Dornier Do 24
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|A Dutch Do 24 flying-boat|
|Role||Bomber, reconnaissance and air-sea rescue flying boat|
|First flight||3 July 1937|
|Retired||1967 (Spanish Air Force)|
The Dornier Do 24 is a 1930s German three-engine flying boat designed by the Dornier Flugzeugwerke for maritime patrol and search and rescue. According to Dornier records, some 12,000 people were rescued by Do 24s during its flying career. A total of 279 were built among several factories from 1937 to 1945.
Design and development
The Dornier Do 24 was designed to meet a Royal Netherlands Navy requirement for a replacement of the Dornier Wals being used in the Dutch East Indies, with the Netherlands government signing a contract for six Dornier Do 24s on 3 August 1936. Two more prototypes were built for the German navy to be evaluated against the Blohm & Voss BV 138.
The Do 24 was an all-metal parasol monoplane with a broad-beamed hull and stabilising sponsons. Twin tails were mounted on the upswept rear of the hull, while three wing-mounted tractor configuration engines powered the aircraft. Fuel was carried in tanks in the sponsons and the wing centre section. Up to 1,200 kg (2,600 lb) of bombs could be carried under the aircraft's wings, while defensive armament consisted of three gun turrets, one each in nose, dorsal and tail positions. In early aircraft the turrets were each fitted with a machine gun but later aircraft carried a 20 mm cannon in the dorsal turret.
Do 24 V3, the first of the Dutch boats, took off from Lake Constance on 3 July 1937, with the second Dutch boat, Do 24 V4 following soon after. As the Dutch required that their flying boats use the same engines as the Martin 139 bombers in use in the Dutch East Indies, they were fitted with 661 kW (887 hp) Wright R-1820-F52 Cyclone radial engines. Test results were good, with the new flying boat proving capable of operating from extremely rough open seas and the Dutch placed an order for a further 12 Do 24s on 22 July 1937. Do 24 V1, the first of the two aircraft for Germany, powered by three 600 hp (450 kW) Junkers Jumo 205C diesel engines, flew on 10 January 1938 but after evaluation, the two German boats were returned to Dornier for storage.
The Netherlands was enthusiastic about the new flying boat and planned to purchase as many as 90. Of these, 30 were to be built by Dornier (with all but the first two prototypes assembled by Dornier's Swiss subsidiary based at Altenrhein). The remaining aircraft were to be built under licence in the Netherlands by Aviolanda at Papendrecht. Of these aircraft, all but one of the German and Swiss built aircraft and the first seven Aviolanda-built aircraft were to be Do 24K-1s, powered by the original R-1820-F52 engines, while the remaining aircraft were to be Do 24K-2s, with more powerful 820 kW (1,100 hp) R-1820-G102 engines and more fuel.
Only 25 aircraft had been built on the Aviolanda assembly line before the German occupation. The Luftwaffe were interested in the completed and partially completed aircraft. The Dutch production line continued to produce aircraft under German control. 11 airframes were completed with Dutch-bought Wright Cyclone engines but later models used the BMW Bramo 323R-2. A further 159 Do 24s were built in the Netherlands during the occupation, most under the designation Do 24T-1.
Another production line for the Do 24 was established in the old CAMS factory at Sartrouville, France, during the German occupation. This line was operated by SNCAN and was able to produce another 48 Do 24s. After the liberation, this facility produced a further 40 Do 24s, which served with the French Navy until 1952.
