Doping in sport
|Part of a series on|
|Doping in sport|
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors. The term doping is widely used by organizations that regulate sporting competitions. The use of drugs to enhance performance is considered unethical, and therefore prohibited, by most international sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. Furthermore, athletes (or athletic programs) taking explicit measures to evade detection exacerbate the ethical violation with overt deception and cheating.
The origins of doping in sports go back to the very creation of sport itself. From ancient usage of substances in chariot racing to more recent controversies in baseball and cycling, popular views among athletes have varied widely from country to country over the years. The general trend among authorities and sporting organizations over the past several decades has been to strictly regulate the use of drugs in sport. The reasons for the ban are mainly the health risks of performance-enhancing drugs, the equality of opportunity for athletes, and the exemplary effect of drug-free sport for the public. Anti-doping authorities state that using performance-enhancing drugs goes against the "spirit of sport".
The use of drugs in sports goes back centuries, about all the way back to the very invention of the concept of sports. In ancient times, when the fittest of a nation were selected as athletes or combatants, they were fed diets and given treatments considered beneficial to help increase muscle. For instance, Scandinavian mythology says Berserkers could drink a mixture called "butotens", to greatly increase their physical power at the risk of insanity. One theory is that the mixture was prepared from the Amanita muscaria mushroom, though this has been disputed.
The ancient Olympics in Greece have been alleged to have had forms of doping. In ancient Rome, where chariot racing had become a huge part of their culture, athletes drank herbal infusions to strengthen them before chariot races.
More recently, a participant in an endurance walking race in Britain, Abraham Wood, said in 1807 that he had used laudanum (which contains opiates) to keep him awake for 24 hours while competing against Robert Barclay Allardyce. By April 1877, walking races had stretched to 800 kilometres (500 mi) and the following year, also at the Agricultural Hall in Islington, London, to 840 kilometres (520 mi). The Illustrated London News chided:
- It may be an advantage to know that a man can travel 520 miles in 138 hours, and manage to live through a week with an infinitesimal amount of rest, though we fail to perceive that anyone could possibly be placed in a position where his ability in this respect would be of any use to him [and] what is to be gained by a constant repetition of the fact.
The event proved popular, however, with 20,000 spectators attending each day. Encouraged, the promoters developed the idea and soon held similar races for cyclists.
- "...and much more likely to endure their miseries publicly; a tired walker, after all, merely sits down – a tired cyclist falls off and possibly brings others crashing down as well. That's much more fun".
The fascination with six-day bicycle races spread across the Atlantic and the same appeal brought in the crowds in America as well. And the more spectators paid at the gate, the higher the prizes could be and the greater was the incentive of riders to stay awake—or be kept awake—to ride the greatest distance. Their exhaustion was countered by soigneurs (the French word for "healers"), helpers akin to seconds in boxing. Among the treatments they supplied was nitroglycerine, a drug used to stimulate the heart after cardiac attacks and which was credited with improving riders' breathing. Riders suffered hallucinations from the exhaustion and perhaps the drugs. The American champion Major Taylor refused to continue the New York race, saying: "I cannot go on with safety, for there is a man chasing me around the ring with a knife in his hand."
Public reaction turned against such trials, whether individual races or in teams of two. One report said:
- An athletic contest in which the participants 'go queer' in their heads, and strain their powers until their faces become hideous with the tortures that rack them, is not sport, it is brutality. It appears from the reports of this singular performance that some of the bicycle riders have actually become temporarily insane during the contest... Days and weeks of recuperation will be needed to put the racers in condition, and it is likely that some of them will never recover from the strain.
The father of anabolic steroids in the United States was John Ziegler (1917–1983), a physician for the U.S. weightlifting team in the mid-20th century. In 1954, on his tour to Vienna with his team for the world championship, Ziegler learned from his Russian colleague that the Soviet weightlifting team's success was due to their use of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug. Deciding that U.S. athletes needed chemical assistance to remain competitive, Ziegler worked with the CIBA Pharmaceutical Company to develop an oral anabolic steroid. This resulted in the creation of methandrostenolone, which appeared on the market in 1960 under the brand name Dianabol. During the Olympics that year, the Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed and died while competing in the 100-kilometer (62-mile) race. An autopsy later revealed the presence of amphetamines and a drug called nicotinyl tartrate in his system.
The American specialist in doping, Max M. Novich, wrote: "Trainers of the old school who supplied treatments which had cocaine as their base declared with assurance that a rider tired by a six-day race would get his second breath after absorbing these mixtures." John Hoberman, a professor at the University of Texas in Austin, Texas, said six-day races were "de facto experiments investigating the physiology of stress as well as the substances that might alleviate exhaustion."
Over 30% of athletes participating in 2011 World Championships in Athletics admitted having used banned substances during their careers. According to a study commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), actually 44% of them had used them. Nevertheless, only 0.5% of those tested were caught.
The entire Russian track and field team was banned from the 2016 Olympic Games, as the Russian State had sponsored and essentially sanctioned their doping program.
Goldman's dilemma, or the Goldman dilemma, is a question that was posed to elite athletes by physician, osteopath and publicist Bob Goldman, asking whether they would take a drug that would guarantee them success in sport, but cause them to die after five years. In his research, as in previous research by Mirkin, approximately half the athletes responded that they would take the drug, but modern research by James Connor and co-workers has yielded much lower numbers, with athletes having levels of acceptance of the dilemma that were similar to the general population of Australia.
The most common prohibited substances for doping in sport are:
- Anabolic steroids (most common), which increase muscle mass and physical strength.
- Stimulants (second most common), which increase excitement and decrease the sensation of fatigue.
Examples of well known stimulants include caffeine, cocaine, amphetamine, modafinil, and ephedrine. Caffeine, although a stimulant, has not been banned by the International Olympic Committee or the World Anti Doping Agency since 2004.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were first isolated, identified and synthesized in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to induce bone growth, stimulate appetite, induce male puberty, and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS. Anabolic steroids also increase muscle mass and physical strength, and are therefore used in sports and bodybuilding to enhance strength or physique. Known side effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, and liver damage. Some of these effects can be mitigated by taking supplemental drugs.
AAS use in sports began in October 1954 when John Ziegler, a doctor who treated American athletes, went to Vienna with the American weightlifting team. There he met a Russian physician who, over "a few drinks", repeatedly asked "What are you giving your boys?" When Ziegler returned the question, the Russian said that his own athletes were being given testosterone. Returning to America, Ziegler tried low doses of testosterone on himself, on the American trainer Bob Hoffman and on two lifters, Jim Park and Yaz Kuzahara. All gained more weight and strength than any training programme would produce but there were side-effects. Ziegler sought a drug without after-effects and hit upon the anabolic steroid methandrostenolone, first made in the US in 1958 by Ciba and marketed as Dianabol (colloquially known as "d-bol").
The results were so impressive that lifters began taking more, and steroids spread to other sports. Paul Lowe, a former running back with the San Diego Chargers American football team, told a California legislative committee on drug abuse in 1970: "We had to take them [steroids] at lunchtime. He [an official] would put them on a little saucer and prescribed them for us to take them and if not he would suggest there might be a fine."
Olympic statistics show the weight of shot putters increased 14 percent between 1956 and 1972, whereas steeplechasers weight increased 7.6 per cent. The gold medalist pentathlete Mary Peters said: "A medical research team in the United States attempted to set up extensive research into the effects of steroids on weightlifters and throwers, only to discover that there were so few who weren't taking them that they couldn't establish any worthwhile comparisons." Brand name Dianabol is no longer produced but the drug methandrostenolone itself is still made in many countries and other, similar drugs are made elsewhere. The use of anabolic steroids is now banned by all major sporting bodies, including the ATP, WTA, ITF, International Olympic Committee, FIFA, UEFA, all major professional golf tours, the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the European Athletic Association, WWE, the NFL, and the UCI. However, drug testing can be wildly inconsistent and, in some instances, has gone unenforced.
A number of studies measuring anabolic steroid use in high school athletes found that out of all 12th grade students, 6.6 percent of them had used anabolic steroids at some point in their high school careers or were approached and counseled to use them. Of those students who acknowledged doping with anabolic–androgenic steroids, well over half participated in school-sponsored athletics, including football, wrestling, track and field, and baseball. A second study showed 6.3 percent of high school student Football players admitted to current or former AAS use. At the collegiate level, surveys show that AAS use among athletes range from 5 percent to 20 percent and continues to rise. The study found that skin changes were an early marker of steroid use in young athletes, and underscored the important role that dermatologists could play in the early detection and intervention in these athletes.
