Dorothy L. Sayers

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Dorothy L. Sayers
Dorothy L Sayers 1928.jpg
Born(1893-06-13)13 June 1893
Oxford, UK
Died17 December 1957(1957-12-17) (aged 64)
Witham, Essex, UK
OccupationNovelist, playwright, poet
LanguageEnglish
NationalityEnglish
Alma materSomerville College, Oxford
GenreCrime fiction
Literary movementGolden Age of Detective Fiction
SpouseMac Fleming
(m. 1926–50, his death)
ChildrenJohn Anthony Fleming (1924–1984)

Dorothy Leigh Sayers (/sɛərz/;[1] 13 June 1893 – 17 December 1957) was a renowned English crime writer and poet. She was also a student of classical and modern languages.

She is best known for her mysteries, a series of novels and short stories set between the First and Second World Wars that feature English aristocrat and amateur sleuth Lord Peter Wimsey, which remain popular to this day. However, Sayers herself considered her translation of Dante's Divine Comedy to be her best work. She is also known for her plays, literary criticism, and essays.

Biography[edit]

Childhood, youth, and education[edit]

Somerville College, Oxford, where Sayers studied and inspiration for her novel Gaudy Night

Sayers, an only child, was born on 13 June 1893 to Helen Mary (née Leigh) at the Headmaster's House, Christ Church Cathedral School, Oxford. Her mother was born at "The Chestnuts", Millbrook, Hampshire, to Frederick Leigh, a solicitor whose family roots were in the Isle of Wight. Her father, the Rev. Henry Sayers, M.A., from Littlehampton, West Sussex, was a chaplain of Christ Church and headmaster of the Choir School.

When Sayers was six, her father started teaching her Latin.[2] She grew up in the tiny village of Bluntisham-cum-Earith in Huntingdonshire after her father was given the living (benefice) there as rector. The church graveyard next to the elegant Regency-style rectory features the surnames of several characters from her mystery The Nine Tailors; the nearby River Great Ouse and the Fens invite comparison with the book's vivid description of a massive flood around the village.[3]

From 1909, she was educated at the Godolphin School,[4] a boarding school in Salisbury. Her father later moved to the simpler living of Christchurch, in Cambridgeshire.

In 1912, Sayers won a scholarship to Somerville College, Oxford[5] where she studied modern languages and medieval literature and was taught by Mildred Pope. She finished with first-class honours in 1915.[6] Women were not awarded degrees at that time, but Sayers was among the first to receive a degree when the position changed a few years later;[7] in 1920 she graduated as an MA. Her experience of Oxford academic life eventually inspired her penultimate Peter Wimsey novel, Gaudy Night.

Career[edit]

Poetry, teaching, and advertisements[edit]

Sayers's first book of poetry was published in 1916 as OP. I [8] by Blackwell Publishing in Oxford. Her second book of poems, "Catholic Tales and Christian Songs", was published in 1918, also by Blackwell. Later, Sayers worked for Blackwell's and then as a teacher in several locations, including Normandy, France. She also published a number of poems in the Oxford Magazine.[9]

Sayers's longest employment was from 1922 to 1931 as a copywriter at S.H. Benson's advertising agency, located at International Buildings, Kingsway, London. A colleague of hers at the agency was Albert Henry Ross (1881-1950) who is better known by his literary pseudonym Frank Morison. He wrote the best-selling Christian apologetics book Who Moved the Stone? which explored the historicity of the trial, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Sayers later relied on his book when she composed the trial scene of Jesus in her play The Man Born to be King.[10]

Sayers was quite successful as an advertiser. Her collaboration with artist John Gilroy resulted in "The Mustard Club" for Colman's Mustard and the Guinness "Zoo" advertisements, variations of which still appear today. One famous example was the Toucan, his bill arching under a glass of Guinness, with Sayers's jingle:[11]

If he can say as you can
Guinness is good for you
How grand to be a Toucan
Just think what Toucan do

Sayers is also credited with coining the slogan "It pays to advertise!"[12][13] She used the advertising industry as the setting of Murder Must Advertise, where she describes the role of truth in advertising:

... the firm of Pym's Publicity, Ltd., Advertising Agents ...

"Now, Mr. Pym is a man of rigid morality—except, of course, as regards his profession, whose essence is to tell plausible lies for money—"

"How about truth in advertising?"

