneCentral: UTC−6/−5
Websitewww.co.door.wi.gov

Door County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,785.[1] Its county seat is Sturgeon Bay.[2]

The county was created in 1851 and organized in 1861.[3] It is named after the strait between the Door Peninsula and Washington Island. The dangerous passage, known as Death's Door, is now scattered with shipwrecks, and was known to early French explorers and local Native Americans.

Door County is a popular vacation and tourist destination, dominated by Illinois residents.[4]

History[edit]

The Door County peninsula has been inhabited for about 11,000 years.[5] Artifacts from an ancient village site at Nicolet Bay Beach have been dated to about 400 BC. This site was occupied by various cultures until about 1300 AD.[6]

Door County's name came from Porte des Morts, anglicized as "Death's Door," or the passage between the tip of the Door County Peninsula and Washington Island.[7] It is a common misconception that the name "Death's Door," or "Porte des Morts", arose from the number of shipwrecks associated with the passage. It was instead the result of Native American tales, heard by early French explorers and greatly embellished by Hjalmar Holand that related to a failed raid by the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) tribe to capture Washington Island from the rival Pottawatomie tribe in the early 1600s.[8]

Prior to and during the 19th century, various groups of Native Americans occupied the area that would become Door County and its islands. 17th century French explorers made contact with various tribes, including Potawatomi living in the Door Peninsula. For example, in 1679, the party led by La Salle purchased food from a village of Potawatomi in what is now Robert La Salle County Park.[9] By the end of the French rule over the area in 1763, the Potawatomi had begun a move to the Detroit area, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin. Later, some Potawatomi moved back from the lower peninsula of Michigan to northern Wisconsin. Some, but not all Potawatomi later left northern Wisconsin and settled into northern Indiana and central Illinois.[10] In 1815, Captain Talbot Chambers died fighting Blackhawk Indians on Chambers Island; the island was named for him in 1816.[11]

Potawatomi Chief Simon Onanguisse Kahquados, 1919

The Menominee ceded their claim to the Door Peninsula to the United States in the 1836 Treaty of the Cedars following years of negotiations with the Ho-Chunk and the United States government over how to accommodate the incoming populations of Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, and Brothertown peoples who had been removed from New York.[12] As a result of this treaty, settlers could now purchase land, although many fishermen chose to live as squatters anyway. At the same time, the more decentralized Potawatomi were divested of their land without compensation. Many emigrated to Canada. Reasons for emigrating included an invitation from other Native Americans already in Canada, favorable treaty arrangements, and a desire to avoid the harsh terms of the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. Although not all Potawatomi participated in the Treaty of Chicago, at the time it was Federal policy that any who did not relocate westwards as the treaty stipulated would not be compensated for their land.[13] With the passage of the Homestead Act of 1862, men and women could purchase 80 acres of land for eighteen dollars, provided they resided on the land, improved it, and farmed for five years. This made settlement in Door County more affordable.

Potawatomi Chief Simon Kahquados traveled to Washington, D.C. multiple times in an attempt to get the land back. In 1906, Congress passed a law to establish a census of all Potawatomi formerly living in Wisconsin and Michigan as a first step towards compensation. The 1907 "Wooster" roll, named after the clerk who compiled it, documented 457 Potawatomi living in Wisconsin and Michigan and 1423 living in Ontario. Instead of returning the land, a meager monthly payment was issued.[13] Although Chief Simon Kahquados was unsuccessful he was able to increase public consciousness of Potawatomi history. In 1931, 15,000 people attended his burial in Peninsula State Park.[14]

Graves of Increase Claflin and family.
Eagle Bluff Lighthouse.

The 18th and 19th centuries saw the immigration and settlement of pioneers, mariners, fishermen, loggers, and farmers, with the first white settler being Increase Claflin.[15] In 1855, four Irishmen were accidentally left behind by their steamboat, leading to the settlement of what is now Forestville.[16] In 1853, Moravians founded Ephraim as a religious community after Nils Otto Tank resisted attempts at land ownership reform at the old religious colony in Green Bay.[17] In the 19th century, a fairly large-scale immigration of Belgian Walloons populated a small region in southern portion of the county.[6] They built small roadside votive chapels, some still in use today.[18] Eagle Bluff Lighthouse was constructed in Peninsula State Park in 1868 on orders from President Andrew Johnson, at a cost of $12,000. It was restored by the Door County Historical Society in 1964, and opened to the public.[19] When the 1871 Peshtigo Fire burned the town of Williamsonville, 60 people were killed. The area of this disaster is now Tornado Memorial County Park, named for the whirlwinds of fire.[20][21] Following the fire, some residents decided to use brick instead of wood.[22]

In 1941, the Sturgeon Bay Vocation School opened, now it is the Sturgeon Bay campus of Northeast Wisconsin Technical College.

