This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Doraemon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Doraemon
Doraemon volume 1 cover.jpg
First tankōbon volume cover, featuring Doraemon
ドラえもん
GenreComedy,[1] science fiction[2]
Manga
Written byFujiko F. Fujio
Published byShogakukan
English publisher
21st Century Publishing House (bilingual English-Chinese)
Shogakukan (bilingual)
Chingwin Publishing Group (bilingual English-Chinese)
ImprintTentōmushi Comics
MagazineCoroCoro Comic
and other Shogakukan children's magazines
DemographicChildren
Original runJanuary 1970
(first full story published)
June 23, 1996
Volumes45 (List of volumes)
Manga
Doraemon Plus
Written byFujiko F. Fujio
Published byShogakukan
ImprintTentōmushi Comics
DemographicChildren
Original runApril 25, 2005December 6, 2014
Volumes6 (List of volumes)
Anime television series
Other manga
Other media

Doraemon (Japanese: ドラえもん [doɾaemoɴ]) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Fujiko F. Fujio. The manga was first serialized in December 1969, with its 1,345 individual chapters compiled into 45 tankōbon volumes and published by Shogakukan from 1970 to 1996. The story revolves around an earless robotic cat named Doraemon, who travels back in time from the 22nd century to aid a boy named Nobita Nobi.

The manga spawned a media franchise. Three anime TV series have been adapted in 1973, 1979, and 2005. Additionally, Shin-Ei Animation has produced over forty animated films, including two 3D computer animated films, all of which are distributed by Toho. Various types of merchandise and media have been developed, including soundtrack albums, video games, and musicals. The manga series was licensed for an English language release in North America, via Amazon Kindle, by a collaboration of Fujiko F. Fujio Pro with Voyager Japan and AltJapan Co., Ltd. The anime series was licensed by Disney for an English-language release in North America in 2014, and LUK International in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

Doraemon was well-received by critics and became a hit in many Asian countries. It won numerous awards, including the Japan Cartoonists Association Award in 1973 and 1994, the Shogakukan Manga Award for children's manga in 1982, and the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize in 1997. As of 2019, it has sold over 250 million copies worldwide, becoming one of the best-selling manga series in history. Doraemon is also one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time, of which the animated film series has the highest number of admissions in Japan. The Doraemon character has been viewed as a Japanese cultural icon, and was appointed as the first "anime ambassador" in 2008 by the country's Foreign Ministry.

Synopsis[edit]

Nobita Nobi is a ten-year-old Japanese school boy, who is kind-hearted and honest, but also lazy, unlucky, weak, gets bad grades and is bad at sports. One day, a robot cat from the 22nd century named Doraemon is sent back to the past by Nobita's descendants to take care of Nobita so that his descendants can have a better life. Doraemon has a four-dimensional pouch in which he stores tools, inventions, and gadgets from the future to aid Nobita whenever he is faced with a problem. Although Doraemon is a cat robot, he has a fear of mice because of an incident where robotic mice chewed off his ears. This is why Doraemon lost his original yellow color and turned blue, from sadness.

Nobita has three main friends: Takeshi Goda (nicknamed Gian), Suneo Honekawa (Gian's sidekick), and Shizuka Minamoto, Nobita's best friend and love-interest. Gian is a strong, leading and domineering boy, but also loyal to his friends. Suneo is a wealthy and spoiled boy who uses his friendship with Gian to win the respect of other schoolmates. Shizuka is a gentle and kind girl who frequently plays with Nobita. Nobita has a crush on Shizuka; she is his prospective future wife (Nobita's future wife is initially Gian's younger sister). Although Gian and Suneo are Nobita's friends, they also typically bully and abuse him. Nobita normally responds by using Doraemon's gadgets to fight back against them, but Nobita has a tendency to get carried away with using the gadgets (or Gian and Suneo, if they steal it away), which typically results in unintended consequences for him and others.

In addition to Gian, Suneo, and Shizuka, Dorami and Hidetoshi Dekisugi (common name Dekisugi) are also recurring characters. Dorami is Doraemon's younger sister, and Dekisugi is a gifted student boy who as Shizuka's close friend, frequently attracts the jealousy of Nobita.

Creation and conception[edit]

Development and themes[edit]

Doraemon is written and illustrated by Fujiko F. Fujio, the pen name of Japanese manga artist Hiroshi Fujimoto.[3][4][5] According to Fujio, it was originally conceived following a series of three events: when searching for ideas for a new manga, he wished a machine existed that would come up with ideas for him, he tripped over his daughter's toy, and heard cats fighting in his neighborhood.[6] To set up the plot and characters, he inspired some elements from his earlier manga series, Obake no Q-Tarō, which involve an obake living with humans, with a similar formula.[7] Fujio said that the idea for Doraemon came after "an accumulation of trial and error", during which he finally found the most suitable style of manga to him.[8] Initially, the series achieved little success as gekiga was well-known at the time, and only became a hit after its adaptation into an anime TV series and multiple feature films.[7]

Doraemon is mainly aimed at children, so Fujio chose to create the character with a simple graphic style, based on shapes such as circles and ellipses.[9] He used the same sequences of cartoons with regularity and continuity to enhance the reader's ease of understanding. In addition, blue, a characteristic color of Doraemon, was chosen as the main color in magazine publications, which used to have a yellow cover and red title.[10] Set in Tokyo, the manga reflected parts of Japan's society, such as the class system and the "ideal" of Japanese childhood.[11][12] Problems, if occur, were resolved in a way so as not to rely on violence and eroticism,[13] and the stories were integrated with the concept of environmentalism.[14] The manga also insisted on the ethical values of integrity, perseverance, courage, family and respect.[15]

In order to underline the crucial role of the young generation in society, the manga's creator chose to have the act carried out in a "children's domain" where young people can live with happiness, freedom and power without adult's interference.[16] As Saya S. Shiraishi noted, the existence of the "domain" helped Doraemon to have a strong appeal in various Asian countries.[16] During Doraemon's development, Fujio did not express a change in characters; he said, "When a manga hero become a success, the manga suddenly stops being interesting. So the hero has to be like the stripes on a barber pole; he seems to keep moving upward, but actually he stays in the same place."[17]

According to Zensho Ito, Fujio's former student, the "length" of time in the universe is one of the ideas that inspired Fujio to make Doraemon.[18] Frequently occur in its stories is Nobita's desire to control time, and there exist time-control gadgets that he uses to satisfy that desire, particularly the "Time Machine", which lies in his desk drawer.[19] Unlike Western works on science fiction, the manga did not explain the theory nor the applied technology behind these tools, but instead focusing on how the characters exploit their advantages, making it more children-friendly.[20]

Origin of the name[edit]

The name "Doraemon" can be roughly translated to "stray". Unusually, the name "Doraemon" (ドラえもん) is written in a mixture of two Japanese scripts: Katakana (ドラ) and Hiragana (えもん). "Dora" derives from "dora neko" (どら猫, stray cat), and is a corruption of nora (stray),[6] while "-emon" (in kanji 右衛門) is an old-fashioned suffix for male names (for example, as in Ishikawa Goemon).[21] Nobita's home address in Tsukimidai ("moon-view-heights"), Nerima refers to Fujimidai ("Fuji-view-heights"), where Osamu Tezuka's residence and animation studio is based.[11] The name "Nobita Nobi" refers to "nobi nobi", meaning "the way a young child grows up free, healthy, and happy, unrestrained in any sense".[11][22]

Gadgets[edit]

"Anywhere Door", a pink door used as a gadget in "Doraemon"; users can travel anywhere on their wish by turning the door's knob
"Anywhere Door", a gadget in the manga series as seen in the Fujiko F. Fujio Museum

Gadgets, or "himitsu dōgu" (ひみつ道具), are Doraemon's tools from the future, usually used to help the characters. Fujio said that Doraemon has a total of 1,293 gadgets;[23] according to a 2004 analysis by Yasuyuki Yokoyama of Toyama University, there are 1,963 gadgets found in 1,344 sketches.[21] The most important gadgets include "Take-Copter", a small piece of headgear made out of bamboo that can allow its users to fly; "Time Machine", a machine used for time travel; "Anywhere Door", a pink-colored door that allows people to travel according to the thoughts of the person who turns the knob; "Time Kerchief", a handkerchief which can turn an object new or old or a person young or old; "Translator Tool", a cuboid jelly that allow one to converse in any language; and "Designer", a camera used to instantly dress-up the user.[21][24]

Saya S. Shiraishi wrote that most of the gadgets were "an impressive testimony to the standards of quality control and innovation that exist in the twenty-second century".[24] The gadgets were an essential part of the series so as to reflect a positive point of view about the association of technology in children, and to express the wishes of modern society.[25]

Conclusion[edit]

The series stopped publishing after Fujimoto's death in 1996, without an ending; this has aroused numerous urban legends throughout the years.[26] One of the most well-known "endings" of the manga was by an amateur manga cartoonist under the pen name "Yasue T. Tajima", first appeared on the Internet in 1998 and made up into a manga in 2005. The story takes place when Doraemon's battery dies, and Nobita later grows up becoming a robot engineer, potentially revive Doraemon and live a happy life. Tajima issued an apology in 2007, and the profits were shared with Shogakukan and the copyright owner, Fujiko F. Fujio Pro.[27]