"Of course, there is some truth in advertising. There's yeast in bread, but you can't make bread with yeast alone. Truth in advertising ... is like leaven, which a woman hid in three measures of meal. It provides a suitable quantity of gas, with which to blow out a mass of crude misrepresentation into a form that the public can swallow."[12]

Detective fiction[edit]

Sayers began working out the plot of her first novel some time in 1920–21. The seeds of the plot for Whose Body? can be seen in a letter that Sayers wrote on 22 January 1921:

My detective story begins brightly, with a fat lady found dead in her bath with nothing on but her pince-nez. Now why did she wear pince-nez in her bath? If you can guess, you will be in a position to lay hands upon the murderer, but he's a very cool and cunning fellow ... (p. 101, Reynolds)

Lord Peter Wimsey burst upon the world of detective fiction with an explosive "Oh, damn!" and continued to engage readers in eleven novels and two sets of short stories, the final novel ending with a very different "Oh, damn!". Sayers once commented that Lord Peter was a mixture of Fred Astaire and Bertie Wooster, which is most evident in the first five novels. However, it is evident through Lord Peter's development as a rounded character that he existed in Sayers's mind as a living, breathing, fully human being.

Sayers introduced the character of detective novelist Harriet Vane in Strong Poison. She remarked more than once that she had developed the "husky voiced, dark-eyed" Harriet to put an end to Lord Peter via matrimony. But in the course of writing Gaudy Night, Sayers imbued Lord Peter and Harriet with so much life that she was never able, as she put it, to "see Lord Peter exit the stage".

Sayers did not content herself with writing pure detective stories; she explored the difficulties of First World War veterans in The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club, discussed the ethics of advertising in Murder Must Advertise, and advocated women's education (then a controversial subject) and role in society in Gaudy Night. In Gaudy Night, Miss Barton writes a book attacking the Nazi doctrine of Kinder, Küche, Kirche, which restricted women's roles to family activities, and in many ways the whole of Gaudy Night can be read as an attack on Nazi social doctrine. The book has been described as "the first feminist mystery novel."[14]

Sayers's Christian and academic interests are also apparent in her detective series. In The Nine Tailors, one of her best-known detective novels, the plot unfolds largely in and around an old church dating back to the Middle Ages. Change ringing of bells also forms an important part of the novel. In Have His Carcase, the Playfair cipher and the principles of cryptanalysis are explained. Her short story Absolutely Elsewhere refers to the fact that (in the language of modern physics) the only perfect alibi for a crime is to be outside its light cone, while The Fascinating Problem of Uncle Meleager's Will contains a literary crossword puzzle.

Sayers also wrote a number of short stories about Montague Egg, a wine salesman who solves mysteries.

Translations[edit]

Fresco showing Dante Alighieri holding a copy of his epic poem The Divine Comedy, in the dome of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (Florence's cathedral)
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory, and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above

Sayers herself considered her translation of Dante's Divine Comedy to be her best work. The boldly titled Hell appeared in 1949, as one of the recently introduced series of Penguin Classics. Purgatory followed in 1955. The third volume (Paradise) was unfinished at her death, and was completed by Barbara Reynolds in 1962.

On a line-by-line basis, Sayers's translation can seem idiosyncratic. For example, the famous line usually rendered "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here" turns, in the Sayers translation, into "Lay down all hope, you who go in by me." The Italian reads "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate", and both the traditional rendering and Sayers' translation add to the source text in an effort to preserve the original length: "here" is added in the traditional, and "by me" in Sayers. Also, the addition of "by me" draws from the previous lines of the canto: "Per me si va ne la città dolente;/ per me si va ne l'etterno dolore;/ per me si va tra la perduta gente." (Longfellow: "Through me the way is to the city dolent;/ through me the way is to the eternal dole;/ through me the way is to the people lost.")