Women and children were typically employed to pick fruit crops, but the available work outstripped the labor supply. By 1918, it was difficult to find enough help to pick fruit crops, so workers were brought in by the YMCA and Boy Scouts of America. Cherry picking was marketed as a good summer camp activity for teenage boys in return for room, board, and recreation activities. One orchard hired players from the Green Bay Packers as camp counselors. Additionally, members of the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin and other native tribes were employed to pick fruit crops.[23][24] A Civilian Conservation Corps camp was established at Peninsula State Park during the Great Depression. In the summer of 1945, Fish Creek was the site of a POW camp under an affiliation with a base camp at Fort Sheridan, Illinois.[25][26][27] The German prisoners engaged in construction projects, cut wood, and picked cherries in Peninsula State Park and the surrounding area.[28] In 1949, the Wisconsin State Employment Service established an office in Door County in 1949 to recruit Tejanos to pick cherries. Work was unpredictable, as cherry harvests were poor during certain years and workers were paid by the amount they picked. In 1951, the Wisconsin Department of Public Welfare conducted a study documenting conflict between migrant workers and tourists, who resented the presence of Tejano families in public vacation areas.[29]

Geography[edit]

An aerial photo of Nicolet Bay at Peninsula State Park

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,370 square miles (6,100 km2), of which 482 square miles (1,250 km2) is land and 1,888 square miles (4,890 km2) (80%) is water.[30] It is the largest county in Wisconsin by total area. The county also has 298 miles (480,000 m) of shoreline. Locals and tourists alike refer to the area as the "Cape Cod of the Midwest".[31] The county covers the majority of the Door Peninsula. With the completion of the Sturgeon Bay Shipping Canal in 1881, the northern half of the peninsula technically became an island.[19] This canal is believed to have somehow caused a reduction in the sturgeon population in the bay due to changes in the aquatic habitat.[32] The 45th parallel north bisects this "island," and this is commemorated by Meridian County Park.[33][34] According to the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, in 2017 Door County had 1270 miles of roadways.[35]

Limestone outcroppings of the Niagara Escarpment are visible on both shores of the peninsula, but the karst formations of the cuesta are larger and more prominent on the Green Bay side as seen at the Bayshore Blufflands. Many caves are found in this escarpment.[36] Progressions of dunes have created much of the rest of the shoreline, especially on the easterly side. Flora along the shore provides clear evidence of plant succession. The middle of the peninsula is mostly flat or rolling cultivated land.

The height of the escarpment made it attractive to development. At the time of its completion in 1999, the 30.5 acre (12.3 ha) Rosière Wind Farm was the largest in the Eastern United States.[37] After the retirement of the Kewaunee Power Station in Carlton and the J. P. Pulliam Generating Station in Green Bay, power to Door County is primarily from the gas-powered plant in De Pere (Brown County) owned by SkyGen and the Point Beach Nuclear Plant in Kewaunee County.[38]

Soils overlaying the dolomite bedrock are very thin in the northern half of the county; thirty-nine percent of the County is mapped as having less than three feet (about a meter) to bedrock. Beyond the northern tip of the peninsula, the partially submerged ridge forms the Potawatomi Islands, which stretch to the Garden Peninsula in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The largest of these islands is Washington Island. Most of these islands form the Town of Washington.[39]

The porous and fractured limestone bedrock was implicated as a factor in a June 2007 epidemic when 229 patrons and employees of the newly opened Log Den restaurant were sickened by a norovirus. Six were hospitalized. The virus was found to have traveled from a septic field 188 m (617 ft) away to the restaurant's well, contaminating their water.[40] From September to December 2007 a study was conducted in which dyes were placed into the septic system. The dyes traveled through the groundwater at about 2 miles per year, and researchers concluded that viral contaminants could travel "many miles in their life times."[41]

Because their is relatively little soil over much of the peninsula and the bedrock is fractured, snowmelt quickly enters the aquifer. This causes seasonal basement flooding in some areas.[42]

The over 100 ft high Brussels Hill[43] (elevation of 851 feet) is the highest named point in Door County.[44] It has been explained as the result of a meteorite impact.[45]

Biota[edit]

There are 24 state-defined natural areas in the county.[46] Besides Lake Michigan, there are 25 lakes, ponds or marshes and 37 rivers, creeks, streams, and springs in the county.[47]

Flora[edit]

Door County is home to White Cedar Variant forests, which are unique to the area. Likely due to the alkaline soil of the area, white cedar co-exists with hardwoods and balsam fir in upland stands that ordinarily would not support cedar. This forest cover mostly grows on the Niagara Escarpment along the Green Bay side of the peninsula or near the Lake Michigan shoreline. One white cedar found on the escarpment was over 600 years old and near other old-growth cedars.[48]

Door County, along with nearby Marinette and Delta (see Garden Peninsula) counties, is home to endemic plants and disjunct populations,[49] such as those protected at Hog and Plum Islands, Coffee Swamp, Cave Point County Park, the adjacent Whitefish Dunes State Park, and The Ridges Sanctuary. 25 native orchid species are found at The Ridges.[50] As of 2019, 1201 species and hybrids of vascular plants[51] and 255 unique taxa of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts[52] have been identified in Door County. In 2006, 60 species of aquatic plants or macrophytic algae were found in Clark Lake and nearby upstream.[53] In 2017, 9 species of aquatic plants were found in the Forestville Millpond, also called the Forestville Dam or Forestville Flowage.[54] The U.S. Potato Genebank just north of Sturgeon Bay is the world's largest living collection of wild and domesticated potatoes.[55] As of 2019, 243 species of mushrooms and other macrofungi have been identified north of the canal,[56] with 326 species for the county as a whole.[57] As of 2019, 243 species of mushrooms and other macrofungi have been identified north of the canal.[56] In 2009, a unique hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was found on fallen cherries near Fish Creek. This strain of S. cerevisiae descended from both oak-tree and vineyard lineages.[58]