Ryūichi Yagi and Takashi Yamazaki, the directors of Stand by Me Doraemon, confirmed that it had only one opening, while the ending has been rewritten several times.[28] Because of this, Shogakukan had to clarify that only if the marriage of Nobita and Shizuka is finalized will the mission be accomplished, and then Doraemon will return to the future.[26]

Media[edit]

Manga[edit]

Excerpt of "Doraemon" manga volume 1, where Doraemon made his first appearance by coming from the time machine, which lies in Nobita's desk drawer
The first appearance of Doraemon, who came via the time machine

In December 1969, the Doraemon manga appeared in six different children's monthly magazines published by Shogakukan: Yoiko, Yōchien, Shogaku Ichi-nensei, Shogaku Ni-nensei, Shogaku San-nensei, and Shogaku Yon-nensei. The magazines were aimed at children from nursery school to fourth grade. In 1973, two other magazines, Shogaku Go-nensei and Shogaku Roku-nensei (aimed at fifth-grade and sixth-grade students respectively), started publishing the manga. In 1977, CoroCoro Comic was launched as the flagship magazine of Doraemon.[29][30][31]

Since the debut of Doraemon in 1969, the stories have been selectively collected into forty-five tankōbon volumes that were published under Shogakukan's Tentōmushi Comics (てんとう虫コミックス) imprint from July 31, 1974 to April 26, 1996.[32][33] These volumes are collected in the Takaoka Central Library in Toyama, Japan, where Fujio was born.[34] Between April 25, 2005 and February 28, 2006, Shōgakukan published a series of five manga volumes under the title Doraemon Plus (Doraemon+), featuring short stories which did not appear in the forty-five original volumes;[35][36] a sixth volume, the first volume in eight years, was published on December 1, 2014.[37] Additionally, 119 unpublished stories were compiled into six colored-manga volumes under the title Doraemon Kara Sakuhin-shu (ドラえもん カラー作品集, Doraemon Color Works), published from July 17, 1999 to September 2, 2006.[10][38] Between July 24, 2009 and September 25, 2012, Shogakukan published a master works collection consisting of twenty volumes with all 1,345 stories written by Fujio.[39][40] In December 2019, on the 50th anniversary of Doraemon, a "Volume 0" was published by Shogakukan featuring six different versions of Doraemon's first appearance.[41]

There have been two series of bilingual, Japanese and English, volumes of the manga by SHOGAKUKAN ENGLISH COMICS under the title Doraemon: Gadget Cat from the Future, and two audio versions.[42][43] The first series has ten volumes and the second one has six.[42] 21st Century Publishing House released bilingual English-Chinese versions in Mainland China,[44] and Chingwin Publishing Group released bilingual English-Chinese versions in Taiwan.[45]

In July 2013, Fujiko F. Fujio Pro announced that they would be collaborating with ebook publisher Voyager Japan and localization company AltJapan Co., Ltd. to release an English-language version of the manga in full color digitally via the Amazon Kindle platform in North America.[46] Shogakukan released the first volume in November 2013;[47] as of 2016, a total of 200 volumes have been published.[47][48] This English version incorporates a variety of changes to character names; Nobita is "Noby", Shizuka is "Sue", Suneo is "Sneech", and Gian is "Big G", while dorayaki is "Yummy Bun/Fudgy Pudgy Pie".[49] Also, as of 2016, four volumes of the manga have been published in English in print by Shogakukan Asia.[50][51]

Shogakukan started digital distribution of all forty-five original volumes throughout Japan from July 16, 2015.[52]

Anime[edit]

International logo of the Doraemon anime series
International series logo, mainly used in Latin America

The first attempt of a Doraemon animated series was in 1973, by Nippon Television. After a January 1973 pilot named Doraemon Mirai Kara Yattekuru (ドラえもんが未来からやってくる, Doraemon Coming from the Future),[53] twenty-six episodes, each with two segments, were broadcast on Nippon TV from April 1 to September 30 of the same year.[54] The series was directed by Mitsuo Kaminashi with voice cast from Aoni Production; the character Doraemon was voiced by Kōsei Tomita, then later by Masako Nozawa.[55] Later in the series, the animation studio, Nippon TeleMovie Productions, went bankrupt, and the masters were sold off or destroyed.[56] The series was re-aired on Nippon TV and several local stations until 1979,[57][58] when Shogakukan requested Toyama Television to cease broadcasting.[59] Some of the segments were found in the archives of IMAGICA in 1995,[60] and some others were recovered by Jun Masami in 2003.[55] As of 2013, 21 of 52 segments have known to survive, two of which without audio.[61]

Doraemon remained fairly exclusive in manga form until 1979 when a newly formed animation studio, Shin-Ei Animation (now owned by TV Asahi) produced an animated second attempt of Doraemon.[4] The series, directed by Tsutomu Shibayama, aired on TV Asahi from April 2, 1979 to March 18, 2005.[62] Eiichi Nakamura served as director of photography[62] and character designer,[63] while Shunsuke Kikuchi was the composer.[62][64] Nobuyo Ōyama voiced Doraemon in the series; because of this, in Asia, this version is sometimes referred to as the Ōyama Edition.[65] In total, 1,787 episodes were produced and released in VHS and DVD by Toho.[66][67] Celebrating the anniversary of the franchise, a third Doraemon animated series, also produced by Shin-Ei Animation, began airing on TV Asahi on April 15, 2005, with new voice actors and staff, and updated character designs.[68] The third series is sometimes referred to in Asia as the Mizuta Edition, as a tribute for the voice actress for Doraemon, Wasabi Mizuta.[65] It was released in DVD on February 10, 2006 under the title New TV-ban Doraemon (NEW TV 版 ドラえもん, Doraemon NEW TV Version) with Shogakukan Video banner.[69][70]

In May 2014, TV Asahi Corporation announced an agreement with The Walt Disney Company to bring the 2005 series to the Disney XD television channel and Disney Channel in the United States beginning in the summer of that year.[71][72][73] Besides using the name changes that were used in AltJapan's English adaptation of the original manga, other changes and edits have also been made to make the show more relatable to an American audience, such as Japanese text being replaced with English text on certain objects like signs and graded papers, items such as yen notes being replaced by US dollar bills, and the setting being changed from Japan to the United States.[74] Initial response to the edited dub was positive.[75] The Disney adaptation began broadcast in Japan on Disney Channel from February 1, 2016. The broadcast offered the choice of the English voice track or a newly recorded Japanese track by the Japanese cast of the 2005 series.[76]

The anime has also been aired in over sixty countries worldwide.[77] It premiered in Thailand in 1982,[78] the Philippines in 1999,[79] India in 2005,[80] and Vietnam in 2010.[81][82] Other Asian countries that broadcast the series include China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and South Korea.[83] The series is licensed in EMEA regions by LUK International;[84] it premiered in Spain in 1993[85] and France in 2003.[86] It has also been distributed in South American countries, including Brazil,[87] Colombia,[88] and Chile.[89] In 2017, POPS Worldwide, a Vietnamese multimedia company, collaborated with TV Asahi to release the anime series on YouTube and other digital platforms.[90]

Feature films[edit]

As of 2022, there have been 41 annual feature-length animated films produced by Shin-Ei Animation and released by Toho,[91] the most recent of which is Doraemon: Nobita's Little Star Wars 2021, which premiered in Japan on March 4, 2022.[92] The first twenty-five films are based on the 1979 anime, while the rest are based on the 2005 anime.[91] Unlike the anime and manga series, the films are more action-adventure oriented, taking the familiar characters of Doraemon and placing them in a variety of exotic and perilous settings.[93][94]

A 3D computer animated film, Stand by Me Doraemon, debuted in Japan on August 8, 2014.[95] Directed by Takashi Yamazaki and Ryūichi Yagi,[96] it combines elements from the short stories of the manga series: "All the Way from the Country of the Future", "Imprinting Egg", "Goodbye, Shizuka-chan", "Romance in Snowy Mountain", "Nobita's the Night Before a Wedding", and "Goodbye, Doraemon ..." into a new complete story, from the first time Doraemon came to Nobita's house to Doraemon bidding farewell to Nobita.[95][97] The film was a box office success, grossing $183.4 million worldwide.[98] A sequel, Stand by Me Doraemon 2, also directed by Yamazaki and Yagi, was released on November 20, 2020.[99]

Short films, OVA and crossover[edit]

Several Doraemon short films were produced and released between 1989 and 2004.[91] These include 2112: The Birth of Doraemon, a film about the life of Doraemon from birth before coming to Nobita;[100] Doraemon: Nobita's the Night Before a Wedding, a film about the events related to the marriage of Nobita and Shizuka;[101] The Day When I Was Born[102] and Doraemon: A Grandmother's Recollections,[103] the films about the relationship between Nobita and his parents along with his grandmother. Other short films focus on Dorami and the Doraemons.[91] In 1981, Toho released What Am I for Momotaro, a film about Momotarō, the hero of Japanese folklore.[104]

In 1994, an educational OVA was made, titled Doraemon: Nobita to Mirai Note (ドラえもん のび太と未来ノート), where the main characters express the hope for a better Earth. The OVA was released in DVD along with the 13th issue of Fujiko F. Fujio Wonderland magazine in September 2004.[105][106] A crossover episode of Doraemon with AIBOU: Tokyo Detective Duo aired on TV Asahi on November 9, 2018.[107]

Music[edit]

The soundtrack of the 1973 anime series was composed by Nobuyoshi Koshibe,[55] who also arranged the opening theme song "Doraemon" (ドラえもん) and the ending theme song "Doraemon Rumba" (ドラえもん ルンバ), both performed by Harumi Naitō.[54] For the 1979 anime, Shunsuke Kikuchi was the composer, who arranged "Doraemon no Uta" (ドラえもんのうた);[54][64] it had been performed by numerous singers, including Kumiko Ōsugi and Satoko Yamano.[108] When the anime got a reboot in 2005, Kan Sawada was the composer of the series.[109][110] There are four other opening themes, including an instrumental version of "Doraemon no Uta" performed by Twelve Girls Band;[111] "Hagushichao" (ハグしちゃお) performed by Rimi Natsukawa;[112] "Yume wo Kanaete Doraemon" (夢をかなえてドラえもん), the opening theme broadcast from 2007 to 2018;[113] and "Doraemon" performed by Gen Hoshino, broadcast since October 2019.[114]

Numerous collections of theme songs of the anime series and feature films were initially available in cassettes.[115] Since the 1990s, Doraemon songs have been released in CD, under the type of singles and compilation albums.[116][117] Soundtracks of Doraemon feature films have been released by Nippon Columbia since 2001 in the album series "Doraemon Soundtrack History" (ドラえもんサウンドトラックヒストリー).[118][119][120]

Other[edit]

A plush Doraemon toy with a dorayaki, his favorite in-universe food.