1988 Seoul Olympics
A famous case of AAS use in a competition was Canadian Ben Johnson's victory in the 100 m at the 1988 Summer Olympics. He subsequently failed the drug test when stanozolol was found in his urine. He later admitted to using the steroid as well as Dianabol, testosterone, Furazabol, and human growth hormone amongst other things. Johnson was stripped of his gold medal as well as his world-record performance. Carl Lewis was then promoted one place to take the Olympic gold title. Lewis had also run under the current world record time and was therefore recognized as the new record holder.
Johnson was not the only participant whose success was questioned: Lewis had tested positive at the Olympic Trials for pseudoephedrine, ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine. Lewis defended himself, claiming that he had accidentally consumed the banned substances. After the supplements that he had taken were analyzed to prove his claims, the USOC accepted his claim of inadvertent use, since a dietary supplement he ingested was found to contain "Ma huang", the Chinese name for Ephedra (ephedrine is known to help weight loss). Fellow Santa Monica Track Club teammates Joe DeLoach and Floyd Heard were also found to have the same banned stimulants in their systems, and were cleared to compete for the same reason.
The highest level of the stimulants Lewis recorded was 6 ppm, which was regarded as a positive test in 1988 but is now regarded as negative test. The acceptable level has been raised to ten parts per million for ephedrine and twenty-five parts per million for other substances. According to the IOC rules at the time, positive tests with levels lower than 10 ppm were cause of further investigation but not immediate ban. Neal Benowitz, a professor of medicine at UC San Francisco who is an expert on ephedrine and other stimulants, agreed that "These [levels] are what you'd see from someone taking cold or allergy medicines and are unlikely to have any effect on performance."
Following Exum's revelations the IAAF acknowledged that at the 1988 Olympic Trials the USOC indeed followed the correct procedures in dealing with eight positive findings for ephedrine and ephedrine-related compounds in low concentration.
Linford Christie of Great Britain was found to have metabolites of pseudoephedrine in his urine after a 200m heat at the same Olympics, but was later cleared of any wrongdoing. Of the top five competitors in the race, only former world record holder and eventual bronze medalist Calvin Smith of the US never failed a drug test during his career. Smith later said: "I should have been the gold medalist."
The CBC radio documentary, Rewind, "Ben Johnson: A Hero Disgraced" broadcast on 19 September 2013, for the 25th anniversary of the race, stated 20 athletes tested positive for drugs but were cleared by the IOC at this 1988 Seoul Olympics. An IOC official stated that endocrine profiles done at those games indicated that 80 percent of the track and field athletes tested showed evidence of long-term steroid use, although not all were banned.
Stimulants are drugs that usually act on the central nervous system to modulate mental function and behavior, increasing an individual's sense of excitement and decreasing the sensation of fatigue. In the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances, stimulants are the second largest class after the anabolic steroids.
Benzedrine is a trade name for amphetamine. The Council of Europe says it first appeared in sport at the Berlin Olympics in 1936. It was produced in 1887 and the derivative, Benzedrine, was isolated in the U.S. in 1934 by Gordon Alles. Its perceived effects gave it the street name "speed". British troops used 72 million amphetamine tablets in the Second World War and the RAF got through so many that "Methedrine won the Battle of Britain" according to one report. The problem was that amphetamine leads to a lack of judgement and a willingness to take risks, which in sport could lead to better performances but in fighters and bombers led to more crash landings than the RAF could tolerate. The drug was withdrawn but large stocks remained on the black market. Amphetamine was also used legally as an aid to slimming and also as a thymoleptic before being phased out by the appearance of newer agents in the 1950s.
Everton, one of the top clubs in the English football league, were champions of the 1962–63 season, and it was done, according to a national newspaper investigation, with the help of Benzedrine. Word spread after Everton's win that the drug had been involved. The newspaper investigated, cited where the reporter believed it had come from, and quoted the goalkeeper, Albert Dunlop, as saying:
- I cannot remember how they first came to be offered to us. But they were distributed in the dressing rooms. We didn't have to take them but most of the players did. The tablets were mostly white but once or twice they were yellow. They were used through the 1961–62 season and the championship season which followed it. Drug-taking had previously been virtually unnamed in the club. But once it had started we could have as many tablets as we liked. On match days they were handed out to most players as a matter of course. Soon some of the players could not do without the drugs.
The club agreed that drugs had been used but that they "could not possibly have had any harmful effect." Dunlop, however, said he had become an addict.
In November 1942, the Italian cyclist Fausto Coppi took "seven packets of amphetamine" to beat the world hour record on the track. In 1960, the Danish rider Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during the 100 km team time trial at the Olympic Games in Rome and died later in hospital. The autopsy showed he had taken amphetamine and another drug, Ronicol, which dilates the blood vessels. The chairman of the Dutch cycling federation, Piet van Dijk, said of Rome that "dope – whole cartloads – [were] used in such royal quantities."
The 1950s British cycling professional Jock Andrews would joke: "You need never go off-course chasing the peloton in a big race – just follow the trail of empty syringes and dope wrappers."
The Dutch cycling team manager Kees Pellenaars told of a rider in his care:
- I took him along to a training camp in Spain. The boy changed then into a sort of lion. He raced around as though he was powered by rockets. I went to talk to him. He was really happy he was riding well and he told me to look out for him. I asked if he wasn't perhaps "using something" and he jumped straight up, climbed on a chair and from deep inside a cupboard he pulled out a plastic bag full of pills. I felt my heart skip a beat. I had never seen so many fireworks together. With a soigneur we counted the pills: there were 5,000 of them, excluding hormone preparations and sleeping pills. I took them away, to his own relief. I let him keep the hormones and the sleeping pills. Later he seemed to have taken too many at once and he slept for a couple of days on end. We couldn't wake him up. We took him to hospital and they pumped out his stomach. They tied him to his bed to prevent anything going wrong again. But one way or another he had some stimulant and fancied taking a walk. A nurse came across him in the corridor, walking along with the bed strapped to his back.
Currently modafinil is being used throughout the sporting world, with many high-profile cases attracting press coverage as prominent United States athletes have failed tests for this substance. Some athletes who were found to have used modafinil protested as the drug was not on the prohibited list at the time of their offence, however, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) maintains it is a substance related to those already banned, so the decisions stand. Modafinil was added to the list of prohibited substances on 3 August 2004, ten days before the start of the 2004 Summer Olympics.
One approach of athletes to get around regulations on stimulants is to use new designer stimulants, which have not previously been officially prohibited, but have similar chemical structures or biological effects. Designer stimulants that attracted media attention in 2010 included mephedrone, ephedrone, and fluoroamphetamines, which have chemical structures and effects similar to ephedrine and amphetamine.
These "de facto experiments investigating the physiology of stress as well as the substances that might alleviate exhaustion" were not unknown outside cycling.
Thomas Hicks, an American born in England on 7 January 1875, won the Olympic marathon in 1904. He crossed the line behind a fellow American Fred Lorz, who had been transported for 11 miles of the course by his trainer, leading to his disqualification. However, Hicks's trainer Charles Lucas, pulled out a syringe and came to his aid as his runner began to struggle.
- I therefore decided to inject him with a milligram of sulphate of strychnine and to make him drink a large glass brimming with brandy. He set off again as best he could [but] he needed another injection four miles from the end to give him a semblance of speed and to get him to the finish.
The use of strychnine, at the time, was thought necessary to survive demanding races, according to sports historians Alain Lunzenfichter and historian of sports doping, Dr Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, who said:
- It has to be appreciated that at the time the menace of doping for the health of athletes or of the purity of competition had yet to enter the morals because, after this marathon, the official race report said: The marathon has shown from a medical point of view how drugs can be very useful to athletes in long-distance races.
Hicks was, in the phrase of the time, "between life and death" but recovered, collected his gold medal a few days later, and lived until 1952. Nonetheless, he never again took part in athletics.
East Germany (the GDR)
In 1977 one of East Germany's best sprinters, Renate Neufeld, fled to the West with the Bulgarian she later married. A year later she said that she had been told to take drugs supplied by coaches while training to represent East Germany at the 1980 Summer Olympics.
- At 17, I joined the East Berlin Sports Institute. My speciality was the 80m hurdles. We swore that we would never speak to anyone about our training methods, including our parents. The training was very hard. We were all watched. We signed a register each time we left for dormitory and we had to say where we were going and what time we would return. One day, my trainer, Günter Clam, advised me to take pills to improve my performance: I was running 200m in 24 seconds. My trainer told me the pills were vitamins, but I soon had cramp in my legs, my voice became gruff and sometimes I couldn't talk any more. Then I started to grow a moustache and my periods stopped. I then refused to take these pills. One morning in October 1977, the secret police took me at 7am and questioned me about my refusal to take pills prescribed by the trainer. I then decided to flee, with my fiancé.
She brought with her to the West grey tablets and green powder she said had been given to her, to members of her club, and to other athletes. The West German doping analyst Manfred Donike reportedly identified them as anabolic steroids. She said she stayed quiet for a year for the sake of her family. But when her father then lost his job and her sister was expelled from her handball club, she decided to tell her story.