Fauna[edit]

From 1971 through 1976, 11 species of small mammals were found at Toft Point,[59] the Newport State Park Mammals Checklist has 34 species,[60] and in 1972 44 mammals were listed for the entire county.[61] In 1992, six amphibians and eight reptiles were found in and around Potawatomi State Park.[62] As of 2018, 166 species of birds have been confirmed to live in Door County, excluding birds seen which lack the habitat to nest and must only be passing through.[63] In 1999, the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory listed 24 aquatic and 21 terrestrial animals in Door County as being "rare."[64] In particular, Kangaroo Lake State Natural Area has the largest breeding population of the endangered Hine's Emerald Dragonfly in the world.[65]

Pollution[edit]

2016 HYSPLIT map

Most air pollution in Door County comes outside the county. This map shows how air travels to the pollution monitor in Newport State Park.[66] Because the monitor at Newport State park is near the shore, only the red lines (which show the lower air currents) meaningfully depict the path of ozone to the monitor. Unfortunately, as shown on the map, these lower air currents carry polluted air from major urban areas. But further inland, the air from higher up mixes more, so all color lines are significant when tracing the path of air pollution further inland. Fortunately, these higher air currents (shown in green and blue) blow in from cleaner, mostly rural areas.[67]

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources reports 137 leaking underground storage tank sites, 385 spill locations, and 104 other areas with contaminated soil and/or groundwater, including fifty open cases which are mostly cherry orchards with arsenic and lead contaminated soils from the pesticides. Additionally, two landowners voluntarily cooperated with the DNR, limiting their future liability.[68]

Attractions[edit]

Ephraim, site of the annual Fyr Bal Festival
Europe Bay Woods State Natural Area
Door Bluff County Park
Cherry tree
Fish Boil, flare up achieved with a can of diesel (on left)

Hjalmar Holand, an Ephraim resident, promoted Door County as a tourist destination in the first half of the 20th century. Leading a committee to protect and promote historically important sites, a series of county parks were established. In 1905, Theodore Roosevelt recommended that the Shivering Sands area be protected.[69] Today this area includes Whitefish Dunes, Kellner’s Fen, Shivering Sands wetland complex,[70] and Cave Point County Park.[71]

Since then the tourism industry has grown. Although Door County has a year-round population of about 28,000, it experiences an influx of tourists each summer between Memorial Day and Labor Day, with over 2.1 million visitors per year.[72] Most businesses are targeted to tourism and operate seasonally. In 2003, researchers found that compared to other Wisconsin counties, Door County had a high number of campgrounds, golf courses, amusement businesses,[a] and downhill ski hills and a middling amount of inland water acreage, forestland, county-owned acreage, and rail trail mileage.[73]

In the summer, the population of Door County is much larger.[74] The majority of tourists and summer residents come from the metropolitan areas of Milwaukee, Chicago, Madison, Green Bay, and the Twin Cities,[75] although Illinois residents are the dominant group both in Door County and further south along the eastern edge of Wisconsin.[4] The area has been called "the Cape Cod of the Midwest."[75] Tourism supports local food production[76][77] and a Bohemian arts community from Sturgeon Bay northward.

Door County is home to five state parks: Newport State Park, northeast of Ellison Bay; Peninsula State Park, east of Fish Creek; Potawatomi State Park, along Sturgeon Bay; Rock Island State Park, off the tip of the Door Peninsula; and Whitefish Dunes State Park, along Lake Michigan.[78] Besides county,[79] town, and community parks,[80][81] a local land trust operates 14 privately owned parks open to the public,[82] and thousands of acres of other privately owned land are open to the public for hunting, fishing, hiking, sight-seeing and cross-country skiing under the Managed Forest Program.[83]

Including both the Lake Michigan and Green Bay shores, there are 54 public beaches or boat launches,[84] 35 which are routinely monitored for water quality advisories.[85] A two-year study of selected Door County beaches concluded that neither the abundance of bird droppings nor bird populations reliably predicted E. coli contamination,[86] although rainfall was associated with elevated E. coli levels in six of the eight beaches studied.[87] Lake Michigan shoreline is used for lake surfing.[88] Including both lake and Green Bay shorelines, there are ten lighthouses. Most were built during the 19th century and are listed in the National Register of Historic Places: Baileys Harbor Range Lights; Cana Island Lighthouse; Chambers Island Lighthouse; Eagle Bluff Lighthouse; Pilot Island Lighthouse; Plum Island Range Lights; Pottawatomie Lighthouse; and Sturgeon Bay Canal Lighthouse. The other lighthouses in the county are: Baileys Harbor Lighthouse; Sherwood Point Lighthouse; and the Sturgeon Bay Canal North Pierhead Light.[89]

Door County has a history of cherry and apple growing that dates back to the 19th century.[90] Farmers were encouraged to grow fruit on the basis of the relatively mild climate on the peninsula. This is due to the moderating effects of the lake and bay on nearby land temperatures. U-pick orchards and fruit stands can be found along country roads when in season, and there are two frozen cherry processors.[91] However, the cherry business has declined[92] since peaking in 1946[93] due to concerns about pesticides,[94] lack of migrant labor and a difficulty in finding local help, the closing of a major cannery, unpredictable harvests, and better growing conditions to the east in the fruit belt, such as the nearby Traverse City area.[95]

A 2018 survey of tourists reported Forestville and Brussels as the least-visited communities in the county.[96]

A Town of Sturgeon Bay farm was featured on a postage stamp commemorating the Wisconsin Sesquitennial in 2004,[97] and a cherry orchard near Brussels was featured on 2012 Earthscapes series stamp.