Doraemon has been adapted into a musical, titled Doraemon the Musical: Nobita and the Animal Planet (舞台版ドラえもん のび太とアニマル惑星プラネット。, Butaiban Doraemon: Nobita to Animaru Puranetto). Based on the 1990 anime film of the same name, it debuted at Tokyo Metropolitan Art Space on September 4, 2008, running through September 14. Shoji Kokami was the director and writer, Makoto Sakamoto played Nobita and Reiko Suho as Shizuka; Jaian and Suneo were portrayed by Tomohiro Waki and Kensaku Kobayashi, respectively; Wasabi Mizuta voiced Doraemon.[121][122] The musical was later revived and ran at Sunshine Theater, Tokyo from March 26 to April 2, 2017,[123] then later in other prefectures including Fukuoka, Osaka, Miyagi, and Aichi.[124] The 2017 revival is also directed and written by Kokami,[125] with Mizuta reprising her role;[124] Nobita, Shizuka, Jaian, and Suneo were played by Yuuchi Ogoe, Hina Higuchi, Koki Azuma, and Shō Jinnai, respectively.[126]

Several spin-off manga series of Doraemon have been made. Doraemon Long Stories is a manga series consists of twenty-four tankōbon volumes published from 1983 to 2004, featuring longer and continuous narratives about the characters' adventures into various lands of science fiction and fantasy.[127][128] The Doraemons, a manga illustrated by Michiaki Tanaka based on Doraemon, was published by Shogakukan in six tankōbon volumes from 1996 to 2001.[129][130] Between 1997 and 2003, Shogakukan also published fifteen volumes of The Doraemons Special, created by Yukihiro Mitani and Masaru Miyazaki as a complement part of The Doraemons, including twelve from the main series[131][132] and three from the Robot Training School Edition.[133][134] Dorabase, a baseball-themed manga written and illustrated by Mugiwara Shintarō, is another spin-off of Doraemon; twenty-three volumes of the manga were published by Shogakukan from April 26, 2001 to October 28, 2011.[135][136] A parody of Doraemon created by Hikari Fujisaki, titled Nozoemon (のぞえもん), was first serialized in Nihon Bungeisha's Comic Heaven magazine in September 2014, with the compiled book volume released on June 9, 2015; however, it was discontinued in August 2015 due to content issues.[137]

Many Japanese-only video games based on Doraemon have been developed. For instance, in 1983, Bandai developed Dokodemo Dorayaki Doraemon (どこでも ドラヤキ ドラえもん), an arcade game inspired by Pac-Man.[138] Doraemon, a NES video game made by Hudson Soft, was released on December 12, 1986,[139] and became one of the best-selling games of that year in Japan with over 1.15 million copies sold.[140] On December 6, 2007, Sega published Doraemon Wii, the first Doraemon video game released on Wii.[141] Doraemon can also be seen in Namco's Taiko no Tatsujin rhythm game series, such as in Taiko no Tatsujin: Sesson de Dodon ga Don! (2017).[142] The first Doraemon game to receive a Western release was Doraemon Story of Seasons (2019).[143][144] Card games with Doraemon themes have also been made in several special occasions, sometimes to exploit the popularity of feature films.[145] In 2016, a special edition of Uno about the series' characters was released exclusively in Japan, as a result of a cooperation between Asatsu-DK and Mattel.[146]

Merchandise[edit]

In Japan, the Doraemon merchandising rights belong to Shogakukan-Shueisha Productions, which has produced and distributed a wide range of products under its brand, such as toys, food, stationery, action figures,[147] gashapon, shoes, clothing, and others.[148][149] Several companies have collaborated on the creation and distribution of products on the series and its characters, including Sanrio,[150] Converse,[151] Moleskine,[152] and ESP Guitars, which has made guitars decorated with Doraemon characters;[153] a further partnership of Doraemon with Uniqlo led to a line of clothing designed by Takashi Murakami.[154] The Doraemon franchise has also collaborated with various Japanese brands, including Tsi Groove & Sports's Jack Bunny!! golf apparel brand,[155][156][157] Unicharm's MamiPoko diaper brand,[158] and the video games LINE Pop 2,[159] Monster Strike,[160] and Granblue Fantasy.[161][162] Viz Media owns the Doraemon merchandising rights in North and Latin America,[1] which has developed Doraemon-themed clothing and collectibles in collaboration with retail chain Hot Topic,[163] and themed Happy Meals in a 2015 collaboration with McDonald's.[164] Viz Media Europe (now Crunchyroll EMEA) manages the merchandising in Europe except Spain and Portugal;[165] LUK International has obtained licenses in these two countries.[166]

Characters from Doraemon have been used in advertising through specific agreements with Shogakukan. For instance, following the Cool Japan initiative promoted by the Japanese government, Sharp Corporation produced a series of commercials featuring the characters of Doraemon and Nobita, which were broadcast in several ASEAN countries.[167] In late 2011, Shogakukan and Toyota Motor Corporation joined forces to create a series of live-action commercials as part of Toyota's ReBorn ad campaign, which depicted the manga's characters two decades after being grown up, where Hollywood actor Jean Reno played Doraemon.[168][169]

Reception[edit]

General[edit]

Doraemon is considered one of the best-known manga of all time, a true Japanese cultural icon,[7] and an essential part of family life of the Japanese post-war generation.[148] Akihiro Motoyama observed that "mothers who watched the movies when they were children are now taking their own children to see them".[148][170] It was also commercially successful: over 108 million books were sold in Japan by 1996.[171] The 1979[170] and 2005 anime series[172] also achieved high ratings on television. With the film Doraemon: Nobita's Secret Gadget Museum, the Doraemon anime film series reached 100 million tickets sold at the Japanese box office, surpassing Godzilla as the highest-grossing film franchise in Japan.[173] By 2015, it had sold over 103 million tickets, and was the largest franchise by numbers of admissions in the country.[174]

Doraemon was also a hit in Asia in general, and was considered one of the typical cases of Japanese soft power,[175] although it was published without a license in some countries.[176] The anime television series is available in over 60 countries,[77] and reportedly getting high ratings in at least 30 countries.[177] However, Doraemon was less successful in Western countries, because it was viewed as a children-only series, and there were some tight restrictions about publishing manga and broadcasting anime series there.[178][179] The manga has sold over 170 million copies worldwide as of 2012,[180][181] and 250 million as of 2019.[182] Estimates show that Doraemon has generated at least more than $4.3 billion in merchandise sales by 2019,[a] and over $1.7 billion from anime feature films as of 2020,[193] making it one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.

Outside Japan, Doraemon achieved particular success in Vietnam,[194] with a record-breaking 40 million copies sold as of 2006.[195] The manga was first launched there in 1992 by Kim Đồng Publishing House, but the copyright from Shogakukan was not fully acquired until 1996.[196][197] In 1993, the Vietnamese Ministry of Culture considered the manga's publication to be "an impactful event for the improvement of children, youth and adult's likings ... [Doraemon] is a comprehensively educational book series which has the effect of developing children's personality".[196] Doraemon is now a cultural icon in Vietnam, having featured in many cultural events.[198][199]

Critical response and analysis[edit]

Doraemon received favorable reviews. Mark Schilling wrote, "For kids whose lives are often so regulated, Doraemon represents a welcome breath of freedom and a glimpse of a funnier, friendlier world where all dreams, even foolish ones, can come true."[200] Italian writer Massimo Nicora wrote that the manga "can be interpreted as a type of book that criticizes, with irony, the omnipotence of science that pretends to solve every problem with its tools", alluding to the fact that Doraemon's gadgets often end up making the problems even worse than they initially were, more than anything else. He added that it represents "the metaphor of the childish imagination, which always manages to find the most bizarre and original solutions, in a continuous game of transformation of reality".[201]

Some critics considered that Nobita's flawed personality and modest background is different from the special or extraordinary characteristics usually seen in other typical anime and manga protagonists; this portrayal has been seen as reasons of its appeal as well as the contrary, especially in the United States.[180][193] According to the Italian Parents Movement (Moige), in the manga, "the lazy Nobita does not know any kind of appreciable evolution", though there are still good points including "the criticism of bullying, the goodness that transpires from the little Nobita and the positive figure of Shizuka".[202]