East Germany closed itself to the sporting world in May 1965. In 1977 the shot-putter Ilona Slupianek, who weighed 93 kg, failed a test for anabolic steroids at the European Cup meeting in Helsinki and thereafter athletes were tested before they left the country. At the same time, the Kreischa testing laboratory near Dresden passed into government control; it reputedly made around 12,000 tests a year on East German athletes but without any being penalised.
The International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) suspended Slupianek for 12 months, a penalty that ended two days before the European championships in Prague. In the reverse of what the IAAF hoped, sending her home to East Germany meant she was free to train unchecked with anabolic steroids, if she wanted to, and then compete for another gold medal, which she won.
After that, almost nothing emerged from the East German sports schools and laboratories. A rare exception was the visit by the sports-writer and former athlete, Doug Gilbert of the Edmonton Sun, who said:
- Dr (Heinz) Wuschech knows more about anabolic steroids than any doctor I have ever met, and yet he cannot discuss them openly any more than Geoff Capes or Mac Wilkins can openly discuss them in the current climate of amateur sports regulation. What I did learn in East Germany was that they feel there is little danger from anabolica, as they call it, when the athletes are kept on strictly monitored programmes. Although the extremely dangerous side-effects are admitted, they are statistically no more likely to occur than side-effects from the birth control pill. If, that is, programmes are constantly medically monitored as to dosage.
Other reports came from the occasional athlete who fled to the West – 15 of them between 1976 and 1979. One, the ski-jumper Hans-Georg Aschenbach, said: "Long-distance skiers start having injections to their knees from the age 14 because of their intensive training." He said: "For every Olympic champion, there are at least 350 invalids. There are gymnasts among the girls who have to wear corsets from the age of 18 because their spine and their ligaments have become so worn... There are young people so worn out by the intensive training that they come out of it mentally blank [lessivés – washed out], which is even more painful than a deformed spine."
After the 1990 German reunification, on 26 August 1993 the records were opened and evidence found that the Stasi, the state secret police, supervised systematic doping of East German athletes from 1971 until reunification in 1990. Doping existed in other countries, says the expert Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, both communist and capitalist, but the difference with East Germany was that it was a state policy. The Sportvereinigung Dynamo (English:Dynamo Sports Club) was especially singled out[by whom?] as a center for doping in the former East Germany. Many former club officials and some athletes found themselves charged after the dissolution of the country. Victims of doping, trying to gain justice and compensation, set up a special page on the internet to list people involved in doping in the GDR.
State-endorsed doping began with the Cold War of 1947–1991, when every Eastern Bloc gold represented an ideological victory. From 1974, Manfred Ewald, the head of East Germany's sports federation, imposed blanket doping. At the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, the country of 17 million collected nine gold medals. Four years later the total was 20 and in 1976 it doubled again to 40. Ewald was quoted as having told coaches, "They're still so young and don't have to know everything." In July 2000 Ewald received a 22-month suspended sentence, to the outrage of his victims. Often, doping took place without the knowledge of the athletes, some of them as young as ten years of age. It is estimated[by whom?] that around 10,000 former athletes bear the physical and mental scars of years of drug abuse; one of them, Rica Reinisch, a triple Olympic champion and world record-setter at the 1980 Summer Olympics, has since suffered numerous miscarriages and recurring ovarian cysts.
Two former Dynamo Berlin club doctors, Dieter Binus, chief of the national women's team[which?] from 1976 to 1980, and Bernd Pansold, in charge of the sports medicine center in East Berlin, were committed for trial for allegedly supplying 19 teenagers with illegal substances. Binus was sentenced in August, Pansold in December 1998 – both were found guilty of administering hormones to underage female athletes from 1975 to 1984.
Virtually no East German athlete ever failed an official drugs test, though Stasi files show that many did produce failed tests at Kreischa, the Saxon laboratory (German:Zentrales Dopingkontroll-Labor des Sportmedizinischen Dienstes) that was at the time approved by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), now called the Institute of Doping Analysis and Sports Biochemistry (IDAS). In 2005, 15 years after the end of East Germany, the manufacturer of the drugs, Jenapharm, still found itself involved in numerous lawsuits from doping victims, being sued by almost 200 former athletes.
Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes who publicly admitted to doping, accusing their coaches:
Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes disqualified for doping:
- Ilona Slupianek (Ilona Slupianek failed a test along with three Finnish athletes at the 1977 European Cup, becoming the only East German athlete ever to be convicted of doping)
Based on the admission by Pollack, the United States Olympic Committee asked for the redistribution of gold medals won in the 1976 Summer Olympics. Despite court rulings in Germany that substantiate claims of systematic doping by some East German swimmers, the IOC executive board announced that it has no intention of revising the Olympic record books. In rejecting the American petition on behalf of its women's medley relay team in Montreal and a similar petition from the British Olympic Association on behalf of Sharron Davies, the IOC made it clear that it wanted to discourage any such appeals in the future.
According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the IOC to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts". On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games."
A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists, would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols. The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.
Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements. The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergey Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2020)
The 800-page "Doping in Germany from 1950 to today" study details how the West German government helped fund a wide-scale doping programme. West Germany encouraged and covered up a culture of doping across many sports for decades. Clemens Prokop, head of Germany's athletics federation, told Reuters Television in an interview, "It is a bit of a problem that there is a short version that has been published and that names have not been named."
Immediately after the 1954 FIFA World Cup Final, rumors emerged that the West German team had taken performance-enhancing substances. Several members of the team fell ill with jaundice, presumably from a contaminated needle. Members of the team later claimed they had been injected with glucose, and the team physician Franz Loogen said in 2004 that the players had only been given Vitamin C before the game. A Leipzig University study in 2010 posited that the West German players had been injected with the banned substance methamphetamine.
According to the German Olympic Sports Association (DOSB), doping was common in the West German athletes of the 1980s. West German heptathlete Birgit Dressel died at age 26 due to sudden multiple organ failure, triggered at least in part by long-term steroid abuse. In the newly emerging doping discussion in 2013 after submission of the final report of the anti-doping commission, the former German sprinter Manfred Ommer accused the Freiburg physician Armin Klümper: "Klümper was the largest doper on this planet."
China conducted a state-sanctioned doping programme on athletes in the 1980s and 1990s. The majority of revelations of Chinese doping have focused on swimmers and track and field athletes, such as Ma Junren's Ma Family Army (馬家軍).
In a July 2012 interview published by the Sydney Morning Herald newspaper, Chen Zhangho, the lead doctor for the Chinese Olympic team at the Los Angeles, Seoul and Barcelona Olympics told of how he had tested hormones, blood doping and steroids on about fifty elite athletes. Chen also accused the United States, the Soviet Union and France of using performance-enhancing drugs at the same time as China.
In 2012 and 2017 Xue Yinxian revealed systematic doping of Chinese athletes in Olympic Games (and in other international sport events). He has claimed that more than 10,000 athletes in China were doped in the systematic Chinese government doping program and that they received performance-enhancing drugs in the 1980s and 1990s. He stated that the entirety of international medals (both in the Olympics and other international competitions) won by Chinese athletes in the 1980s and 1990s must be taken back. This is contrary to previous statements by the Chinese government, which had denied involvement in systematic doping, claiming that athletes doped individually. The International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency have investigated these allegations.
Systematic doping in Russian sports has resulted in 47 Olympic and tens of world championships medals being stripped from Russian competitors—the most of any country, more than four times the number of the runner-up, and more than 30% of the global total. Russia also has the most competitors that have been caught doping at the Olympic Games, with more than 200.
Russian doping is distinct from doping in other countries because in Russia the state supplied steroids and other drugs to sportspeople. Due to widespread doping violations, including an attempt to sabotage ongoing investigations by the manipulation of computer data, on 9 December 2019 the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned Russia from all international sport for four years. As at the 2018 Winter Olympics, WADA will allow individual cleared Russian athletes to compete neutrally under a title to be determined (which may not include the name "Russia", unlike the use of "Olympic Athletes from Russia" in 2018).
Russia later filed an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) against the WADA decision. The Court of Arbitration for Sport, on review of Russia's appeal of its case from WADA, ruled on 17 December 2020 to reduce the penalty that WADA had imposed. Instead of banning Russia from sporting events, the ruling allowed Russia to participate at the Olympics and other international events, but for a period of two years the team cannot use the Russian name, flag, or anthem and must present themselves as "Neutral Athlete" or "Neutral Team". The ruling does allow for team uniforms to display "Russia" on the uniform as well as the use of the Russian flag's colors within the uniform's design, although the name should be up to equal predominance as the "Neutral Athlete/Team" designation. Russia can appeal the decision.