Scandinavian heritage related attractions include fish boils,[98] The Clearing Folk School, two stave churches,[99] and Al Johnson's Swedish Restaurant, which features goats on its grassy roof.

Door County also has businesses which produce alcoholic beverages,[100] and as a result the county became part of a federally designated wine grape-growing region in 2012. In order to encourage more tourism, Ephraim residents passed referenda in 2016 to allow beer and/or wine sales within the village. Prior to this, Ephraim had been the last dry municipality in the state.[101]

Economics of tourism[edit]

Migrant Worker Housing (March, 2011) Because the cost of living in Door County is high compared to the limited income many tourism-industry jobs provide, temporary workers are often hired, both domestic and foreign. Workers come from as far away as Scandinavia or South Africa.

Between 2000 and 2017, home prices in Door County rose only 1.3% annually, less than the U.S. average of 2.5%.[102] In a 2008 survey of county residents, the most frequent local concern was the need to control rampant overdevelopment, including condos.[103] Shoreline parcels, which tend to be the most highly valued real estate, are typically owned by non-Wisconsin residents unless they are public property.[104]

A 2004 study showed that residential and commercial land tends to require more in government services than is generated by property taxes. These in turn are subsidized by taxes on industrial, agricultural, and open lands which generally require few government services.[105]

Door County unemployment rates during the summer and fall are considerably lower than in winter.[106] Annual earnings in Door County are typically less than similar jobs in other areas of Wisconsin. This has been attributed to the seasonal nature of much of the employment. For example, in 2009, it was found that people were 4.85 times more likely to be employed by hotels and motels in Door County as opposed to the rest of the nation.[107] The effects of the low earnings are compounded by average housing prices; other areas in Wisconsin with low wages tend to have low housing prices.[108] The unaffordability of housing has been linked to the labor shortage problem, as new employees may be unable to afford housing and decide to leave.[109] The 2019 documentary A Place of Our Own: The Challenge of "Home" in Door County interviewed residents to examine this economic challenge.[110]

Most of the homeless in Door County are couch surfers, although in the summer many will camp or live out of their vehicles.[111]

An analysis comparing 1999 data for select Wisconsin counties found that Door County was especially strong in the retail of building and materials, groceries, apparel and accessories, miscellaneous retail, and restaurants. For services, it ranked strong in the amusement, movie, and recreation and lodging categories. Door County ran a fiscal surplus in all categories to all other counties, with the exception of furniture & home furnishing, in which Door County had a leakage of sales to other counties.[112]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways

Airports

  • There are eleven airports in the county, including private or semi-public airports:

Ferries

  • Washington Island is served by two ferry routes. The first route is to take a 30-minute ferry ride from the Door Peninsula to Detroit Harbor on the island from a freight, automobile, and passenger ferry that departs daily from the Northport Pier at the northern terminus of Wisconsin Highway 42. The second route is a passenger-only ferry that departs from the unincorporated community of Gills Rock on a 20-minute route.[119]
  • Rock Island State Park is reachable by the passenger ferry Karfi from Washington Island.[120] (During winter Rock Island is also accessible via snowmobile and foot traffic.)

Boat ramps and marinas

  • There are thirty public boat access sites in the county.[121]

Bridges across the bay

Aerial view of the Michigan Street Bridge with a laker in Sturgeon Bay. Ships routinely come into the bay for servicing at Bay Ship.
  • Sturgeon Bay Bridge, (also called Michigan Street Bridge) (11.5 feet clearance, overhead-truss, Scherzer-type, double-leaf, rolling-lift bascule)[122]
  • Oregon Street Bridge (reinforced concrete slab, rolling lift bascule girder with mechanical driven center locks)[123]
  • Bayview Bridge (monolithic concrete placed on structural deck with steel girder superstructure, open grating on deck, bascule)[124]

Snowmobile

  • There are about 250 miles of snowmobile trails,[125] which are opened as trails are groomed.[126]

Non-motorized

Demographics and religious adherents[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18602,948
18704,91966.9%
188011,645136.7%
189015,08229.5%
190017,58316.6%
191018,7116.4%
192019,0731.9%
193018,182−4.7%
194019,0955.0%
195020,8709.3%
196020,685−0.9%
197020,106−2.8%
198025,02924.5%
199025,6902.6%
200027,9618.8%
201027,785−0.6%
Est. 201827,610[128]−0.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[129]
1790–1960[130] 1900–1990[131]
1990–2000[132] 2010–2014[1]
2000 Census Age Pyramid for Door County.[b]

As of the census of 2000,[133] there were 27,961 people, 11,828 households, and 7,995 families residing in the county. The population density was 58 people per square mile (22/km²). There were 19,587 housing units at an average density of 41 per square mile (16/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.84% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.69% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 39.4% were of German and 10.3% Belgian ancestry. A small pocket of Walloon speakers forms the only Walloon-language region outside of Wallonia and its immediate neighbors.[134] Out of a total of 11,828 households, 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.40% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.84.[citation needed]