In his 2000 article, Leo Ching explained that the success of Doraemon in Asia was because it had reflected the Asian values such as imagination and responsibility, the same reason that Oshin, another Japanese cultural export, became well-known there.[203] On the other hand, according to an analysis by Anne Allison, professor of cultural anthropology at Duke University, the strong point of it was not the variety of the gadgets, but the relationship between Doraemon and Nobita, which was particularly appreciated.[204] Jason Thompson praised the "silly situations" and "old fashioned, simple artwork", with Doraemon's expression and comments adding to the "surrounding elementary-school mischief".[43] On the manga's 50th anniversary, an op-ed published on Asahi Shimbun stated that the manga "has already become a contemporary classic".[205]

Awards, accolades and public recognition[edit]

Doraemon has received numerous accolades. It won the Japan Cartoonists Association Award twice in 1973 and 1994, the former for Excellence Award while the latter for Minister of Education, Science and Technology Award.[206][207] In 1982, it received the first Shogakukan Manga Award for children's manga.[208][209] In 1997, the manga won the Grand Prize at the first Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize.[210] The 1979 series won the award from the Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs four times for best television series in 1984, 1985, 1988 and 1989.[211]

A 2006 poll among 80,000 Japanese fans for the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival placed Doraemon at fifth among the top ten best manga of all time.[212] The 2005 and 2006 surveys conducted by TV Asahi found the Doraemon anime ranked fifth and third, respectively, among the 100 most favorite anime series of all time.[213][214] In 2010, a survey conducted by researchers of Tokyo Polytechnic University found that most responders considered Doraemon, along with Dragon Ball franchise, to be the anime series that represents Cool Japan.[215] In a 2013 survey, Doraemon was found to be the best anime recommended for foreign people.[216]

Controversies[edit]

Doraemon has been blamed for having a negative impact on children, due to the controversial traits of the characters in the anime. The character has received criticism in China, where some media outlets considered Doraemon to be a politically subversive character and that it was a tool of Japan's "cultural invasion".[217][218][219] In 2016, a resolution to ban Hindi dubbed Doraemon anime series was submitted in Pakistan.[220] Around the same time, legal notices were served against several companies in India, targeting Doraemon and Crayon Shin-chan for bans (which did not materialize), as having an adverse effect on children.[220][221] Disney Channel India, the regional broadcaster of the anime, was banned in Bangladesh and Pakistan citing non-availability of localized dubs for content including Doraemon.[222][223]

Cultural impact and legacy[edit]

A shuttle bus featuring Doraemon
Shuttle bus featuring Doraemon to Fujiko F. Fujio Museum in Kawasaki
Doraemon at National Museum of Singapore
Doraemon at National Museum of Singapore in October 2020

The Doraemon manga has inspired many other mangakas; these include Eiichiro Oda, the creator of One Piece with the idea of "Devil Fruits",[224][225] and Masashi Kishimoto, the creator of Naruto, who showed interest in drawing characters from anime shows during his childhood, including Doraemon.[226] The manga has also been mentioned in Gin Tama and Great Teacher Onizuka.[227][228] The character Doraemon is considered one of the cultural icons in Japan,[7][229] and one of the most well-known characters in manga history;[175] some critics compared his notability with Mickey Mouse and Snoopy.[230][231] Mark Schilling noted that Doraemon's "Take-Copter" is familiar among Japanese people "just as Snoopy's biplane is familiar to most Americans".[232]

On April 22, 2002, on the special issue of Asian Hero in Time magazine, Doraemon was the only anime character to be named one of the twenty-two Asian Heroes, and was described as "The Cuddliest Hero in Asia".[233] A 2007 poll by Oricon shown that Doraemon was the second-strongest manga character ever, behind only Son Goku of Dragon Ball.[234] Doraemon is also referred as something with the ability to satisfy all wishes.[201]

In 2005, the Taiwan Society of New York selected Doraemon as a culturally significant work of Japanese otaku pop-culture in its exhibit Little Boy: The Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture, curated by renowned artist Takashi Murakami.[235] In 2008, the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs appointed Doraemon as the first anime cultural ambassador;[236] a Ministry spokesperson explained the decision as an attempt to help people in other countries understand Japanese anime better and to deepen their interest in Japanese culture.[237] On September 3, 2012, Doraemon was granted official residence in the city of Kawasaki, Kanagawa, one hundred years before he was born.[238] In the same year, Hong Kong celebrated the birthday of Doraemon 100 years early with a series of displays of the character.[239] In April 2013, Doraemon was chosen as Japan's ambassador in Tokyo's bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and 2020 Summer Paralympics.[240] He appeared in the 2016 Summer Olympics closing ceremony to promote the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.[241][242]

A Fujiko F. Fujio museum opened in Kawasaki on September 3, 2011, featuring Doraemon as the star of the museum.[243][244] The National Museum of Singapore held a time-travelling exhibition in October 2020 as a tribute to the manga.[245] After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Shogakukan released an earthquake survival guidebook, which included the main cast of the Doraemon manga series.[246] TV Asahi launched the Doraemon Fund charity fund to raise money for natural disasters in 2004,[247] and in 2011.[248] In 2020, Mumbai's Sion Friends Circle group distributed food and books to kids using mascots, one being Doraemon, to help during the COVID-19 pandemic.[249] In Vietnam, a Doraemon scholarship fund was established in 1996,[250] and the Doraemon character has been used for education of traffic safety.[251] Doraemon's creator, Fujiko F. Fujio, received the Culture Fighter Medal from the Vietnamese Ministry of Culture in 1996 for his contributions to young education through the manga.[252]

Many prominent figures have been nicknamed after the cast of Doraemon: politician Osamu Fujimura is known as the "Doraemon of Nagatacho" due to his figure and warm personality,[253] and sumo wrestler Takamisugi was nicknamed "Doraemon" because of his resemblance to the character.[254] In 2015, a group of people in a drought-affected village in northern Thailand used a Doraemon toy to complete a rain-ritual, in order to avoid controversies that would occur by using real animals.[255]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Doraemon licensed merchandise sales:
    • Royalties (1979–1994) – ¥15.3 billion ($153 million)[171]
    • Japan (1999–2000, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010) – ¥223.75 billion ($2.549 billion)[183]
      • 1999 – ¥84.21 billion[184]
      • 2000 – ¥50 billion[185]
      • 2003 – ¥30 billion[185]
      • 2005 – ¥24.96 billion[186]
      • 2007 – ¥17.6 billion[187]
      • 2010 – ¥16.98 billion[188]
    • Worldwide (2015–2016) – $1.108 billion
      • 2015 – $557 million[189]
      • 2016 – $551 million[189]
    • Japan (2018–2019) – ¥64.01 billion[190][191][192] ($587 million)