On 19 February 2021, it was announced that Russia would compete under the acronym "ROC", after the name of the Russian Olympic Committee. On aftermatch, the IOC announced that the Russian national flag would be substituted by the flag of the Russian Olympic Committee. It would also be allowed to use team uniforms bearing the words "Russian Olympic Committee", or the acronym "ROC" would be added.
On 15 April 2021, the uniforms for the Russian Olympic Committee athletes were unveiled, featuring the colours of the Russian flag. On 22 April 2021, the replacement for Russia's anthem was approved by the IOC, after an earlier choice of the patriotic Russian war song "Katyusha" was rejected. A fragment of Pyotr Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1 is used.
In 2003, Wade Exum, the United States Olympic Committee's director of drug-control administration from 1991 to 2000, gave copies of documents to Sports Illustrated that revealed that some 100 American athletes failed drug tests from 1988 to 2000, arguing that they should have been prevented from competing in the Olympics but were nevertheless cleared to compete; those athletes included Carl Lewis, Joe DeLoach and Floyd Heard. Before showing the documents to Sports Illustrated, Exum tried to use them in a lawsuit against USOC, accusing the organization of racial discrimination and wrongful termination against him and cover-up over the failed tests. the Denver federal Court summarily dismissed his case for lack of evidence. The USOC labelled his case "baseless" as he himself was the one in charge of screening the anti-doping test program of the organization and clarifying that the athletes were cleared according to the rules.
Carl Lewis broke his silence on allegations that he was the beneficiary of a drugs cover-up, admitting he had failed tests for banned substances, but claiming he was just one of "hundreds" of American athletes who were allowed to escape bans, concealed by the USOC. Lewis has acknowledged that he failed three tests during the 1988 US Olympic trials, which under international rules at the time should have prevented him from competing in the 1988 Summer Olympics. Former athletes and officials came out against the USOC cover-up. "For so many years I lived it. I knew this was going on, but there's absolutely nothing you can do as an athlete. You have to believe governing bodies are doing what they are supposed to do. And it is obvious they did not," said former American sprinter and 1984 Olympic champion, Evelyn Ashford.
Exum's documents revealed that Carl Lewis had tested positive three times at the 1988 Olympics trials for minimum amounts of pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, which were banned stimulants. Bronchodilators are also found in cold medication. Due to the rules, his case could have led to disqualification from the Seoul Olympics and suspension from competition for six months. The levels of the combined stimulants registered in the separate tests were 2 ppm, 4 ppm and 6 ppm. Lewis defended himself, claiming that he had accidentally consumed the banned substances. After the supplements that he had taken were analyzed to prove his claims, the USOC accepted his claim of inadvertent use, since a dietary supplement he ingested was found to contain "Ma huang", the Chinese name for Ephedra (ephedrine is known to help weight-loss). Fellow Santa Monica Track Club teammates Joe DeLoach and Floyd Heard were also found to have the same banned stimulants in their systems, and were cleared to compete for the same reason. The highest level of the stimulants Lewis recorded was 6 ppm, which was regarded as a positive test in 1988 but is now regarded as negative test. The acceptable level has been raised to ten parts per million for ephedrine and twenty-five parts per million for other substances. According to the IOC rules at the time, positive tests with levels lower than 10 ppm were cause of further investigation but not immediate ban. Neal Benowitz, a professor of medicine at UC San Francisco who is an expert on ephedrine and other stimulants, agreed that "These [levels] are what you'd see from someone taking cold or allergy medicines and are unlikely to have any effect on performance." Following Exum's revelations the IAAF acknowledged that at the 1988 Olympic Trials the USOC indeed followed the correct procedures in dealing with eight positive findings for ephedrine and ephedrine-related compounds in low concentration. The federation also reviewed in 1988 the relevant documents with the athletes' names undisclosed and stated that "the medical committee felt satisfied, however, on the basis of the information received that the cases had been properly concluded by the USOC as 'negative cases' in accordance with the rules and regulations in place at the time and no further action was taken".
United States has had eight Olympic medals stripped for doping violations. In all cases, the US government or the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) had nothing to do with it, and sanctioned athletes acted on their own. In the case of swimmer Rick DeMont, the USOC recognized his gold-medal performance in the 1972 Summer Olympics in 2001, but only the IOC has the power to restore his medal, and it has as of 2017[update] refused to do so. DeMont originally won the gold medal in 4:00.26. Following the race, the IOC stripped him of his gold medal after his post-race urinalysis tested positive for traces of the banned substance ephedrine contained in his prescription asthma medication, Marax. The positive test following the 400-meter freestyle final also deprived him of a chance at multiple medals, as he was not permitted to swim in any other events at the 1972 Olympics, including the 1,500-meter freestyle for which he was the then-current world record-holder. Before the Olympics, DeMont had properly declared his asthma medications on his medical disclosure forms, but the USOC had not cleared them with the IOC's medical committee.
There have been few incidents of doping in football, mainly due to FIFA's belief that education and prevention with constant in and out-of-competition controls play a key role in making high-profile competitions free of performance-enhancing drugs. The FIFA administration work alongside team physicians to fight for dope free competitions, having them sign a joint declaration that states they agree with having routine blood testing to check for blood doping before any FIFA World Cup.
In 2014, the biological passport was introduced in the 2014 FIFA World Cup; blood and urine samples from all players before the competition and from two players per team and per match are analysed by the Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses.
Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC)
In December 2013, the UFC began a campaign to drug test their entire roster randomly all year-round. Random testing, however, became problematic for the promotion as it began to affect revenue, as fighters who had tested positive would need to be taken out of fights, which adversely affected fight cards, and therefore pay-per-view sales. If the UFC were not able to find a replacement fighter fights would have to be cancelled. According to Steven Marrocco of MMAjunkie.com, about 31% of UFC fighters subjected to random testing since the program first started have failed due to using performance-enhancing drugs. That is approximately five failed tests for every sixteen random screenings.
From July 2015, the UFC has advocated to all commissions that every fighter be tested in competition for every card. Lorenzo Feritta, who at the time was one of the presidents of the UFC, said, "We want 100 percent of the fighters tested the night they compete". Also, in addition to the drug testing protocols in place for competitors on fight night, the UFC conducts additional testing for main event fighters or any fighters that are due to compete in championship matches. This includes enhanced, random 'out of competition' testing for performance-enhancing drugs, with both urine and blood samples being taken. The UFC also announced that all potential UFC signees would be subject to mandatory pre-contract screening for performance-enhancing drugs prior to being offered a contract with the promotion.
The use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport has become an increasing problem across a wide range of sports. It is defined as any substance or drug that, when taken, gives an athlete an unfair advantage relative to a "clean" athlete. The banning of these drugs promotes a level playing field and equality among athletes. The use of 'the suit' in swimming, which gives athletes an advantage in the way of hydrodynamics, has been banned from international competition due to the unfair advantage it delivered. The drugs taken by athletes differ widely based on the performance needs of the sport.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is largely taken by endurance athletes who seek a higher level of red blood cells, which leads to more oxygenated blood, and a higher VO2 max. An athlete's VO2 max is highly correlated with success within endurance sports such as swimming, long-distance running, cycling, rowing, and cross-country skiing. EPO has recently become prevalent amongst endurance athletes due to its potency and low degree of detectability when compared to other methods of doping such as blood transfusion. While EPO is believed to have been widely used by athletes in the 1990s, there was not a way to directly test for the drug until 2002 as there was no specific screening process to test athletes . Athletes at the Olympic Games are tested for EPO through blood and urine tests. Stringent guidelines and regulations can lessen the danger of doping that has existed within some endurance sports.
The Convicts of the Road
In 1924, a journalist Albert Londres followed the Tour de France for the French newspaper Le Petit Parisien. At Coutances he heard that the previous year's winner, Henri Pélissier, his brother Francis and a third rider, Maurice Ville, had resigned from the competition after an argument with the organiser Henri Desgrange. Pélissier explained the problem—whether or not he had the right to take off a jersey—and went on to talk of drugs, reported in Londres' race diary, in which he invented the phrase Les Forçats de la Route (The Convicts of the Road):
- "You have no idea what the Tour de France is," Henri said. "It's a Calvary. Worse than that, because the road to the Cross has only 14 stations and ours has 15. We suffer from the start to the end. You want to know how we keep going? Here..." He pulled a phial from his bag. "That's cocaine, for our eyes. This is chloroform, for our gums."
- "This," Ville said, emptying his shoulder bag "is liniment to put warmth back into our knees."
- "And pills. Do you want to see pills? Have a look, here are the pills." Each pulled out three boxes.
- "The truth is," Francis said, "that we keep going on dynamite."
Henri spoke of being as white as shrouds once the dirt of the day had been washed off, then of their bodies being drained by diarrhea, before continuing:
- "At night, in our rooms, we can't sleep. We twitch and dance and jig about as though we were doing St Vitus's Dance..."