In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, and 18.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.[citation needed]

In 2017, there were 217 births, giving a general fertility rate of 59 births per 1000 women aged 15–44, the 49th highest rate out of 72 Wisconsin counties.[135] Additionally, there were eleven reported induced abortions performed on women of Door County residence in 2017.[136]

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Door County was the Catholics, with 9,325 adherents worshipping at six parishes, followed by 2,982 ELCA Lutherans with seven congregations, 2,646 WELS Lutherans with seven congregations, 872 Moravians with three congregations, 834 United Methodists with four congregations, 533 non-denominational Christians with six congregations, 503 LCMS Lutherans with two congregations, 283 LCMC Lutherans with one congregation, 270 Converge Baptists with three congregations, 213 Episcopalians with one congregation, 207 UCC Christians with one congregation, and 593 other adherents. Altogether, 69.3% of the population was counted as adherents of a religious congregation.[137]

Communities[edit]

City

Villages

Towns

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Adjacent counties[edit]

Politics[edit]

Door County has voted for the winning candidate in every presidential election since 1996.

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results[138]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 48.8% 8,580 45.6% 8,014 5.7% 998
2012 46.0% 8,121 53.0% 9,357 1.1% 193
2008 40.7% 7,112 58.0% 10,142 1.3% 227
2004 50.9% 8,910 47.8% 8,367 1.2% 214
2000 51.3% 7,810 43.1% 6,560 5.6% 850
1996 40.4% 4,948 45.6% 5,590 14.0% 1,713
1992 39.7% 5,468 34.4% 4,735 25.9% 3,574
1988 55.6% 6,907 43.7% 5,425 0.7% 90
1984 67.4% 8,264 31.9% 3,916 0.7% 91
1980 55.2% 7,170 38.2% 4,961 6.6% 851
1976 57.4% 6,557 39.9% 4,553 2.7% 307
1972 64.3% 6,503 33.9% 3,430 1.9% 188
1968 63.3% 5,647 30.6% 2,728 6.1% 541
1964 49.2% 4,289 50.7% 4,416 0.1% 9
1960 61.5% 5,790 38.4% 3,610 0.2% 14
1956 78.0% 6,722 21.6% 1,859 0.5% 41
1952 80.8% 7,621 19.0% 1,790 0.2% 19
1948 65.8% 4,911 32.7% 2,440 1.5% 108
1944 68.3% 5,668 31.3% 2,599 0.5% 38
1940 66.1% 5,461 33.3% 2,750 0.6% 49
1936 41.1% 3,146 51.6% 3,952 7.4% 566
1932 37.0% 2,488 61.6% 4,149 1.4% 97
1928 59.3% 3,636 40.0% 2,456 0.7% 42
1924 38.6% 1,891 4.8% 235 56.6% 2,778
1920 88.3% 3,817 8.9% 385 2.8% 119
1916 56.3% 1,656 40.9% 1,204 2.9% 84
1912 41.2% 1,167 27.1% 769 31.7% 900
1908 73.9% 2,463 23.3% 778 2.8% 93
1904 80.5% 2,689 15.4% 515 4.1% 136
1900 76.3% 2,362 21.8% 674 1.9% 60
1896 71.3% 2,402 26.6% 895 2.1% 72
1892 58.2% 1,596 36.7% 1,007 5.1% 140

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ such as go-kart tracks, water parks, and mini-golf
  2. ^ For an updated pyramid, see 2010-2040CoPyramids.xlsx