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Shogakukan-Shueisha Productions grants merchandise rights for beloved Doraemon franchise to Viz Media for Americas region". Viz Media. Archived from the original on January 22, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  2. ^ Ong, Bang (August 28, 2015). "10 Asian heroes we worshipped while growing up". Stuff. Archived from the original on January 22, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  3. ^ IGN Staff (October 1, 1996). "Doraemon Creator Dies". IGN. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  4. ^ a b Schilling 2004, p. 39
  5. ^ "藤子・F・不二雄(ふじこエフふじお)" [Fujiko F. Fujio]. Doraemon Channel (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 22, 2012. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Min Chew, Hui (December 23, 2014). "Why Doraemon is blue and 4 other things you might not have known about the cat robot". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d Schodt 1999, p. 218
  8. ^ Schodt 1999, pp. 217–218
  9. ^ Pelliteri 2008, p. 200
  10. ^ a b Fujio, Fujiko F. (September 1999). ドラえもんカラー作品集 1 [Doraemon Color Works 1] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4091495710. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2018. For conception, see pp. 158–159.
  11. ^ a b c Shiraishi 1997, p. 238
  12. ^ Schilling 2004, p. 42
  13. ^ Schodt 1999, p. 219
  14. ^ Izawa, Eri (2000). "Environmentalism in Manga and Anime". MIT. Archived from the original on May 26, 2001. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  15. ^ Arico, Giacomo (November 5, 2014). "Ambientalista e di sani valori: arriva al cinema Doraemon, il gatto robot creato da Fujio nel 1969" [Environmentalist and of healthy values: Doraemon, the robot cat created by Fujio in 1969, arrives at the cinema]. Cameralook.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  16. ^ a b Shiraishi 2000, pp. 292–293
  17. ^ Schilling 2004, pp. 42–43
  18. ^ An Nhiên (August 29, 2007). ""Độ dài thời gian của vũ trụ" là yếu tố cơ bản để nhà văn Fujiko F Fujio sáng tác nên bộ truyện Đôrêmon?" ["The length of time of the universe" is the basic factor for writer Fujiko F Fujio to create the Doraemon series?] (in Vietnamese). Kim Đồng Publishing House. Archived from the original on December 24, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  19. ^ Peters 2002, pp. 104–105
  20. ^ Peters 2002, pp. 105–107, 109
  21. ^ a b c "'Doraemon' fanatic boasts Ding Dong's 1,963 gadgets". The Japan Times. April 3, 2004. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  22. ^ This meaning is explained by Nobita's father in "ぼくの生まれた日" [The Day I Was Born]. ドラえもん 2 [Doraemon 2] (in Japanese). Shogakukan (published August 26, 1974). September 1974. p. 56. ISBN 4091400027. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  23. ^ "ぼく、ドラえもん 第4号" [I, Doraemon No. 4]. Fujiko F. Fujio Wonderland (in Japanese). April 20, 2004. ASIN B005NH6RU2. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  24. ^ a b Shiraishi 2000, p. 296
  25. ^ Shiraishi 2000, pp. 292, 296–297
  26. ^ a b Rogolino, Letizia (January 27, 2017). "Doraemon, 10 cose che (forse) sapete sul gatto robot che viaggia nel tempo" [Doraemon, 10 things you (maybe) don't know about the time-traveling robot cat]. Movieplayer.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  27. ^ Miller, Evan (May 30, 2007). "Author of False Doraemon Ending Issues Apology". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  28. ^ Guglielmino, Andrea (November 4, 2014). "L'afflato tragico di Doraemon" [The tragic inspiration of Doraemon]. Cinecittà (in Italian). Archived from the original on March 25, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  29. ^ "『てれびくん』掲載作品" [Works published in "Televi-kun"]. Coocan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on October 17, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  30. ^ S. Yada, Jason (October 2009). The Rough Guide to Manga. Rough Guides. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-1-85828-561-0.
  31. ^ Loveridge, Lynzee (February 18, 2017). "Doraemon Figure Recreates His 1st Corocoro Comic Cover". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  32. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (July 31, 1974). ドラえもん 1 [Doraemon 1] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4091400019. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  33. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (May 1996). ドラえもん 45 [Doraemon 45] (in Japanese). Shogakukan (published April 26, 1996). ISBN 4091416659. Archived from the original on May 25, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  34. ^ "ぼくドラえもん!「ドラえもん文庫」開設" [I, Doraemon! "Doraemon Bunko" opens] (in Japanese). Toyama Brand. April 7, 2004. Archived from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  35. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (April 2005). ドラえもん プラス 1 [Doraemon Plus 1] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4091433014. Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  36. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (March 2006). ドラえもん プラス 5 [Doraemon Plus 5] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4091433057. Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  37. ^ Ressler, Karen (November 15, 2014). "1st Doraemon Manga Volume in 8 Years Ships in December". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  38. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (October 2006). ドラえもんカラー作品集 6 [Doraemon Color Works 6] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4091402488. Archived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  39. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (July 24, 2009). 藤子・F・不二雄大全集 ドラえもん 1 [Doraemon: The Complete Collection of Fujiko F. Fujio 1] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 9784091434036. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  40. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (September 2012). 藤子・F・不二雄大全集 ドラえもん 20 [Doraemon: The Complete Collection of Fujiko F. Fujio 20] (in Japanese). Shogakukan (published September 25, 2012). ISBN 9784091435019. Archived from the original on January 13, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  41. ^ Sherman, Jennifer (November 9, 2019). "1st Doraemon Manga Volume in 23 Years Features 6 Versions of 1st Chapter". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on November 8, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  42. ^ a b "小学館 イングリッシュコミックス" [Shogakukan English Comics] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  43. ^ a b Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga: The Complete Guide. Del Rey Books. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8.
  44. ^ "哆啦A梦英汉双语精华本1" [Doraemon English-Chinese Bilingual Essence Book 1] (in Chinese). 21st Century Publishing House. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  45. ^ "哆啦A夢英文版(中英對照)(01)" [Doraemon English Version (Chinese and English) (01)] (in Chinese). Chingwin Publishing Group. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  46. ^ Loveridge, Lynzee (July 28, 2013). "Classic Kids' Manga Doraemon Coming to N. America Digitally". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  47. ^ a b "DORAEMON Vol.1 [Kindle Edition]". Shogakukan. November 22, 2013. ASIN B00GTG4776. Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  48. ^ "DORAEMON vol.200 [Kindle Edition]". Shogakukan. March 3, 2016. ASIN B01CJ34UA6. Archived from the original on January 13, 2022. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  49. ^ Uehara, Yoshihisa; Ohara, Atsushi (November 23, 2013). "English version of 'Doraemon' to enter North American market". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  50. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (August 27, 2014). Doraemon 1. Shogakukan Asia. ISBN 978-981-09-0310-7. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  51. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (November 26, 2014). Doraemon 4. Shogakukan Asia. ISBN 978-981-09-0313-8. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  52. ^ Chapman, Paul (July 16, 2015). ""Doraemon" Begins Digital Distribution in Japan". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  53. ^ "特集 日本テレビ版ドラえもん" [Special feature Nippon TV version Doraemon]. Fujiko Fujio FC Neo Utopia (in Japanese). 43: 10–18. January 2007.
  54. ^ a b c "Information on Works (Series) - ドラえもん" (in Japanese). Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  55. ^ a b c Masami, Jun. "真佐美ジュンのドラえもん時代" [Jun Masami's Doraemon era] (in Japanese). NipponTeleAnima Labor Union. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  56. ^ Kenji 2008, pp. 61–63
  57. ^ Oohata, T. "真佐美ジュンさんに聞く" [Interview with Jun Masami]. Anime Old Doraemon Great Research. Archived from the original on January 15, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  58. ^ Kenji 2008, p. 45
  59. ^ Kenji 2008, pp. 41–45, 120–127
  60. ^ Kenji 2008, pp. 29–32
  61. ^ Brubaker, Charles (May 28, 2013). "The Strange Case of the 1973 "Doraemon" Series". Cartoon Research. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  62. ^ a b c "Information on Works (Series) - ドラえもん[新]" (in Japanese). Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  63. ^ Interview with Eiichi Nakamura in the book attached with Doraemon Time Machine BOX 1979 DVD collection, released by Warner Home Video in 2009. "ドラえもん タイムマシンBOX 1979" [Doraemon Time Machine BOX 1979] (in Japanese). Surugaya. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