- "There's less flesh on our bodies than on a skeleton," Francis said.
Francis Pélissier said much later: "Londres was a famous reporter but he didn't know about cycling. We kidded him a bit with our cocaine and our pills. Even so, the Tour de France in 1924 was no picnic." The acceptance of drug-taking in the Tour de France was so complete by 1930, when the race changed to national teams that were to be paid for by the organisers, that the rule book distributed to riders by the organiser, Henri Desgrange, reminded them that drugs were not among items with which they would be provided. The use of Pot Belge by road cyclists in continental Europe exemplifies a cross-over between recreational and performance-enhancing abuse of drugs by sportsman.
In 1998, the entire Festina team were excluded from the Tour de France following the discovery of a team car containing large amounts of various performance-enhancing drugs. The team director later admitted that some of the cyclists were routinely given banned substances. Six other teams pulled out in protest including Dutch team TVM who left the tour still being questioned by the police. The Festina scandal overshadowed cyclist Marco Pantani's tour win, but he himself later failed a test. The infamous "Pot Belge" or "Belgian mix" has a decades-long history in pro cycling, among both riders and support staff. David Millar, the 2003 World-Time Trial Champion, admitted using EPO, and was stripped of his title and suspended for two years. Roberto Heras was stripped of his victory in the 2005 Vuelta a España and suspended for two years after testing positive for EPO.
Floyd Landis was the initial winner of the 2006 Tour de France. But a urine sample taken from Landis immediately after his Stage 17 win has twice tested positive for banned synthetic testosterone as well as a ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone nearly three times the limit allowed by World Anti-Doping Agency rules. The International Cycling Union stripped him of his 2006 Tour de France title. Second place finisher Óscar Pereiro was officially declared the winner.
Lance Armstrong case
Lance Armstrong was world number one in 1996. In the same year he recovered from severe testicular cancer and continued to break records and win his seventh Tour de France in 2005. After beating cancer and breaking records he was accused of doping. Teammates of Lance had been caught taking EPO (Erythropoietin), which made the accusations against Armstrong stronger.
On 22 October 2012 Lance Armstrong was officially stripped of his Tour de France titles since 1 August 1998. As a response to the decisions of the USADA and UCI, Armstrong resigned from the Lance Armstrong Foundation. He later admitted to doping in an interview with Oprah Winfrey.
Other endurance sports
In triathlon, 2004 Hawaii Ironman winner Nina Kraft, was disqualified for a positive test to EPO. She remains the only Hawaii Ironman winner to be disqualified for doping offences. Sports lawyer Michelle Gallen has said that the pursuit of doping athletes has turned into a modern-day witch-hunt.
In sports where physical strength is favored, athletes have used anabolic steroids, known for their ability to increase physical strength and muscle mass. The drugs mimic the effect of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the body. They were developed after Eastern Bloc countries demonstrated success in weightlifting during the 1940s. At the time they were using testosterone, which carried with it negative side effects, and anabolic steroids were developed as a solution. The drugs have been used across a wide range of sports from football and basketball to weightlifting and track and field. While not as life-threatening as the drugs used in endurance sports, anabolic steroids have negative side effects, including:
Side effects in men
- Impaired liver function
- Breast formation (Gynecomastia)
- Increase in oestrogen
- Suppression of spermatogenesis: As endogenous testosterone is the major regulator of the HPG axis, the exogenous testosterone and androgen anabolic steroids exert a suppressive effect of LH and FSH, leading to a decrease in intratesticular and secreted testosterone, decrease in spermatogenesis and sperm production.
- Lack of libido and erectile dysfunction: especially occurs in those men abusing aromatisable androgen anabolic steroids, resulting in high oestrogen levels. Although physiological levels of oestrogens are necessary for normal sexual function, the high doses and the imbalance between testosterone and estradiol appear to be the cause of sexual dysfunction.
- Increased sex drive
- Male pattern baldness
- Risk of heart failure
Side effects in women
- Hair loss
- Male pattern baldness
- Hypertrophy of the clitoris
- Increased sex drive
- Irregularities of the menstrual cycle
- Development of masculine facial traits
- Increased coarseness of the skin
- Premature closure of the epiphysis
- Deepening of the voice
In countries where the use of these drugs is controlled, there is often a black market trade of smuggled or counterfeit drugs. The quality of these drugs may be poor and can cause health risks. In countries where anabolic steroids are strictly regulated, some have called for regulatory relief. Anabolic steroids are available over-the-counter in some countries such as Thailand and Mexico.
Sports that are members of the IOC also enforce drug regulations; for example bridge.
Reaction from sports organizations
Many sports organizations have banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict rules and penalties for people who are caught using them. The International Amateur Athletic Federation, now World Athletics, was the first international governing body of sport to take the situation seriously. In 1928 they banned participants from doping, but with little in the way of testing available they had to rely on the word of the athlete that they were clean. It was not until 1966 that FIFA and Union Cycliste Internationale (cycling) joined the IAAF in the fight against drugs, followed by the International Olympic Committee the following year. Progression in pharmacology has always outstripped the ability of sports federations to implement rigorous testing procedures but since the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency in 1999, it has become more effective to catch athletes who use drugs. The first tests for athletes were at the 1966 European Championships and two years later the IOC implemented their first drug tests at both the Summer and Winter Olympics. Anabolic steroids became prevalent during the 1970s and after a method of detection was found they were added to the IOC's prohibited substances list in 1975, after which the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal were the first Olympic games which tested for them.
Over the years, different sporting bodies have evolved differently in the struggle against doping. Some, such as athletics and cycling, are becoming increasingly vigilant against doping. However, there has been criticism that sports such as football (soccer) and baseball are doing nothing about the issue, and letting athletes implicated in doping away unpunished.
Some commentators maintain that, as outright prevention of doping is an impossibility, all doping should be legalised. However, most disagree with this, pointing out the claimed harmful long-term effects of many doping agents. Opponents claim that with doping legal, all competitive athletes would be compelled to use drugs, and the net effect would be a level playing field but with widespread health consequences. A common rebuttal to this argument asserts that anti-doping efforts have been largely ineffective due to both testing limitations and lack of enforcement, and so sanctioned steroid use would not be markedly different from the situation already in existence.
Another point of view is that doping could be legalized to some extent using a drug whitelist and medical counseling, such that medical safety is ensured, with all usage published. Under such a system, it is likely that athletes would attempt to cheat by exceeding official limits to try to gain an advantage; this could be considered conjecture as drug amounts do not always correlate linearly with performance gains.
The influence of popular culture
Social pressure is one of the factors that leads to doping in sport. The media and society work together to construct a view of what masculinity and femininity should look like. Adolescent athletes are constantly influenced by what they see on the media, and some go to extreme measures to achieve the ideal image since society channels Judith Butler's definition of gender as a performative act. Examples of social pressures were given in a study done on an online bodybuilding community where bodybuilders doped because they felt like it was a rite of passage to be accepted into the community, and to feel validated. Both men and women are being materialized in the context of doping in sport; in an interview involving 140 men, it was concluded that "bodily practices are essential for masculine identity," and it was determined that the media highly publicizes female athletes who were strong, and thin. This leads to the issue of the consumption of performance enhancement drugs to achieve muscular or thin figures, and the assumption that the opponents are also taking performance-enhancing drugs, deeming it as an acceptable behavior to conform to. In addition, society's embracement of the "winning is everything" spirit leads many athletes to participate in doping, hoping that they will not be caught.
Elite athletes have financial competitive motivations that cause them to dope and these motivations differ from that of recreational athletes. The common theme among these motivations is the pressure to physically perform. In a study of 101 individuals, 86% responded that their use of performance enhancement drugs were influenced by the potential athletic success, 74% by the economic aspect, and 30% by self-confidence and social recognition related reasons. In another study of 40 people, it was concluded that athletes used performance enhancement drugs for healing purposes so that they were an able competitor for the economic rewards involved with elite sports. Physical pressures often overlap with social pressures to have a certain body build. This is the case with muscle dysmorphia, where an athlete wants a more muscular physique for functionality and self- image purposes. The most popular motive for athletes to take supplements is to prevent any nutrient deficiencies and to strengthen the immune system. These factors all focus on improving the body for performance.
Psychology is another factor to take into consideration in doping in sport. It becomes a behavioral issue when the athlete acknowledges the health risks associated with doping, yet participates in it anyway. This has to do with the psychological thinking that the drug will make one feel invincible. The individuals are very egotistic in their way of thinking and their motivation is dependent on the performance enhancement drug since they believe that it delivers the results. On a study on health psychology, Quirk points out three different psychological aspects that lead one to dope: social cognition, stress and strain, and addiction. The social and physical pressures can alter an athlete's way of thinking, leading them to believe that they must take performance enhancement drugs since everyone else is doing it, known as “the doping dilemma.”