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. ^ "Wisconsin: Individual County Chronologies". Wisconsin Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Rebecca L. Schewe; Donald R. Field; Deborah J. Frosch; Gregory Clendenning; Dana Jensen (15 May 2012). Condos in the Woods: The Growth of Seasonal and Retirement Homes in Northern Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Pres. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-299-28533-3.
  5. ^ Long, C.A. (2008). The Wild Mammals of Wisconsin. Pensoft Series Faunistica. Coronet Books Incorporated. p. 25. ISBN 978-954-642-313-9. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  6. ^ a b Soucek, G. (2011). Door County Tales: Shipwrecks, Cherries and Goats on the Roof. American Chronicles. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-61423-383-1. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  7. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved May 7, 2018 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Kohl, Cris & Joan Forsberg, Shipwrecks at Death's Door, Page 10.
  9. ^ Robert LaSalle County Park kiosk historical notes
  10. ^ Edmunds, R. David (1988). The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press (Civilization of the American Indian Series); ISBN 0-8061-2069-X
  11. ^ Town of Gibraltar 20-Year Comprehensive Plan, chapter 2, page 3 (page 35 of pdf)
  12. ^ "Menominee Treaties and Treaty Rights". Indian Country Wisconsin. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
  13. ^ a b "Potawatomi Migration from Wisconsin & Michigan to Canada". Geni. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
  14. ^ "Kahquados, Chief Simon". Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Door County. Wisconsin Public Television. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  15. ^ Hjalmar Holand. History of Door County Wisconsin, The County Beautiful. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1917, p. 77.
  16. ^ Village of Forestville Comprehensive Plan, September 11th, 2009, pages 14-16 of the document
  17. ^ "History of Ephraim, Door County, Wisconsin". by Hjalmar R. Holand, 1917
  18. ^ Lott, Katie (1 May 2009). "Southern Door County's Belgian Wayside Chapels". Door County Living. Retrieved 22 January 2019.doorcounty.com. "Where to Find Belgian Chapels in Door County". Door County Visitor Bureau. Retrieved 22 January 2019., also Wisconsin Belgian Roadside Chapels in Google Maps
  19. ^ a b Wardius, K.; Wardius, B. (2013). Wisconsin Lighthouses: A Photographic and Historical Guide, Revised Edition. Wisconsin Historical Society Press. pp. 100–25. ISBN 978-0-87020-610-8. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  20. ^ Skiba, Justin (2 September 2016). "The Fire That Took Williamsonville". Door County Living. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  21. ^ Tornado Memorial Park kiosk historical notes, also see page 19 of the County C Park and Ride lot panel draft pdf
  22. ^ Brick by Brick: A Comparative pXRF Analysis of Brickworks and Structures in the Belgian-American Community of the Door Peninsula by Lisa Marie Zimmerman, unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 2013
  23. ^ Geography of Apple Orchards in Wisconsin: Examining the Core of Cultivation by Kody Bankston, Morgan Jarocki, and Adrienne Miller, unpublished student paper, UW-Madison, 2012
  24. ^ Migrant Labor and Door County Cherries by Emily Irwin, July 1, 2017
  25. ^ Mariah Goode. "The Harvest of 1945: German POW Camps Filled Door County’s Labor Shortage". Door County Pulse, July 1, 2005.
  26. ^ cheyenne Lentz. "Story Of Wisconsin's German POWs Is A Piece Of Hidden History, Author Says". Wisconsin Public Radio, June 23, 2015.
  27. ^ Damien Jaques. "Cherry picking with German POWs in Door County". On Milwaukee, July 9, 2012.
  28. ^ Tishler, W.H. (2006). Door County's Emerald Treasure: A History of Peninsula State Park. Wisconsin Land and Life. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-22073-0. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  29. ^ Mexicans in Wisconsin by Sergio González, Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2017
  30. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
  31. ^ Lyttle, Bethany (September 11, 2008). "The Cape Cod of the Midwest". New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  32. ^ City of Sturgeon Bay Comprehensive Plan Update, 2010, chapter 2 page 2 (page 14 of the pdf)
  33. ^ "Meridian County Park". Door County Parks. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  34. ^ Meridian County Park and Harter-Matter Sanctuary Map and trail guide
  35. ^ Wisconsin DOT Door County Map
  36. ^ Geology and Ground Water in Door County, Wisconsin, with Emphasis on Contamination Potential in the Silurian Dolomite By M. G. Sherrill, United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2047. 1978, locations of caves are shown on Plate 1
  37. ^ "Rosière Wind Farm". Madison Gas and Electric. Retrieved 2009-07-08. and  "MGE Celebrates 10th Anniversary of State's First Wind Farm". Wisconsin Ag Connection. 2009-07-07. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
  38. ^ Town of Union 20-Year Comprehensive Plan, May 2007, Chapter 9, page 1, page 181 of the pdf
  39. ^ "Soil Survey of Door County, Wisconsin" (PDF). USDA SCS. December 1978. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  40. ^ Norovirus outbreak caused by a new septic system in a dolomite aquifer, by Mark A. Borchardt, Kenneth R. Bradbury, Elizabeth C. Alexander, Rhonda J Kolberg, S Catherine. P Alexander, John R. Archer, Laurel A Braatz, Brian M. Forest, Jeffrey Alan Green, Susan K. Spencer, published in Ground Water. 2011 Jan-Feb;49(1):85-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00686.x.
  41. ^ Plum Bottom Closed Depression Groundwater Trace Final Report by E. Calvin Alexander, Jr., Jeffrey A. Green, and Scott C. Alexander 25 January 2008
  42. ^ Village of Ephraim Comprehensive Plan 2009 Chapter 6, page 5 (page 66 of the pdf)
  43. ^ Town of Gardner 20 Year Comprehensive Plan, January 2010, Chapter 5, page 15 (page 78 of the pdf)
  44. ^ Town of Brussels 2020 Comprehensive Plan, Chapter 2, page 30 (p. 56 of the pdf)]