  64. ^ a b "東奥・第59回東奥賞" [Tō-Ō / 59th Tō-Ō Award]. Tō-Ō Nippō (in Japanese). Archived from the original on August 12, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  65. ^ a b "舊酒新瓶?濃厚也" [Old Wine In New Bottle? It's Rich]. Hong Kong Independent Media Network. February 25, 2009. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  66. ^ "TV アニメ ドラえもん" (in Japanese). Allcinema. Archived from the original on May 18, 2004. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  67. ^ "TV版ドラえもんVol. 1 - Blu-ray/DVD" (in Japanese). Toho. Archived from the original on March 31, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  68. ^ "The all-new "Doraemon" premieres on TV Asahi with an hour-long special and more". The Japan Times. April 10, 2005. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  69. ^ "NEW TV版ドラえもんシリーズ" [Doraemon series NEW TV version] (in Japanese). Toho. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  70. ^ "NEW TV版 ドラえもんvol. 1 「タイムマシンがなくなった!!」 ほか全5話+ミニシアター" [Doraemon NEW TV Version Vol. 1 "The Time Machine is Gone!!" and 5 other episodes + mini theater] (in Japanese). Toho. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  71. ^ Hongo, Jun (May 9, 2014). "Japanese Anime Star Doraemon Finally Makes U.S. Debut". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  72. ^ Kagawa, Marcie (June 25, 2014). "Doraemon hitting U.S. airwaves this summer". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  73. ^ "Doraemon plans to make US debut this summer". Nikkey Shimbun. May 9, 2014. Archived from the original on May 23, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  74. ^ Loo, Egan (May 11, 2014). "Doraemon Anime's Visual & Script Changes for U.S. TV Detailed". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  75. ^ Kagawa, Marcie (July 9, 2014). "Doraemon charms U.S. viewers in first remake for a foreign market". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  76. ^ Loo, Egan (January 30, 2016). "Disney XD's Doraemon Adaptation to Run in Japan With Bilingual Tracks". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  77. ^ a b "Doraemon ドラえもん". TV Asahi. Archived from the original on January 1, 2020. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  78. ^ Yasuyuki, Yokoyama (December 10, 2012). "Celebrating Exactly 100 Years Before Doraemon's Birthday". Nippon.com. Nippon Communications Foundation. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  79. ^ Cabuag, VG (August 1, 2015). "Makers of Doraemon to push the Japanese character in Philippines". Business Mirror. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  80. ^ "Hungama TV to launch Indian superhero show 'Hero'". Afaqs. May 5, 2005. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  81. ^ Hạ Chinh (November 12, 2009). "Kinh doanh phim hoạt hình Nhật và hình ảnh nhân vật - Từ nay phải có bản quyền" [Carrying Japanese anime and characters on business - from now, copyright must be obtained]. Sài Gòn Giải Phóng (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on November 14, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  82. ^ "Doraemon đã chính thức đến với các bạn trẻ Việt Nam" [Doraemon has officially come to Vietnamese young people] (in Vietnamese). VietNamNet. December 28, 2009. Archived from the original on April 2, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  83. ^ Shiraishi 2000, pp. 301, 304
  84. ^ "Catalogue / DORAEMON". LUK International. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
  85. ^ "Doraemon, El Gato Cósmico (1979)". El Doblaje (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  86. ^ Clement, Stéphane. "Doraemon". Planète Jeunesse (in French). Archived from the original on May 28, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  87. ^ "Popular anime Doraemon retorna à TV aberta no Brasil" [Popular anime Doraemon returns to television broadcast in Brazil]. Mundo-Nipo (in Portuguese). January 6, 2019. Archived from the original on January 12, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  88. ^ "Doraemon alcanza excelentes resultados en Caracol" [Doraemon achieves excellent results in Caracol]. Produ (in Spanish). December 2, 2003. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  89. ^ de Prensa, Comunicado (July 2, 2015). "Llegan a Chile capítulos exclusivos de Doraemon" [Exclusive Doraemon episodes arrive in Chile]. BioBioChile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  90. ^ Ngát Ngọc (August 12, 2017). "Việt Nam có bản quyền phim hoạt hình 'Doraemon' trên YouTube đầu tiên" [Vietnam first to have the copyright of 'Doraemon' anime on YouTube]. Thanh Niên (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on November 14, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  91. ^ a b c d Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (2006). The Anime Encyclopedia, Revised & Expanded Edition: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917. Stone Bridge Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-61172-515-5.
  92. ^ Pineda, Rafael Antonio (March 8, 2022). "Doraemon: Nobita's Little Star Wars 2021 Film Opens at #1". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on March 8, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  93. ^ Schilling 2004, p. 43
  94. ^ Boon Chan (June 8, 2016). "Movie review: The comforting charms of Doraemon". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on June 8, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  95. ^ a b Komatsu, Mikikazu (August 19, 2014). "3DCG Film "Stand By Me Doraemon" to be Released in 21 Regions/Countries". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on August 22, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  96. ^ "「ドラえもん」が初の3DCG映画化 来夏公開へ" ["Doraemon" will be released as the first 3DCG movie next summer]. Oricon News (in Japanese). November 14, 2013. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  97. ^ "3DCG『ドラえもん』、藤子・F・不二雄先生も知らなかった物語" [3DCG "Doraemon", a story that Fujiko F. Fujio didn't even know]. Oricon News (in Japanese). August 16, 2014. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  98. ^ "Stand by Me Doraemon". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on September 7, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  99. ^ Mateo, Alex (October 7, 2020). "Stand By Me Doraemon 2 CG Film's Trailer Reveals Masaki Suda's Song, November 20 Debut". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on October 9, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  100. ^ "2112年 ドラえもん誕生" [2112: The Birth of Doraemon]. Eiga.com (in Japanese). Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  101. ^ "映画 のび太の結婚前夜: 作品情報" [Doraemon: Nobita's the Night Before a Wedding: Work Information]. Eiga.com (in Japanese). Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  102. ^ "ぼくの生まれた日: 作品情報" [The Day When I Was Born: Work Information]. Eiga.com (in Japanese). Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  103. ^ "おばあちゃんの思い出: 作品情報" [Doraemon: A Grandmother's Recollections: Work Information]. Eiga.com (in Japanese). Archived from the original on June 27, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  104. ^ "ドラえもん ぼく桃太郎のなんなのさ: 作品情報" [What Am I for Momotaro: Work Information]. Eiga.com (in Japanese). Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  105. ^ "WEBアニメスタイル 更新情報とミニニュース" [WEB Anime Style Update Information and Mini News]. WEB Anime Style (in Japanese). Archived from the original on September 28, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  106. ^ "雑誌 ぼくドラえもん13" [Magazine I, Doraemon 13]. Fujiko F. Fujio Wonderland (in Japanese). September 3, 2004. Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  107. ^ Dennison, Kara (October 30, 2018). "Doraemon Prepares to Buddy up with Cop Drama AIBOU". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  108. ^ "テレビアニメ放送40周年記念 ドラえもん うたのコレクション" [TV Anime Broadcast 40th Anniversary Doraemon Uta Collection] (in Japanese). Nippon Columbia. Archived from the original on March 12, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  109. ^ "Information on Works (Series) ドラえもん[新・第2期]". Media Art Database (in Japanese). Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  110. ^ Sawada, Kan. "ドラえもん" [Doraemon]. Kan Sawada Official Website (in Japanese). Archived from the original on August 15, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  111. ^ "ドラえもん|テレビ朝日" (in Japanese). TV Asahi. Archived from the original on April 15, 2005. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  112. ^ "ドラえもんOPテーマついに新曲に交代、歌は夏川りみ" [Doraemon OP theme finally changed to a new song, the song of Rimi Natsukawa]. Ratelog (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 15, 2005. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  113. ^ "スタッフ&声の出演者" [Staff & voice performers] (in Japanese). TV Asahi. Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
  114. ^ "星野源「ドラえもん」新オープニング曲に!" [Gen Hoshino's "Doraemon" New Opening Song!] (in Japanese). TV Asahi. September 6, 2019. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  115. ^ "パチソン ドラえもんのうた のぶ代ドラ カセットテープ" [Pachison Doraemon no Uta Nobuyo Dora Cassette Tape] (in Japanese). Rakuten. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  116. ^ "ドラえもん映画主題歌集~雲がゆくのは" [Doraemon movie theme songbook ~ Kumo ga Yuku no Wa]. ASIN B00005MX5J. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  117. ^ "ドラえもん" [Doraemon]. Music Store (in Japanese). RecoChoku Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  118. ^ "ドラえもん Sound Track History~菊池俊輔 音楽集~" [Doraemon Sound Track History ~ Shunsuke Kikuchi Music Collection ~]. ASIN B00005HQSK. Archived from the original on March 7, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  119. ^ "ドラえもん サウンドトラックヒストリー2" [Doraemon Soundtrack History 2] (in Japanese). Billboard Japan. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  120. ^ "映画ドラえもん のび太の宇宙英雄記 オリジナル・サウンドトラック&モア 映画ドラえもんサウンドトラックヒストリー3" [Doraemon: Nobita's Space Heroes Movie Original Soundtrack & More Movie Doraemon Sound Track History 3] (in Japanese). Billboard Japan. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  121. ^ "Play of the month: Shoji Kokami". Performing Arts Network Japan. September 30, 2008. Archived from the original on April 19, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  122. ^ "舞台版ドラえもん のび太とアニマル惑星" [Doraemon: Nobita and the Animal Planet stage version]. Third Stage (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  123. ^ Loo, Egan (February 4, 2017). "1st Doraemon Stage Play in 9 Years Unveils Visual". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on February 5, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  124. ^ a b "舞台版ドラえもん のび太とアニマル惑星" [Doraemon: Nobita and the Animal Planet stage version]. Third Stage (in Japanese). Archived from the original on April 20, 2017. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  125. ^ Dennison, Kara (December 28, 2016). ""Doraemon" Takes to the Stage in "Nobita and the Animal Planet"". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  126. ^ Loo, Egan (December 27, 2016). "Doraemon Stage Play Returns After 9 Years". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  127. ^ Fujio, Fujiko F. (November 28, 1983). 大長編ドラえもん1 のび太の恐竜 [Doraemon Long Stories 1: Nobita's Dinosaur]. Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-140602-5. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  128. ^ Fujiko F. Fujio Pro (August 27, 2004). 大長編ドラえもん24 のび太のワンニャン時空伝 [Doraemon Long Stories 24: Nobita in the Wan-Nyan Spacetime Odyssey]. Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-142864-9. Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  129. ^ Tanaka, Michiaki (1996). ザ☆ドラえもんズ 1 [The Doraemons 1] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-142401-5. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022 – via National Diet Library.
  130. ^ Tanaka, Michiaki (2001). ザ・ドラえもんズ 第6巻 [The Doraemons 6] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-142406-6. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022 – via National Diet Library.
  131. ^ Miyazaki, Masaru; Mitani, Yukihiro (1997). ザ☆ドラえもんズスペシャル 1 [The Doraemons Special 1] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-149301-7. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022 – via National Diet Library.
  132. ^ Miyazaki, Masaru; Mitani, Yukihiro (2002). ザ☆ドラえもんズスペシャル 12 [The Doraemons Special 12] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-149692-X. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022 – via National Diet Library.
  133. ^ Mitani, Yukihiro (1999). ザ☆ドラえもんズスペシャル ロボット養成学校編 [The Doraemons Special Robot Training School Edition] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-149531-1. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022 – via National Diet Library.