Thirty-seven Dutch- and German-built Do 24s had been sent to the East Indies by the time of the German occupation of the Netherlands in June 1940. Until the outbreak of war, these aircraft would have flown the tri-color roundel. Later, to avoid confusion with British or French roundels, Dutch aircraft flew a black-bordered orange triangle insignia. A Dutch Dornier Do 24 is credited with sinking the Japanese destroyer Shinonome on December 17, 1941 while the ship was escorting an invasion fleet to Miri in British Borneo. On 10 January 1942 a Dutch Dornier Do 24K spotted a Japanese invasion fleet heading for Tarakan Island in Dutch Borneo, giving adequate warning so that all oil installations could be destroyed before the Japanese arrived. After the Japanese invasion of the Netherlands East Indies, six surviving Do 24s were transferred to the Royal Australian Air Force in February 1942. They served in the RAAF through most of 1944 as transports in New Guinea, making the Do 24 one of the few aircraft serving operationally on both sides during World War II
On 31 October 1944, a German Do 24 (CM+RY of Seenotgruppe 81) made a forced landing in neutral Sweden, was impounded and eventually bought, and remained in Swedish service until 1952.
In 1944, 12 Dutch-built Do 24s were delivered to Spain with the understanding that they would assist downed airmen of both sides. After the war, a few French-built Do 24s also found their way to Spain. Spanish Do 24s were operational at least until 1967, and possibly later. In 1971, one of the last flying Spanish Do 24s was returned to the Dornier facility on Lake Constance for permanent display.
- Do 24K-1
- Swiss production & Dutch license production aircraft, 36 built.
- Do 24K-2
- Dutch licence production powered by three 746 kW (1,000 hp) Wright R-1820-G102 engines. 1 built.
- Do 24N-1
- Dutch-built Do.24K-2s completed for Luftwaffe for air-sea rescue powered by three 746 kW (1,000 hp) Wright R-1820-G102 engines, 11 conversions.
- Do 24T-1
- French production, 48 built
- Do 24T-1
- Dutch production for the Luftwaffe powered by three BMW Bramo 323R-2 engines, 159 built (including T-2 and T-3).
- Do 24T-2
- Do 24T-1 with minor changes.
- Do 24T-3
- Do 24T-1 with minor changes.
- Do 24 ATT
- Post-war restoration/amphibian conversion with three Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-45 turboprop engines, one converted.
- Do 318
- One Do.24T modified in 1944 with a boundary-layer control system.
- French Navy (Postwar)
- Royal Norwegian Air Force (Postwar)
- Polar Aviation
- Unknown – Do 24 K-1 forward fuselage on static display at the Lake Boga Flying Boat Museum in Lake Boga, Victoria. It was previously used as a private boat in Echuca, Victoria.
- 1101 – Do 24 T-3 forward fuselage on static display at the Musée de l'Hydraviation in Biscarrosse, Nouvelle-Aquitaine.
- 5291/5345 – Do 24 T-3 on static display at the Flugwerft Schleißheim branch of the Deutsches Museum in Oberschleißheim, Bavaria. It was previously on display at the Dornier-Fairchild factory in Oberpfaffenhofen. This aircraft has the fuselage of Aviolanda-built WNr. 5291, mated with the original wing of the Do 24 that became the Do 24 ATT: Werknummer 5345.
- Unknown – Do 24 T fuselage on display at the Technik Museum Speyer in Speyer, Rhineland-Palatinate.
- 5345 – Do 24 ATT airworthy with Iren Dornier of Uhldingen-Mühlhofen, Baden-Württemberg. It has been re-engined with three PT6A-45B turboprops. In February 2004, it began flying around the world on a UNICEF mission to assist children in the Philippines. The Do-24 ATT is piloted by Iren Dornier, the grandson of Dornier founder Claudius Dornier. Upon completion of the work with UNICEF, it will be run as a special charter airliner by South East Asian Airlines. It was flying at the Berlin ILA in May 2014, equipped with the Advanced Technology Wing developed during the Dornier Do 228 program. It was then the only airworthy Do 24 of any sub-type. It was built from Werknummer 5345.
- 3387 – Do 24 T-3 on static display at the Nationaal Militair Museum in Soesterberg, Utrecht. It is painted in the livery of the Marine Luchtvaartdienst.