Anti-doping organizations and legislation
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2015)
- In 1999, initiated by the International Olympic Committee to fight against doping in sport, the World Anti-Doping Agency had been founded. After the doping scandal in cycling in the summer 1998 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided to establish the WADA to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight of against doping in sport. The headquarters for WADA is in Montreal, Canada. The WADA is the supreme international authority and is allowed to do doping tests and can determine which substances are illegal.
- In February 2011, the United States Olympic Committee and the Ad Council launched an anti-steroid campaign called Play Asterisk Free aimed at teens. The campaign first launched in 2008 under the name "Don't Be An Asterisk!".
- In October 2012, the USADA released evidence to corroborate their doping claim against cyclist Lance Armstrong. According to USADA CEO Travis T. Tygart, the evidence against Armstrong includes, "...scientific data and laboratory test results that further prove the use, possession and distribution of performance enhancing drugs".
- On 1 November 1989, US Senator Joseph Biden introduced S. 1829, The Steroid Trafficking Act of 1989. The purpose of the act was simple: It would "amend the Controlled Substances Act to further restrict the use of steroids. By designating anabolic steroids as a Schedule II controlled substance, the bill would crack down on illegal steroid use". (Senate Judiciary Committee, 2002, p. 282).
Under established doping control protocols, the athlete will be asked to provide a urine sample, which will be divided into two, each portion to be preserved within sealed containers bearing the same unique identifying number and designation respectively as A- and B-samples. An athlete whose A-sample has tested positive for a prohibited substance is requested an analysis of his or her B-sample after a confirmation test on sample A that delivered the same results. If the B-sample test results match the A-sample results, then the athlete is considered to have a positive test, otherwise, the test results are negative. This confirmation process ensures the safety of the individual.
see also: blood doping
The blood test detects illegal performance enhancement drugs through the measurement of indicators that change with the use of recombinant human erythropoietin:
- Level of Iron
The gas chromatography-combustion-IRMS is a way to detect any variations in the isotopic composition of an organic compound from the standard. This test is used to detect whether or not synthetic testosterone was consumed, leading to an increased abnormal testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) level.
Athlete biological passport
The athlete biological passport is a program that tracks the location of an athlete to combat doping in sports. This means that the athlete can be monitored and drug tested wherever they are and this data can be compared to the history of their doping test results. There is an ongoing discussion about how this measure can be seen as a violation of an individual's privacy.
Re-testing of samples
According to Article 6.5 in the World Anti-Doping Code samples may be re-tested later. Samples from high-profile events, such as the Olympic Games, are now re-tested up to eight years later to take advantage of new techniques for detecting banned substances.
Cheating the tests
Athletes seeking to avoid testing positive use various methods. The most common methods include:
- Urine replacement, which involves replacing dirty urine with clean urine from someone who is not taking banned substances. Urine replacement can be done by catheterization or with a prosthetic penis such as The Original Whizzinator.
- Diuretics, used to cleanse the system before having to provide a sample.
- Blood transfusions, which increase the blood's oxygen carrying capacity, in turn increasing endurance without the presence of drugs that could trigger a positive test result.
- To avoid being tested during training periods, athletes can make themselves unavailable. To mitigate this, athletes have to report their location at any time. If intended doping tests could not be done because the athlete could not be found, three times during a year, it's considered a doping violation, same as refusing a test. There is a web site and a phone app, called ADAMS, in which athletes are expected to report their location.
Donald Berry, writing in the journal Nature, has called attention to potential problems with the validity of ways in which many of the standardised tests are performed;[subscription required] in his article, as described in an accompanying editorial, Berry
argues that anti-doping authorities have not adequately defined and publicized how they arrived at the criteria used to determine whether or not a test result is positive [which are] ...calibrated in part by testing a small number of volunteers taking the substance in question. [Berry argues] ...that individual labs need to verify these detection limits in larger groups that include known dopers and non-dopers under blinded conditions that mimic what happens during competition.
The editorial closes, saying "Nature believes that accepting 'legal limits' of specific metabolites without such rigorous verification goes against the foundational standards of modern science, and results in an arbitrary test for which the rate of false positives and false negatives can never be known."
G. Pascal Zachary argues in a Wired essay that legalizing performance-enhancing substances, as well as genetic enhancements once they became available, would satisfy society's need for übermenschen and reverse the decline in public interest in sports.
Sports scholar Verner Moller argues that society is hypocritical when it holds athletes to moral standards, but do not conform to those morals themselves. Fox Sports writer Jen Floyd Engel stated in an article, "We live in a pharmacological society. We live in a society of short cuts, of fake this and enhanced that, and somehow we keep trying to sell the line that sports has become this evil empire of cheating. The reality is athletes are merely doing what so many of us do and celebrate and watch every single day of our lives."
Sociologist Ellis Cashmore argues that what is considered doping is too arbitrary: transfusing blood cells is not allowed, but other methods of boosting blood cell count, such as hypobaric chambers, are allowed. Other scholars have advanced similar arguments.
Anti-doping policies instituted by individual sporting governing bodies may conflict with local laws. A notable case includes the National Football League (NFL)'s inability to suspend players found with banned substances, after it was ruled by a federal court that local labor laws superseded the NFL's anti-doping regime. The challenge was supported by the National Football League Players Association.
Athletes caught doping may be subject to penalties from their local, as well from the individual sporting, governing body. The legal status of anabolic steroids varies from country to country. Fighters found using performance-enhancing drugs in mixed martial arts competitions (e.g. the UFC) could face civil and/or criminal charges once Bill S-209 passes.
Under certain circumstances, when athletes need to take a prohibited substance to treat a medical condition, a therapeutic use exemption may be granted.
- Cheating in sports
- McLaren Report
- Mitchell Report
- Doping at the Olympic Games
- Cheating at the Paralympic Games
- Doping in Russia
- Doping in China
- Doping in the United States
- Doping in East Germany
- BALCO scandal
- Caffeine use for sport
- Cannabis and sports
- Concussions in sport
- Doping in pigeon racing
- Equine drug testing
- Gene doping
- Mechanical doping
- Stem cell doping
- Technology doping
- Kumar, R (2010). "Competing against doping". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 44: i8. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.078725.23.
- Jean-Pierre de Mondenard (2000). Dopage : L'imposture des performances. Wilmette, Ill: Chiron. ISBN 978-2-7027-0639-8.
- Grajewski, Tadeusw: The Building That Would Not Go Away, Royal Agriciultural Hall, UK, 1989
- Woodland, Les: This Island Race, Mousehold Press, UK, 2005
- Novich, Max M., Abbotempo, UK, 1964
- Bearings, US, 24 December 1896, cited Ritchie, Andrew, Major Taylor, Bicycle Books, US, 1988
- New York Times, US, 1897, cited McCullagh, James, American Bicycle Racing, Rodale Press, U.S., 1976
- Novich, ibid. Cited De Mondenard, Dr Jean-Pierre: Dopage, l'imposture des performances, Chiron, France, 2000
- Hoberman, John; Dopers on Wheels: The Tour's sorry history, MSNBC/id/19462071/ retrieved December 2007
- Ulrich, R.; et al. (2017). "Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys" (PDF). Sports Medicine. 48 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0765-4. PMID 28849386. S2CID 207494451.
- "Doping: More than 30% of athletes at 2011 Worlds admit to doping". BBC Sport. 29 August 2017.
- Goldman, Robert; Ronald Klatz (1992). Death in the locker room: drugs & sports (2nd ed.). Elite Sports Medicine Publications. p. 24. ISBN 9780963145109.
- Connor, James; Woolf, Jules; Mazanov, Jason (January 2013). "Would they dope? Revisiting the Goldman dilemma" (PDF). British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (11): 697–700. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091826. PMID 23343717. S2CID 32029739. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- Connor, J. M; Mazanov, J (2009). "Would you dope? A general population test of the Goldman dilemma". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 43 (11): 871–872. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.057596. PMID 19211586. S2CID 45227397.
- Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, FT; Van Eenoo, P (August 2011). "Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 401 (2): 421–32. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-4863-0. PMID 21479548. S2CID 26752501.
- Kanayama G, Hudson JI, Pope HG (November 2008). "Long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse: A looming public health concern?". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 98 (1–2): 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.05.004. PMC 2646607. PMID 18599224.
- Laure, P.: Les répresentations du dopage; approche psycho-sociologique, Thèse STAPS, Nancy, France, 1994
- Yesalis CE, Anderson WA, Buckley WE, Wright JE (1990). "Incidence of the nonmedical use of anabolic-androgenic steroids" (PDF). NIDA Research Monograph. 102: 97–112. PMID 2079979. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2007.