  134. ^ Miyazaki, Masaru; Mitani, Yukihiro (2003). ザ☆ドラえもんズスペシャル ロボット養成学校編 3 [The Doraemons Special Robot Training School Edition 3] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 4-09-149533-8. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022 – via National Diet Library.
  135. ^ Shintarō, Mugiwara (May 2001). ドラベース ドラえもん超野球(スーパーベースボール)外伝 1 [Dorabase: Doraemon Super Baseball Gaiden 1] (in Japanese). Shogakukan (published April 26, 2001). ISBN 4091428517. Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  136. ^ Shintarō, Mugiwara (November 2011). ドラベース ドラえもん超野球(スーパーベースボール)外伝 23 [Dorabase: Doraemon Super Baseball Gaiden 23] (in Japanese). Shogakukan (published October 28, 2011). ISBN 9784091413468. Archived from the original on March 6, 2021. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  137. ^ Pineda, Rafael Antonio (August 12, 2015). "Risqué Doraemon Parody Manga Nozoemon Abruptly Halted". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on August 12, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  138. ^ Morgan, Rik. "Bandai Dokodemo Dorayaki Doraemon". Handheld Museum. Archived from the original on December 20, 2004. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  139. ^ "ドラえもん". Media Arts Database (in Japanese). Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on May 30, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  140. ^ "Japan Platinum Game Chart". The Magic Box. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  141. ^ "「セガコンシューマ新作発表会2007Autumn」で発表された最新タイトルSSを大公開" [The latest title SS announced at "SEGA Consumer New Release 2007 Autumn" is released to the public]. Dengeki Online (in Japanese). September 14, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  142. ^ Romano, Sal (June 22, 2017). "Taiko Drum Master: Session de Dodon ga Don! first details, screenshots". Gematsu. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  143. ^ "Doraemon Story of Seasons launches June 13 in Japan, first trailer and details". Gematsu. April 2, 2019. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  144. ^ "Doraemon Story of Seasons for PS4 coming west on September 4". Gematsu. April 23, 2020. Archived from the original on April 26, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  145. ^ "Dorainfo" (in Japanese). Epoch Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  146. ^ "UNOに新ルール コラボカードが一挙に3つ登場 「ドラえもん」「ドラゴンボール」「ワンピース」の世界観を反映" [Three new rule collaboration cards appear in UNO at once, reflecting the world view of "Doraemon", "Dragon Ball" and "One Piece"]. Print & Promotion (in Japanese). September 30, 2016. Archived from the original on October 21, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  147. ^ "Doraemon Business Department". ShoPro. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  148. ^ a b c Shiraishi 1997, p. 240
  149. ^ Benson, Anya (March 9, 2015). "The utopia of suburbia: the unchanging past and limitless future in Doraemon". Japan Forum. 27 (2): 235–256. doi:10.1080/09555803.2015.1015597. S2CID 143711601. See especially p. 243.
  150. ^ "ドラえもんとハローキティが夢のコラボ 「どこでもドア」から一緒に登場" [Doraemon and Hello Kitty appear together from the dream collaboration "Anywhere Door"]. アニメ!アニメ! (in Japanese). July 22, 2015. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  151. ^ "Baby All Star N Doraemon Z" (in Japanese). Converse. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  152. ^ "Doraemon Limited Edition Collection". Moleskine. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  153. ^ "ESP X Doraemon". ESP Guitars. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  154. ^ "UNIQLO Presents Doraemon UT Featuring Works by Master Contemporary Artist Takashi Murakami" (Press release). Uniqlo. May 9, 2018. Archived from the original on May 24, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  155. ^ "「Jack Bunny!!」と人気キャラクター「ドラえもん」とのコラボがパワーアップして登場! サングラスをしたドラえもんアイテムなど限定品が発売 8月9日(金)からは「ドラえもん祭り」を開催!" [A collaboration between "Jack Bunny!!" and the popular character "Doraemon" has been enhanced! Limited items such as Doraemon items wearing sunglasses will be on sale. The "Doraemon Festival" will be held from August 9th (Friday)!] (in Japanese). PR Times. August 5, 2019. Archived from the original on November 2, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  156. ^ "ゴルフアパレルブランド「Jack Bunny!!」から、いつものゴルフを「ドラえもん」と楽しく過ごせるコラボアイテムが今年も登場!発売を記念して8月7日(金)からは「ドラえもん祭り」を開催!" [From the golf apparel brand "Jack Bunny!!", collaboration items that allow you to enjoy your usual golf with "Doraemon" will be released this year as well! To commemorate the release, the "Doraemon Festival" will be held from August 7th (Friday)!] (in Japanese). PR Times. July 31, 2020. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  157. ^ "「DORAEMON JackBunny!! FESTIVAL'21」8/6(金)~の8/22(日)開催!" ["DORAEMON Jack Bunny !! FESTIVAL'21" will be held from August 6th (Friday) to August 22nd (Sunday)!] (in Japanese). PR Times. August 4, 2021. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  158. ^ "ドラえもん50周年『マミーポコパンツ』ハッピーデザイン" [Doraemon 50th Anniversary "MamiPoko Pants" Happy Design] (in Japanese). Fujiko Pro. May 14, 2021. Archived from the original on November 3, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  159. ^ "「LINE POP2」に「ドラえもん」たちが登場!『映画ドラえもん のび太の宝島』とコラボレーション開始!" ["Doraemon" and others have appeared in "LINE POP2"! Collaboration with "Doraemon: Nobita's Treasure Island" has started!] (in Japanese). PR Times. March 20, 2018. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  160. ^ "【追記:3/6】「映画ドラえもん のび太の新恐竜」と「モンスト」のコラボイベントを3/6(金)より期間限定で開催!ドラえもん、のび太、しずか、ジャイアン、スネ夫がモンストに登場!" [[Addition: 3/6] A collaboration event between "Movie Doraemon Nobita's New Dinosaur" and "Monster Strike" will be held for a limited time from March 6th (Friday)! Doraemon, Nobita, Shizuka, Gian, and Suneo appear in Monster Strike!] (in Japanese). XFLAG. February 28, 2020. Archived from the original on November 22, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  161. ^ Stenbuck, Kite (November 1, 2021). "Granblue Fantasy Doraemon Crossover Will Appear in December 2021". Siliconera. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  162. ^ "Granblue Fantasy announces Doraemon collab for December". GamerBraves. October 31, 2021. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  163. ^ "Viz Media announces new officially licensed collectables and apparel based on the celebrated anime property Doraemon". Viz Media. Archived from the original on July 6, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  164. ^ "McDonald's hopes to make kids happy — by teaming up with Japan's favorite blue friend Doraemon!". SoraNews24. March 14, 2015. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  165. ^ "Doraemon - the gadget cat from the future!". Viz Media Europe. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  166. ^ "Licensing & Promotions / DORAEMON". LUK International. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  167. ^ "Cool Japan Initiative" (PDF). METI. July 2015. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  168. ^ Denny, Mac (November 20, 2011). "Toyota Introduces Increasingly Impressive Cast for Live-Action Doraemon Commercials". SoraNews24. Archived from the original on August 5, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  169. ^ Loo, Egan (July 15, 2012). "Jean Reno Goes to Olympics as Doraemon in New Live-Action Ad – News". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  170. ^ a b Schilling, Mark (1993). "Doraemon: Making Dreams Come True" (PDF). Japan Quarterly. 40 (4): 405–417.
  171. ^ a b Schodt 1999, p. 217
  172. ^ Ressler, Karen (February 15, 2018). "Japan's Animation TV Ranking, February 5–11". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2021. Doraemon ... Average Household Rating: 8.3
  173. ^ Sekiguchi, Toko (March 26, 2013). "Godzilla Loses Top Spot to Kittybot Doraemon". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 30, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  174. ^ Blair, Gavin J. (April 6, 2015). "Japan Box Office: 'Doraemon' Anime Still All-Conquering". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  175. ^ a b Shiraishi 1997, p. 234
  176. ^ Shiraishi 1997, pp. 264–265, 268–269
  177. ^ McCurry, Justin (June 3, 2015). "Japanese robot cat Doraemon helps ease diplomatic tensions with China". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  178. ^ Shiraishi 1997, p. 267
  179. ^ Cooper-Chen, Anne (2010). Cartoon Cultures: The Globalization of Japanese Popular Media. Peter Lang. p. 85. ISBN 978-1433103681.
  180. ^ a b Iwamoto, Tetsuo (September 3, 2012). "Happy birthday! Doraemon will be born 100 years from today". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on January 24, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  181. ^ Easton, Yukari (August 31, 2016). "Tokyo 2020 and Japan's Soft Power". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on September 2, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  182. ^ "ドラえもん、誕生50周年にビックリ新刊!「第0巻」27日発売" [Doraemon, surprise new publication on the 50th anniversary! "Volume 0" released on the 27th of November]. サンスポ (in Japanese). Sankei Digital, Inc. November 27, 2019. Retrieved March 30, 2022.
  183. ^ "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average) - Japan". World Bank. 2010. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  184. ^ Tsukada, Yuko (September 7, 2001). "Action! Report No.3: 市場環境を調べる" [Action! Report No.3: Examine the market environment]. クリエイターのための自営学 [Self-employment studies for creators] (in Japanese). Creative Work Station / Asuka Publishing. ISBN 4756911501. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  185. ^ a b Market Share in Japan. Yano Research Institute. 2005. p. 18. Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018. 7 | Doraemon | 500 ... 8 | Doraemon | 300
  186. ^ "日本のアニメ・マンガを取り巻く状況" [The situation surrounding Japanese animation and manga] (PDF) (in Japanese). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. March 6, 2007. pp. 25–26. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 18, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  187. ^ "キャラクターが日本を救う" [Characters Save Japan]. NTTCom Online Marketing Solutions (in Japanese). NTT Communications. January 26, 2009. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  188. ^ コンテンツ2次利用市場(ライセンス市場)に係る 競争環境及び海外市場動向実態調査 [Research on the competitive environment and overseas market trends in the secondary content use market (licensing market)] (PDF) (in Japanese). Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). 2011. pp. 22–23. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  189. ^ a b "Top 20 Preschool Properties in the $12.8 Billion Industry". The Licensing Letter. July 17, 2017. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  190. ^ "Content Tokyo 2020 》Vtuber、疫情中重塑品牌、以AI創作,日本內容產業熱議的3件事" [Content Tokyo 2020 》Vtuber, Rebranding During the Epidemic, Creating With AI, 3 Things That Are Hotly Discussed in the Japanese Content Industry]. Central News Agency (in Chinese). December 30, 2020. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  191. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2019(18) (in Japanese). Character Databank. May 2019. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  192. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2020(19) (in Japanese). Character Databank. May 2020. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  193. ^ a b Thomas, Russell (February 1, 2020). "Back to the future: The world celebrates the 50th anniversary of Doraemon". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on February 2, 2020. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