Specifications (Do 24T-1)
- Crew: 4 or 6
- Length: 22.05 m (72 ft 4 in)
- Wingspan: 27 m (88 ft 7 in)
- Height: 5.75 m (18 ft 10 in)
- Wing area: 108 m2 (1,160 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 9,400 kg (20,723 lb)
- Gross weight: 13,700 kg (30,203 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 18,400 kg (40,565 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 5,300 l (1,400 US gal; 1,200 imp gal) in two 1,000 l (260 US gal; 220 imp gal) wing tanks and twelve small tanks in the sponsons
- Powerplant: 2 × Bramo 323R-2 Fafnir 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine
- Propellers: 3-bladed VDM variable-pitch metal propellers
- Maximum speed: 330 km/h (205 mph; 178 kn) at 2,600 m (8,500 ft)
- 290 km/h (180 mph; 160 kn) at sea level
- Cruise speed: 295 km/h (183 mph; 159 kn) at 2,600 m (8,500 ft) (maximum continuous)
- Range: 2,900 km (1,802 mi; 1,566 nmi)
- Ferry range: 4,700 km (2,920 mi; 2,538 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 7,500 m (24,600 ft)
- Time to altitude: 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in 6 minutes
- 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in 13 minutes 12 seconds
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of Interwar military aircraft
- List of military aircraft of Germany
- List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft
- List of World War II military aircraft of Germany
- Green and Swanborough Air Enthusiast April–July 1983, pp. 9–10.
- Green and Swanborough Air Enthusiast April–July 1983, pp. 10–11.
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- Visser, Jan (1999–2000). "Who sank IJN destroyer Shinonome, December 1941?". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
- L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Tarakan Island, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. Archived from the original on 2011-07-26.
- Broshot, James A. "Dutch Air Force Order of Battle in the Dutch East Indies, 30 November 1941". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
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- "RAAF A49 Dornier Do24K". ADF-SERIALS. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- de Zwart, Andre. "Do-24K-1 at Echuca, Australia". Dornier Do-24. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- de Zwart, Andre. "Do-24T-3 at Bad Zwischenahn". Dornier Do-24. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Dornier Do 24 T-3". Deutsches Museum Flugwerft Schleissheim. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
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- "AirVenture News: Dornier Do 24 in der Museumswerkstätte der Flugwerft Schleißheim". AirVenture News. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
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- Doerk, Christian. "Mission: DREAM". Amphibian Do 24ATT World Tour. do-24.com. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Doerk, Christian. "IREN DORNIER - Founding Chairman". Amphibian Do 24ATT World Tour. do-24.com. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Air Britain Aviation World pp. 127, 129, September 2014
- "Dornier Do 24 - Eine Ode an das Erbe". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- "Dornier Do-24K .1 "X-24"". NMM (in Dutch). Nationaal Militair Museum. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- de Zwart, Andre. "Do-24T-3 at Soesterberg, The Netherlands". Dornier Do-24. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Hangar 6 del Museo de Aeronáutica y Astronáutica" (in Spanish). Ejército del Aire. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
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- "Back to base". Air Enthusiast. Vol. 2 no. 1. January 1972.
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- King, H.F. (9 November 1939). "The Dornier Flying Boats". Flight. Vol. XXXVI no. 1611. pp. a–d (between p. 372 and p. 373).
- de Jong, Peter (2015). Dornier Do 24 Units (Osprey Combat Aircraft No. 110). Oxford: Osprey Aerospace. ISBN 978-1-4728-0570-6.
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- Web page dedicated to the latest flight of the last airworthy Do.24 in the world
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dornier Do 24.|
- Do.24ATT World Tour - An Iren Dornier Project
- Dornier Do.24 & Do.24 ATT Detailed specs at flugzeuginfo.net
- Site dedicated to the Do.24
- photos and documents about Do.24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March, 2006
- Article in 'Kölner Stadt Anzeiger' showing three photos of the Do.24 in flight on 20 May 2006 (German)
- UNICEF article describing the mission of the Do.24 ATT
- Dornier Do.24 by Hydravore.com (French)
- Do.24 in Oberschleißheim
- Complete list of surviving Do.24 (and other Dornier) aircraft and fragments
- Video: short stop