  45. ^ A previously unrecognized impact structure at Brussels Hill, Door County, Wisconsin: Brecciation and shock-metamorphic features by Zawacki, Emily E. and Bjornerud, Marcia G., Presentation at the 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia (19-22 October 2014)
  46. ^ Wisconsin DNR. "Door". State natural areas by county. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  47. ^ Wisconsin DNR (27 November 2009). "Page 20 of the pdf, Tables 4.15 and 4.16" (PDF). Door County Comprehensive Plan 2030: Chapter 4, Agricultural and Natural Resources. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  48. ^ Door County Comprehensive Forest Plan, completed about 2008
  49. ^ Emmet Judziewicz and David Kopitzke (September 1999). "Wisconsin's Lake Michigan Islands Plant Survey-II" (PDF). Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  50. ^ Jones, Meg (September 17, 2013). "Rare native orchids in Door County get a helping hand". Jsonline. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  51. ^ Wisflora Species list
  52. ^ Mycology Collections Portal. "Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria". (CNABH). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  53. ^ Darrin Hoverson and Nancy Turyk (November 2006). "2006 Summary and Comparisons of Clark Lake - Door County Aquatic Macrophyte Community Surveys" (PDF). University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point Center for Watershed Science and Education. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  54. ^ Door County Soil and Water Conservation Department (June 2018). "7. Aquatic Plant Inventory, page 41" (PDF). Final Report for Comprehensive Lake Management Planning Grant Project #LPL162317 Forestville Millpond. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  55. ^ Jones, Gary (September 16, 2009). "Door County's Potato Genebank". Door County Pulse. Retrieved 22 January 2019., also see NRSP6: The US Potato Genebank: Acquisition, Classification, Preservation, Evaluation and Distribution of Potato (Solanum) Germplasm
  56. ^ a b Charlotte Lukes. "Biodiversity of Macrofungi in Northern Door County, WI". UWGB Cofrin Center for Biodiversity. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  57. ^ Mycology Collections Portal. "Search for Door, Wisconsin". Mycoportal. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  58. ^ A unique ecological niche fosters hybridization of oak-tree and vineyard isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Katie J. Clowers, Jessica L. Will, and Audrey P. Gasch, Mol Ecol. 2015 Dec; 24(23): 5886–5898
  59. ^ Johnson, Wendel J. (1978). "Small mammals of the Toft Point scientific area, Door County, Wisconsin: a preliminary survey". The State of Wisconsin Collection. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  60. ^ Melinda Kleinedler (March 2017). "Newport State Park Mammals Checklist" (PDF). Newport Wilderness Society. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  61. ^ Col. James M. Miller (October 1974). "Draft Environmental Statement for the Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Canal, Wisconsin". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  62. ^ Dreux J. Watermolen (December 1992). "page 6 of the pdf, Amphibians and Reptiles of the Potawatomi State Park Area with Notes on Other Door County Localities" (PDF). Chicago Herpetological Society. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  63. ^ Nick Anich (2 October 2018). "Season 4 Preliminary Results and Stats". UWGB Cofrin Center for Biodiversity. Retrieved 22 January 2019. and ebird.org. "Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  64. ^ Door County Soil and Water Conservation Department (27 June 1999). "Figure 11 General Distribution of Rare Species and Habitats in Door County, page 62 of the pdf" (PDF). Surface Water Inventory of Door County. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  65. ^ "Hines Dragonfly". Hinesdragonfly.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  66. ^ Photo of the monitoring station on page 128 of WI DNR. "Air Monitoring Network Plan 2016 June 2015" (PDF). EPA. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  67. ^ US EPA. "Wisconsin: Northern Milwaukee/Ozaukee Shoreline Area, Sheboygan County Area, Manitowoc County Area, Door County Area Final Area Designations for the 2015 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards Technical Support Document (TSD)" (PDF). Green Book. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  68. ^ Door County Comprehensive and Farmland Preservation Plan 2035: Volume II, Resource Report, Chapter 5: Economic Development page 89 (page 31 of the pdf)
  69. ^ Town of Sevastopol Comprehensive Plan 2028, November 2008, Chapter 6, page 7, page 104 of the pdf
  70. ^ Landings, Journal of the Door County Land Trust, Spring 2012, pages 6-7
  71. ^ A Data Compilation and Assessment of Coastal Wetlands of Wisconsin’s Great Lakes March 2000 (See LM# 28 Shivering Sands area on page 63 of the document and page 68 of the pdf)
  72. ^ Town of Sevastopol Comprehensive Plan 2028, November 2008, Chapter 4, page 11, (page 64 of the pdf).
  73. ^ Standardizing county-level recreation supply components: A precursor to the Wisconsin SCORP, 2005 Working Paper 03-2 November, 2003 by Peter Herreid, Dave Marcouiller, and Jeff Prey
  74. ^ Estimating the Seasonal Population of Door County by Greg Lamb, Door County University Extension]
  75. ^ a b Lyttle, Bethany (2008-09-11). "'The Cape Cod of the Midwest'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2017-10-22. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  76. ^ Localizing Linkages for Food and Tourism: Culinary Tourism as a Community Development Strategy Gary Paul Green and Michael L. Dougherty COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 39, No. 3
  77. ^ Local Food Tourism Networks and Word of Mouth by Michael L. Dougherty and Gary Paul Green, April 2011 Volume 49 Number 2 Article Number 2FEA5, Journal of Extension
  78. ^ Five State Parks in Door County Archived 2018-03-31 at the Wayback Machine. Travel Wisconsin, Wisconsin Department of Tourism.
  79. ^ Interactive map of State and County Parks
  80. ^ Parks (list)
  81. ^ Far From the Madding Crowd: Liberty Grove Town Parks