  194. ^ Shiraishi 2000, p. 288
  195. ^ Giao Hưởng; Minh Hoa (March 21, 2006). "6 kỉ lục trong lĩnh vực xuất bản - in - phát hành của Việt Nam" [6 records in the publishing-printing-distribution sector of Vietnam]. Thanh Niên (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on January 24, 2008. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  196. ^ a b Nguyễn Phú Cương (October 16, 2010). "Nguyễn Thắng Vu: Ông "bố nuôi" của Đôrêmon đã ra đi" [Nguyễn Thắng Vu: Doraemon's "adoptive-father" is gone]. Thể thao & Văn hóa (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  197. ^ Nữ Lâm (May 14, 2020). "Thế giới đã sẵn sàng chia tay Doraemon chưa?" [Is the world ready to say goodbye to Doraemon?]. Tuổi Trẻ (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  198. ^ ""Ngày hội Đôrêmon"" ["Doraemon Festival"]. Communist Party of Vietnam Online Newspaper (in Vietnamese). March 12, 2010. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  199. ^ Phùng Hà (December 15, 2012). "'Doraemon' - cơn sốt 20 năm chưa hạ nhiệt" ['Doraemon' - the 20-year phenomenon which never dies down]. VnExpress (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  200. ^ Schilling 2004, p. 44
  201. ^ a b Nicora, Massimo (2016). C'era una volta ... prima di Mazinga e Goldrake. Storia dei robot giapponesi dalle origini agli anni Settanta [Once upon a time... before Mazinger and Grendizer. History of Japanese robots from the origins to the seventies] (in Italian). Youcanprint. p. 161. ISBN 978-8892635418.
  202. ^ Scala, Elisabetta (2016). "Un anno di zapping - Guida critica family friendly ai programmi televisivi" [A year of zapping - Family friendly critical guide to television programs] (PDF). Moige. p. 211. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  203. ^ Ching, Leo (2000). Appadurai, Arjun (ed.). Globalizing the Regional, Regionalizing the Global: Mass Culture and Asianism in the Age of Late Capital. Duke University Press. p. 297. ISBN 0822327236.
  204. ^ Allison, Anne (2002). Playing with Power: Morphing Toys and Transforming Heroes in Kids' Mass Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 83. ISBN 0521004608.
  205. ^ "Vox Populi: 'Doraemon' manga series at age 50 still proves prescient". Asahi Shimbun. March 4, 2020. Archived from the original on March 5, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  206. ^ "第2回(1973年度)" [2nd (1973)] (in Japanese). Japan Cartoonists Association. June 17, 2009. Archived from the original on December 15, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  207. ^ "第23回(1994年度)" [23rd (1994)] (in Japanese). Japan Cartoonists Association. June 17, 2009. Archived from the original on December 15, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  208. ^ 小学館漫画賞:歴代受賞者(第1回–第59回) [Shogakukan Manga Award: Winners (1st – 59th)] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  209. ^ Hahn, Joel (2006). "Shogakukan Manga Award". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  210. ^ "第1回 マンガ大賞 藤子・F・不二雄 『ドラえもん』(小学館)" [1st Manga Award Fujiko F. Fujio "Doraemon" (Shogakukan)]. Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  211. ^ "作品受賞歴" [Work award history] (in Japanese). Shin-Ei Animation. Archived from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  212. ^ Macdonald, Christopher (October 4, 2006). "Top 10 Anime and Manga at Japan Media Arts Festival". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 18, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  213. ^ Macdonald, Christopher (September 24, 2005). "TV Asahi Top 100 Anime". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 18, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  214. ^ Macdonald, Christopher (October 13, 2006). "Japan's Favorite TV Anime". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 17, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  215. ^ Loo, Egan (May 20, 2010). "Japan Surveyed on Anime, Manga, Other Cultural Exports". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  216. ^ Komatsu, Mikikazu (February 26, 2013). "Survey: 17 Recommended Anime Titles for Foreign People". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on February 28, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  217. ^ Cain, Rob (May 31, 2015). "Japan's Unlikely Ambassador: a Cartoon Robot Cat From the Future Wins China's Hearts and Minds". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  218. ^ McCurry, Justin (October 12, 2014). "Doraemon a character of subversion, claim Chinese media". The Star. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  219. ^ Piao, Vanessa (September 29, 2014). "A Warning in China: Beware the 'Blue Fatty' Cat". Sinosphere Blog. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 29, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  220. ^ a b Ressler, Karen (August 4, 2016). "Resolution to Ban Doraemon Anime Series Submitted in Pakistan". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on August 5, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  221. ^ McCurry, Justin (October 7, 2016). "Japanese robot cat Doraemon raises hackles in India and Pakistan". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 7, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  222. ^ AFP (February 15, 2013). "Bangladesh bans Japanese cartoon Doraemon to halt Hindi invasion". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  223. ^ Ahmad, Imtiaz (December 30, 2017). "Pakistan lawmaker calls for Doraemon ban to be fully implemented". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on December 30, 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  224. ^ Wuyuan, Guan (July 3, 2014). "尾田栄一郎:航海王冒險再10年" [Eiichiro Oda: Another 10 Years of One Piece Adventure]. China Times (in Chinese). Archived from the original on July 7, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  225. ^ "Eiichiro Oda Interview With China Times (Updated)". The One Piece Broadcast. July 4, 2014. Archived from the original on July 8, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  226. ^ Kishimoto, Masashi (2005). Naruto, Volume 7. Viz Media. pp. 66, 104. ISBN 978-1-59116-875-1.
  227. ^ McNulty, Amy (May 21, 2015). "Gintama - Episode 272". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  228. ^ Santos, Carlo (September 24, 2012). "Review - GTO: 14 Days in Shonan". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  229. ^ Allen, Jordan (May 23, 2020). "Fifty years of Doraemon, and still there are lessons to be learned". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  230. ^ Pelliteri 2008, p. 85
  231. ^ Hoover, William D. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Postwar Japan. Scarecrow Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0810875395.
  232. ^ Schilling 2004, p. 41
  233. ^ Iyer, Pico (April 29, 2002). "The Cuddliest Hero in Asia". Time Asia. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  234. ^ "1000人が選んだ!漫画史上"最強"キャラクターランキング!" [Selected by 1000 people! "The strongest" character ranking in manga history!]. Oricon News (in Japanese). June 22, 2007. Archived from the original on September 22, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  235. ^ "Little Boy: The Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture". Japan Society. Archived from the original on January 17, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  236. ^ McCurry, Justin (March 20, 2008). "Japan enlists cartoon cat as ambassador". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  237. ^ AFP (March 15, 2008). "Doraemon named 'anime ambassador'". Japan Today. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  238. ^ AFP (September 4, 2012). "Doraemon becomes official resident of Kawasaki a century before his birth". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  239. ^ West, David (August 13, 2012). "Hong Kong Celebrates Doraemon's 100th Birthday (Early!)". Neo. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  240. ^ Chavez, Amy (April 20, 2013). "Doraemon trumps Hello Kitty for Olympic Games ambassador". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on April 22, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  241. ^ Palazzo, Chiara (August 22, 2016). "Shinzo Abe emerges from a green pipe disguised as Super Mario during Rio Closing Ceremony". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  242. ^ Samuelson, Kate (August 22, 2016). "Shinzo Abe Dresses as Super Mario for Rio Closing Ceremony". Time. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  243. ^ "Anime star Doraemon to have own museum". The Independent. August 29, 2011. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  244. ^ "Doraemon museum opens its doors". The Japan Times. September 4, 2011. Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  245. ^ Sor Fern, Ong (October 27, 2020). "Doraemon invades National Museum of Singapore for an Instagram fest". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  246. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (June 22, 2011). "Shogakukan Publishes Doraemon Earthquake Survival Guide". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  247. ^ "Doraemon Fund". TV Asahi. Archived from the original on January 11, 2004. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  248. ^ "Doraemon Charity Fund for the Japan Tohoku-Kanto Earthquake". TV Asahi. Archived from the original on April 3, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  249. ^ Jamal, Alfea (June 29, 2020). "Mickey Mouse, Doraemon distribute books, food to children of Mumbai's slum areas". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  250. ^ Hoàng Nguyên (May 20, 2010). "Mèo máy Doremon tái xuất và ... đổi tên" [Doraemon the robot cat reappeared and ... renamed]. Thể thao & Văn hóa (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on October 13, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  251. ^ Hoàng Sơn (January 9, 2020). "Phát động cuộc thi Doraemon với An toàn giao thông năm 2019-2020" [Doraemon and Traffic Safety 2019-2020 contest launched]. Công an nhân dân (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on November 23, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  252. ^ Gia Hạ (October 21, 2016). "Fujiko F. Fujio: Người họa sĩ đến từ tương lai" [Fujiko F. Fujio: The artist from the future]. Zing (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on October 21, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  253. ^ "Noda chooses 'Doraemon' as chief Cabinet secretary". Asahi Shimbun. September 2, 2011. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  254. ^ Sharnoff, Lora (1993). Grand Sumo. Weatherhill. p. 216. ISBN 0-8348-0283-X.
  255. ^ "Thailand: Japan's Doraemon cartoon cat in rain ritual". BBC News. June 29, 2015. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2021.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]