- Fair JD (1993). "Isometrics or Steroids? Exploring New Frontiers Of Strength in the Early 1960s" (PDF). Journal of Sport History. 20 (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008.
- Peters, Mary: Mary P, Arrow Books, UK, 1976
- Walker Jennifer (2009). "Cutaneous Manifestations of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Athletes". International Journal of Dermatology. 48 (10): 1044–1048. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04139.x. PMID 19785085. S2CID 39019651.
- 1988 Summer Olympics
- "Carl Lewis | biography – American athlete". Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- Nicole Thualagant (2012). "The conceptualization of fitness doping and its limitations". Sport in Society. 15 (3): 409–419. doi:10.1080/17430437.2012.653209. S2CID 142526852.
- "Scorecard". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Carl Lewis's positive test covered up". Smh.com.au. 18 April 2003. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Wallechinsky and Loucky, The Complete Book of the Olympics (2012 edition), page 61
- Duncan Mackay (18 April 2003). "The dirtiest race in history Olympic 100m final, 1988". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "The most corrupt race ever". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- Duncan Mackay (23 April 2003). "Lewis: 'Who cares if I tested positive'". The Guardian.
- Doping of athletes, a European survey, Council of Europe, France, 1964
- Grant, D.N.W.; Air Force, UK, 1944
- Gabbert, Michael: How we uncovered the Everton drug scandal, The People, UK, 13 September 1964
- Brera, G. Le Géant et la Lime (French title), Ed. Campagnolo, Italy, 1995, cited De Mondenard
- Van Dijk, Pieter: Doping bestaat en doen we eraan, Het Vrije Volk, Holland, 13 December 1961
- Cited by fellow professional Tony Hewson in Journal, Fellowship of Cycling Old Timers, 158/72
- Huyskens, P: Daar was 't, een biografie van Kees Pellenaars, Netherlands,1973
- Parienté, R; Lagorce, G (1973). La Fabuleuse Histoire des Jeux Olympiques. France: ODIL. ISBN 978-2-8307-0583-6.
- Lunzenfichter, Alain (10 December 2007). "C'est pas du Jeu!". L'Équipe. France.
- Woodland, Les (1980). Dope, the use of drugs in Sport. UK: David and Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-7894-6.
- Sport Information Dienst, W Germany, December 1978
- Costelle D, Berlioux M, Histoires des Jeux Olympiques, Larousse, France, 1980
- Cited Woodland, Les: Dope, the use of drugs in sport, David and Charles, UK, 1980.
- Le Figaro, France, 19 January 1989
- "Sports Doping Statistics Reach Plateau in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 26 February 2003. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
- Pain And Injury in Sport: Social And Ethical Analysis, Section III, Chapter 7, Page 111, by Sigmund Loland, Berit Skirstad, Ivan Waddington, Published by Routledge in 2006, ASIN: B000OI0HZG
- "Dynamo Liste (in German)". firstname.lastname@example.org. September 2002. Archived from the original on 20 April 2004. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
- "Dynamo Liste: Die Täter (in German)". email@example.com. September 2002. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Jenapharm says drugs were legal". ESPN. 28 April 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Obituary: Manfred Ewald". The Independent. 25 October 2002. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "GDR athletes sue over steroid damage". BBC News Europe. 13 March 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "New doping charges against East German doctors". BBC News. 25 November 1997. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "East German coaches fined over doping". BBC News. 31 August 1998. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Doping of underage athletes in the former GDR (in German)". Schwimmverein Limmat Zürich. 23 March 2000. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
- "Drug claim could be a bitter pill". The Times. 2 March 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "Accredited Laboratories". World Anti-Doping Agency. January 2004. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- Harding, Luke (1 November 2005). "Forgotten victims of East German doping take their battle to court". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Drugs update". Sports Publications. July 1998. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "1977: Here comes Mr. Doping". European Cup – Milan 2007. 2007. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- Longman, Jere (25 October 1998). "OLYMPICS; U.S. Seeks Redress for 1976 Doping In Olympics". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- "Despite Doping, Olympic Medals Stand". International Herald Tribune. 16 December 1998. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- Hunt, Thomas M. (2011). Drug Games: The International Olympic Committee and the Politics of Doping. University of Texas Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0292739574.
- Wilson, Wayne (Ph.D.); Derse, Ed (2001). Doping in Élite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement. Human Kinetics. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-7360-0329-2. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (13 August 2016). "The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to '84 Olympics". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "Study Says West Germany Engaged in Sports Doping". The New York Times. 8 August 2013.
- "Report: West Germany systematically doped athletes". USA Today. 3 August 2013.
- "Report exposes decades of West German doping". France 24. 5 August 2013.
- "Doping in football: A taboo subject". Deutsche Welle. 16 August 2013.
- "German newspaper sheds light on West Germany's doping practices". Deutsche Welle. 3 August 2013.
- "West Germany cultivated doping culture among athletes: report". CBC News. 5 August 2013.
- "German report sparks calls for names and new law". Reuters. 6 August 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
- "Das Wunder von Bern: Tor-Rekord und Doping-Verdacht". sueddeutsche.de (in German). 3 May 2014.
- "Erzürnte Weltmeister: "Vitamin C, sonst nichts"". Spiegel Online (in German). 31 March 2004.
- "Germany's 1954 World Cup winners 'were doped'". Agence France-Presse. 6 October 2010. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011.
- "Eine Erinnerung an den tragischen Fall Birgit Dressel". Archived from the original on 5 June 2012.
- Sportpolitik – DopingManfred Ommer: „Inhalt hat mich nicht überrascht“, Focus, 6. August 2013.
- Jinxia Dong (2003). Women, Sport, and Society in Modern China: Holding Up More Than Half the Sky. Psychology Press. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-7146-5235-1.
- "China's swimmers racing to escape country's doping past". Reuters. 19 July 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
China's swimming programme has seen its reputation tarnished by a series of scandals, most notably when one female swimmer was caught with 13 vials of human growth hormone at Sydney airport ahead of the 1998 world championships in Perth.
- "中国"马家军"昔日联名信曝光禁药丑闻 国际田联称将调查其真实性". Reuters. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
- "3 Chinese weightlifters lose 2008 Olympic titles for doping". Associated Press. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
for doping at their home 2008 Beijing Games
- "Chinese Olympians subjected to routine doping". Sydney Morning Herald. 28 July 2012.
- "Systematic doping of Chinese athletes in Olympic Games revealed by former doctor | DW | 21.10.2017".
- "Wada is accused of sitting on mass China doping claims for five years". TheGuardian.com. 23 October 2017.
- "China to make doping a criminal offence and warns athletes who test positive could be sent to prison".
- "WADA to investigate claims of systematic doping in China". Reuters. 24 October 2017.
- "Former doctor reveals more than 10,000 Chinese athletes were doping".
- "WADA Executive Committee unanimously endorses four-year period of non-compliance for the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (9 December 2019)". 9 December 2019.
- "Russia Banned from Olympics, World Cup, for State-Sponsored Doping".
- Maese, Rick (9 December 2019). "Russia banned from 2020 Tokyo Olympics". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- "Russia Confirms It Will Appeal 4-Year Olympic Ban". Time. AP. 27 December 2019. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019.
- Dunbar, Graham (17 December 2020). "Russia can't use its name and flag at the next 2 Olympics". Associated Press. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- "Russia can't use its name and flag at the next 2 Olympics". Associated Press. 17 December 2020.
- "Olympics: Russia to compete under ROC acronym in Tokyo as part of doping sanctions". Reuters. Reuters. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- "No flag allowed, but Russian colours plastered on uniforms for Tokyo Olympics | CBC Sports".
- "Uniforms for "neutral" Russian team at Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games unveiled". www.insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- "Tchaikovsky Selection To Replace Banned Russian Anthem At Tokyo 2020 and Beijing 2022 Olympics". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- "Tchaikovsky music approved as replacement for banned Russian national anthem". www.insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- "U.S. hid failed tests, files reveal". The Globe and Mail. 17 April 2003.
- "OLYMPICS; Anti-Doping Official Says U.S. Covered Up". The New York Times. 17 April 2003.
- "American attitude baffles rest of world". ESPN.com. 29 April 2020.
- "Athletics: Ready, set ... start explaining". The New Zealand Herald. 25 April 2003.
- Abrahamson, Alan (23 April 2003). "Just a Dash of Drugs in Lewis, DeLoach". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Anti-Doping Official Says U.S. Covered Up". The New York Times. 17 April 2003. p. S6.
- Mackay, Duncan (24 April 2003). "Lewis: 'Who cares I failed drug test?'". The Guardian. London.
- "This idol has feet of clay, after all". Archived from the original on 22 February 2007.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- Pete McEntegart (14 April 2003). "Scorecard". Sports Illustrated.