  82. ^ "Explore Our Preserves". Archived from the original on 2019-01-03. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  83. ^ Lands enrolled in the tax program are shown on the DNR Private Forest Lands Open for Public Recreation interactive map.
  84. ^ Map of Door County Beaches on Lake Michigan
  85. ^ Door County Beach Beach Advisories on the Wisconsin Beach Health website
  86. ^ Evaluation of Avian Waste and Bird Counts as Predicators of Escherichia coli Contamination at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches by Gregory T. Kleinheinz, Colleen M. McDermott, and Vinni Chomeau, J. Great Lakes Res. 32:117–123 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2006
  87. ^ Impact of Rainfall on Escherichia Coli Concentrations at Beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, Amanda M. Griesbach, unpublished M.S thesis, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, 2013
  88. ^ Surf’s Up in Door, Ryan Heise, Door County Living – August 1st, 2018
  89. ^ More Door County Lighthouses Archived 2018-05-07 at the Wayback Machine. Door County Maritime Museum.
  90. ^ Apple & Cherry Orchards: Door County Wisconsin Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-07. Retrieved 2014-12-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  92. ^ Mariah Goode (1 September 2008). "Agriculture in Door County". Door County Living. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  93. ^ Town of Sevastopol Comprehensive Plan 2028, November 2008, Chapter 1, page 7, (page 14 of the pdf).
  94. ^ Bearing Fruit: The Fight For The FDA’s Food Safety Reforms by Shelley A. Hearne, Health Affairs, November 2015]
  95. ^ Jay Jones (April 1, 2015). "Cherries are always in season for Door County". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  96. ^ 2018 Satisfaction Survey, page 330 of the document, page 103 of the pdf
  97. ^ Town of Sturgeon Bay Comprehensive Plan 2030, 2012
  98. ^ Joy Marquardt. "Fish boils serve up food, fun". Wausau Daily Herald, August 31, 2016.
  99. ^ The Björklunden stave church is called Boynton Chapel and it is just south of Baileys Harbor, and the other is both part of and adjacent to Trinity Lutheran Church on Washington Island.
  100. ^ "Door County Wine Trail". Door County Visitor Bureau. Retrieved May 7, 2018. and "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-09. Retrieved 2014-12-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) and "About Us - Island Orchard Cider". islandorchardcider.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  101. ^ Roberts, Rhonda (6 April 2016). "After 163 years, Door County's Ephraim no longer dry". WBAY-TV, Green Bay. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  102. ^ Door County Housing Analysis from the Door County Economic Development Corporation, January 25, 2019
  103. ^ 2008 Door County Citizen's Survey
  104. ^ Who owns the coast? Applications of an integrated digital parcel map for the Lake Michigan coast of Wisconsin, by David Hart and Alberto Vargas, Proceedings of the 2nd Biennial Coastal GeoTools Conference Charleston, SC, January 8-11, 2001, pages 12-13
  105. ^ The Cost of Community Services in the Towns of Gibraltar and Nasewaupee Door County, Wisconsin by Mary Edwards, November, 2004
  106. ^ Year 2025 Comprehensive Plan Town of Nasewaupee Door County, Wisconsin, September 2003, p. 117 of the pdf, Figure 6-1
  107. ^ The Economic Impacts of Agriculture in Wisconsin Counties by Steven C. Deller and David Williams.
  108. ^ Village of Sister Bay 2020 Comprehensive Plan Chapter 1, page 16 (page 31 of the pdf), 2003
  109. ^ Town of Liberty Grove Comprehensive Plan 2003 Chapter 1, page 12 (page 32 of the pdf)
  110. ^ A Place of Our Own: The Challenge of ‘Home’ in Door County, Peninsula Pulse – April 19th, 2019
  111. ^ Donations to United Way, Salvation Army Red Kettles help homeless Door County families Liz Welter, Green Bay Press Gazette Dec. 15, 2017
  112. ^ Trade Area Analysis of Select Wisconsin Counties by Steven C. Deller, August 2001, Staff Paper No. 428, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Staff Paper Series.
  113. ^ Town of Egg Harbor 20-Year Comprehensive Plan, 2009, Chapter 8, page 8 (page 157 of the pdf)
  114. ^ Mick Schier Field Airport entry on airplanemanager.com
  115. ^ Crispy Cedars Airport entry on airport-data.com
  116. ^ Mave's Lakeview Road Airport entry on airport-data.com
  117. ^ Sunny Slope Runway Airport entry on airport-data.com
  118. ^ Chambers Island Airport entry on airport-data.com
  119. ^ "The Island Clipper & The Viking Train". www.islandclipper.com. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  120. ^ "Rock Island Ferry". www.wisferry.com. Retrieved 2018-07-03.
  121. ^ Fishing Guide of Door County: Door County Boat Access Sites Map, for detailed mapping, see the Wisconsin DNR interactive boating map: Door County
  122. ^ Michigan Street Bridge entry on http://bridgehunter.com
  123. ^ Oregon Street Bridge entry on bridgereports.com
  124. ^ Bayview Bridge entry on bridgereports.com
  125. ^ Map of Snowmobile Trails in Door County
  126. ^ Door County Winter Snow Report
  127. ^ Wisconsin Snow Report
  128. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  129. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
  130. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
  131. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 18, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
  132. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
  133. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
  134. ^ "Belgian-American Research Collection" Archived 2011-01-06 at the Wayback Machine, University of Wisconsin
  135. ^ Annual Wisconsin Birth and Infant Mortality Report, 2017 P-01161-19 (June 2019): Detailed Tables
  136. ^ Reported Induced Abortions in Wisconsin, Office of Health Informatics, Division of Public Health, Wisconsin Department of Health Services. Section: Trend Information, 2013-2017, Table 18, pages 17-18
  137. ^ County Membership Report: Door County (Wisconsin), The Association of Religion Data Archives
  138. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.

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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 45°01′N 87°01′W / 45.02°N 87.01°W / 45.02; -87.01