|, DBM, Dopamine beta-monooxygenase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine β-hydroxylase|
|RNA expression pattern|
|View/Edit Human||View/Edit Mouse|
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11) that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase catalyzes the chemical reaction:
It is the only enzyme involved in the synthesis of small-molecule neurotransmitters that is membrane-bound, making norepinephrine the only known transmitter synthesized inside vesicles. It is expressed in noradrenergic nerve terminals of the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla.
Mechanism of catalysis
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
Although details of DBH mechanism are yet to be confirmed, DBH is homologous to another enzyme, peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). Because DBH and PHM share similar structures, it is possible to model DBH mechanism based on what is known about PHM mechanism.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase catalyzes the hydroxylation of not only dopamine but also other phenylethylamine derivatives when available. The minimum requirement seems to be a benzene ring with a two-carbon side chain that terminates in an amino group.
DBH primarily contributes to catecholamine and trace amine biosynthesis. It also participates in the metabolism of xenobiotics related to these substances; for example, the human DBH enzyme catalyzes the beta-hydroxylation of amphetamine and para-hydroxyamphetamine, producing norephedrine and para-hydroxynorephedrine respectively.
DBH has been implicated as correlating factor in conditions associated with decision making and addictive drugs, e.g., alcoholism and smoking, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Inadequate DBH is called dopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency.
Because it is difficult to obtain a stable crystal of dopamine beta-hydroxylase, its crystal structure is yet to be solved. However, an homology model based on the primary sequence and comparison to PHM is available.
Regulation and inhibition
DBH is reversibly inhibited by l-2H-Phthalazine hydrazone (hydralazine; HYD), 2-1H-pyridinone hydrazone (2-hydrazinopyridine; HP), 2-quinoline-carboxylic acid (QCA), l-isoquinolinecarboxylic acid (IQCA), 2,2'-bi-lH-imidazole (2,2'-biimidazole; BI), and IH-imidazole-4-acetic acid (imidazole-4-acetic acid; IAA). HYD, QCA, and IAA are allosteric competitive.
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine, ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase (beta-hydroxylating).
Other names in common use include:
- dopamine beta-monooxygenase
- dopamine beta-hydroxylase
- membrane-associated dopamine beta-monooxygenase (MDBH)
- soluble dopamine beta-monooxygenase (SDBH)
- 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine beta-oxidase
- 4-(2-aminoethyl) pyrocatechol beta-oxidase
- dopa beta-hydroxylase
- dopamine beta-oxidase
- dopamine hydroxylase
- phenylamine beta-hydroxylase
- (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) beta-mono-oxygenase
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
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The highest level of brain CYP2D activity was found in the substantia nigra (Bromek et al., 2010). The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the contribution of the alternative CYP2D-mediated dopamine synthesis to the concentration of this neurotransmitter although the classic biosynthetic route to dopamine from tyrosine is active. CYP2D6 protein level is approximately 40% lower in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus in PD patients, even when controlling for CYP2D6 genotype (Mann et al., 2012). ... Tyramine levels are especially high in the basal ganglia and limbic system, which are thought to be related to individual behavior and emotion (Yu et al., 2003c). Studies have demonstrated that dopamine is formed from p-tyramine as well as m-tyramine via tyramine 3-hydroxylation or 4-hydroxylation by rat CYP2D2, 2D4, and 2D18 as well as human CYP2D6. ... Both rat CYP2D and human CYP2D6 have a higher affinity for m-tyramine compared with p-tyramine for the generation of dopamine. Rat CYP2D isoforms (2D2/2D4/2D18) are less efficient than human CYP2D6 for the generation of dopamine from p-tyramine. The Km values of the CYP2D isoforms are as follows: CYP2D6 (87–121 μm) ≈ CYP2D2 ≈ CYP2D18 > CYP2D4 (256 μm) for m-tyramine and CYP2D4 (433 μm) > CYP2D2 ≈ CYP2D6 > CYP2D18 (688 μm) for p-tyramine (Bromek et al., 2010; Thompson et al., 2000).
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The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... Amphetamine can also undergo aromatic hydroxylation to p-hydroxyamphetamine. ... Subsequent oxidation at the benzylic position by DA β-hydroxylase affords p-hydroxynorephedrine. Alternatively, direct oxidation of amphetamine by DA β-hydroxylase can afford norephedrine.
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Dopamine-β-hydroxylase catalyzed the removal of the pro-R hydrogen atom and the production of 1-norephedrine, (2S,1R)-2-amino-1-hydroxyl-1-phenylpropane, from d-amphetamine.
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Subjects with exceptionally low levels of serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity showed normal cardiovascular function and normal β-hydroxylation of an administered synthetic substrate, hydroxyamphetamine.
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- GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency
- Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)