- "Carl Lewis's positive test covered up". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 April 2003. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- Wallechinsky and Loucky, The Complete Book of the Olympics (2012 edition), page 61.
- "IAAF: USOC followed rules over dope tests". 30 April 2003. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014.
- Abrahamson, Alan (1 May 2003). "USOC's Actions on Lewis Justified by IAAF". Los Angeles Times.
- "Better late than never". sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Associated Press. 30 January 2001. Archived from the original on 7 May 2001.
- Neil Amdur, "Of Gold and Drugs," The New York Times (4 September 1972). Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Rick DeMont. Sports-Reference.com
- Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M (1 July 2006). "FIFA's approach to doping in football". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 40 (Supplement 1): i3–i12. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.027383. PMC 2657497. PMID 16799099.
- (in French) Anti-dopage. Dvorak : "Le profil biologique, une approche complètement nouvelle" Archived 12 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, FIFA.com (page visited on 11 June 2014).
- Botter, Jeremy. "UFC Must Take Drastic Stand on PEDs in Mixed Martial Arts". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- "UFC unveils new drug-testing protocols and standards for fighters". Fox Sports. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Rosen, Daniel. Dope: A History of Performance Enhancement in Sports from the Nineteenth Century to Today.
- Wilson, Wayne (2000). Doping in Elite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Mvnt: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement. Human Kinetics. ISBN 9780736003292.
- "Full Body Swimsuit Now Banned for Professional Swimmers". ABC News. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Londres, Albert: Les frères Pélissier et leur camarade Ville abandonnent, Le Petit Parisien, 27 June 2014, France
- Woodland, Les: Yellow Jersey Guide to the Tour de France, Yellow Jersey, London, 2007
- Maso, Benji:Zweet van de Goden, Holland
- Macur, Juliet (5 August 2006). "Backup Sample on Landis Is Positive". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Backup Sample on Landis Is Positive". Velonews. 20 September 2007. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008.
- Dilger, A.; Frick, B.; Tolsdorf, F. (October 2007). "Are athletes doped? Some theoretical arguments and empirical evidence". Contemporary Economic Policy. 25 (4): 604–615. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7287.2007.00076.x. S2CID 153927363.
- "Lance Armstrong Doping Accusation". The Washington Post. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Lance Armstrong". CBS News. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "cyclingnews.com – the world centre of cycling". Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Michael Powers, "Performance-Enhancing Drugs" in Joel Houglum, in Gary L. Harrelson, Deidre Leaver-Dunn, "Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers", SLACK Incorporated, 2005, ISBN 1-55642-594-5, p. 330
- Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena (August 2015). "MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: effects on reproductive functions". European Journal of Endocrinology. 173 (2): R47–R58. doi:10.1530/EJE-15-0080. PMID 25805894.
- "Extract of the Ruling of the Hearing – Geir Helgemo". News. World Bridge Federation. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "IAAF: A Piece of Anti-Doping History: IAAF Handbook 1927–1928 | iaaf.org". iaaf.org. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "The Tribune – Magazine section – Saturday Extra". The Tribune. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "What we do". World Anti-Doping Agency. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- PhD, David E. Newton (26 November 2013). Steroids and Doping in Sports: A Reference Handbook: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610693141.
- "What Performance Enhancing Drugs Have Been or Are Banned Olympics? - Drug Use in Sports - ProCon.org". sportsanddrugs.procon.org. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- Hutchinson Brendan, Moston Stephen, Engelberg Terry (2018). "Social validation: a motivational theory of doping in an online bodybuilding community". Sport in Society. 21 (2): 260–282. doi:10.1080/17430437.2015.1096245. hdl:10072/101575. S2CID 146132782.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Ntoumanis Nikos; et al. (2014). "Personal and Psychosocial Predictors of Doping Use in Physical Activity Settings: A Meta-Analysis" (PDF). Sports Medicine. 44 (11): 1603–1624. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0240-4. PMID 25138312. S2CID 10986670.
- Morente-Sánchez Jaime, Zabala Mikel (2013). "Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge". Sports Medicine. 43 (6): 395–411. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0037-x. PMID 23532595. S2CID 6823663.
- Petro'czi, Mazanov J, Nepusz T; et al. (2008). "Comfort in big numbers: does over-estimation of doping prevalence in others indicate selfinvolvement?". J Occup Med Toxicol. 5: 3–19.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Ehrnborg Christer, Rosén Thord (2009). "The psychology behind doping in sport". Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 19 (4): 285–287. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2009.04.003. PMID 19477668.
- Striegel, H; Vollkommer, G; Dickhuth, HH (September 2002). "Combating drug use in competitive sports. An analysis from the athletes' perspective". The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 42 (3): 354–9. PMID 12094127. ProQuest 202715586.
- Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Michael (July 2010). "Clean Olympians? Doping and anti-doping: The views of talented young British athletes". International Journal of Drug Policy. 21 (4): 276–282. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.11.009. PMID 20056401.
- Quirk Frances H (2009). "Health psychology and drugs in sport". Sport in Society. 12 (3): 375–393. doi:10.1080/17430430802673726. S2CID 143704829.
- "Who We Are". World Anti-Doping Agency. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- Adcouncil.org Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Ad Council, 8 August 2008
- NPR, 10 October 2012
- "Steroid Trafficking Act of 1990". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- O'Leary, John (2001). Drugs and Doping in Sports – Socio-Legal Perspectives. Cavendish Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85941-662-4.
- Green Gary A (2006). "Doping Control for the Team Physician: A Review of Drug Testing Procedures in Sport". The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 34 (10): 1690–1698. doi:10.1177/0363546506293022. PMID 16923823. S2CID 15509976.
- WADA Clarifies B-Sample Procedure". WADA.com. 22 November 2006. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- Shehzad Basaria; Androgen Abuse in Athletes: Detection and Consequences, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 95, Issue 4, 1 April 2010, Pages 1533–1543, https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-1579
- Sottas Pierre-Edouard; et al. (2011). "The athlete biological passport". Clinical Chemistry. 57 (7): 969–976. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2011.162271. PMID 21596947.
- Willick Stuart E; et al. (2016). "The Anti‐Doping Movement". Function, and Rehabilitation. 8 (3S): S125–S132. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.12.001. PMID 26972261. S2CID 29437908.
- "Ressources" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "IOC to apply today's drug testing standards to 2006 Olympic samples". CBC Sports. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- What are Whereabouts Failures?
- ADAMS Mobile App
- Berry, D.A. (7 August 2008). "The science of doping". Nature. 454 (7205): 692–3. Bibcode:2008Natur.454..692B. doi:10.1038/454692a. PMID 18685682. S2CID 205040220.(subscription required)
- Nature editors (7 August 2008). "A level playing field?". Nature. 454 (7205): 667. Bibcode:2008Natur.454Q.667.. doi:10.1038/454667a. PMID 18685647. S2CID 158157049.
- Zachary, G. Pascal (April 2004). "Steroids for Everyone!". WIRED. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "The Armstrong Saga: Why We Should Legalise Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
- Engel, Jen Floyd (29 August 2012). "Engel: Enough with the fake steroid outrage". Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Cashmore, Ellis (24 February 2006). "The Olympics Meets the War on Drugs". StoptheDrugWar.org. The Drug Reform Coordination Network. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Collins, Rory (2017). "Lowering Restrictions on Performance Enhancing Drugs in Elite Sports". Inquiries Journal. 9 (3). Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Congress to review blocked doping suspensions". 8 October 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Belson, Ken (4 November 2009). "N.F.L. Seeks Congressional Help on Drug Policy". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- Magraken, Erik (9 March 2013). "Legal Ramifications for Using PEDs in MMA?". TopMMANews.com. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Therapeutic Use Exemptions". World Anti-Doping Agency. 20 May 2014.
- Collins, Rory (2017). "Lowering Restrictions on Performance Enhancing Drugs in Elite Sports". Inquiries Journal. 9 (3). Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Franke WW, Berendonk B (July 1997). "Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic government". Clinical Chemistry. 43 (7): 1262–79. doi:10.1093/clinchem/43.7.1262. PMID 9216474.
- Mottram, David (2005); Drugs in Sport, Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-37564-1.
- Murray, Thomas H. (2008); "Sports Enhancement", in From Birth to Death and Bench to Clinic: The Hastings Center Bioethics Briefing Book for Journalists, Policymakers, and Campaigns.
- Pope J, Harrison G, Wood RI, Rogol A, Nyberg F, Bowers L, Bhasin S (2014). "Adverse health consequences of performance-enhancing drugs: An endocrine society scientific statement". Endocrine Reviews. 35 (3): 341–375. doi:10.1210/er.2013-1058. PMC 4026349. PMID 24423981.
- Waddington and Smith (2008); An Introduction to Drugs in Sport, Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43125-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to doping.|