The idiosyncratic character of Sayers's translation results from her decision to preserve the original Italian terza rima rhyme scheme, so that her "go in by me" rhymes with "made to be" two lines earlier, and "unsearchably" two lines before that. Umberto Eco in his book Mouse or Rat? suggests that, of the various English translations, Sayers "does the best in at least partially preserving the hendecasyllables and the rhyme."[15]

Sayers's translation of the Divine Comedy is also notable for extensive notes at the end of each canto,[16][17][18] explaining the theological meaning of what she calls "a great Christian allegory."[19] Her translation has remained popular: in spite of publishing new translations by Mark Musa and Robin Kirkpatrick, as of 2009 Penguin Books was still publishing the Sayers edition.[20][21][22]

In the introduction to her translation of The Song of Roland, Sayers expressed an outspoken feeling of attraction and love for:

"... That new-washed world of clear sun and glittering colour which we call the Middle Age (as though it were middle-aged) but which has perhaps a better right than the blown rose of the Renaissance to be called the Age of Re-birth".

She praised "Roland" for being a purely Christian myth, in contrast to such epics as Beowulf in which she found a strong pagan content.

She shared an enthusiasm for Dante's work with the novelist, poet, playwright and lay-theologian Charles Williams (1886-1945) and she contributed an essay about The Divine Comedy to the memorial volume Essays Presented to Charles Williams.[23]

Other Christian and academic work[edit]

Sayers's most notable religious book is probably The Mind of the Maker (1941) which explores at length the analogy between a human creator (especially a writer of novels and plays) and the doctrine of The Trinity in creation. She suggests that any human creation of significance involves the Idea, the Energy (roughly: the process of writing and that actual 'incarnation' as a material object), and the Power (roughly: the process of reading and hearing and the effect that it has on the audience). She draws analogies between this "trinity" and the theological Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

In addition to the ingenious thinking in working out this analogy, the book contains striking examples drawn from her own experiences as a writer, as well as elegant criticisms of writers who exhibit, in her view, an inadequate balance of Idea, Energy, and Power.[24] She strongly defends the view that literary creatures have a nature of their own, vehemently replying to a well-wisher who wanted Lord Peter to "end up a convinced Christian". "From what I know of him, nothing is more unlikely ... Peter is not the Ideal Man".[25]

Creed or Chaos? is a restatement of basic historical Christian Doctrine, based on the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed, similar to but somewhat more densely written than C.S. Lewis' Mere Christianity. Both sought to explain the central doctrines of Christianity, clearly and concisely, to those who had encountered them in distorted or watered-down forms, on the grounds that, if you are going to criticize something, you had best know what it is first.

Her very influential essay The Lost Tools of Learning[26] has been used by many schools in the US as a basis for the classical education movement, reviving the medieval trivium subjects (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) as tools to enable the analysis and mastery of every other subject. Sayers also wrote three volumes of commentaries about Dante, religious essays, and several plays, of which The Man Born to be King may be the best known.

Her religious works did so well at presenting the orthodox Anglican position that, in 1943, the Archbishop of Canterbury offered her a Lambeth doctorate in divinity, which she declined. In 1950, however, she accepted an honorary doctorate of letters from the University of Durham.

Her economic and political ideas are rooted in the classical Christian doctrines of Creation and Incarnation, and are very close to the Chesterton–Belloc theory of Distributism[27] – although she never describes herself as a Distributist.

Criticism[edit]

Of background material[edit]

The literary and academic themes in Sayers's novels have appealed to a great many readers, but by no means to all. The poet W. H. Auden and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein were critics of her novels, for example.[28][29] A savage attack on Sayers's writing ability came from the prominent American critic and man of letters Edmund Wilson, in a well-known 1945 article in The New Yorker called Who Cares Who Killed Roger Ackroyd?[30] He briefly writes about her famous novel The Nine Tailors, saying "I declare that it seems to me one of the dullest books I have ever encountered in any field." Wilson continues "I had often heard people say that Dorothy Sayers wrote well ... but, really, she does not write very well: it is simply that she is more consciously literary than most of the other detective-story writers and that she thus attracts attention in a field which is mostly on a sub-literary level."

The academic critic Q. D. Leavis criticises Sayers in more specific terms, in a review of Gaudy Night and Busman's Honeymoon published in the critical journal Scrutiny, saying her fiction is "popular and romantic while pretending to realism."[31] Leavis argues that Sayers presents academic life as "sound and sincere because it is scholarly", a place of "invulnerable standards of taste charging the charmed atmosphere".[32] But, Leavis says, this is unrealistic: "If such a world ever existed, and I should be surprised to hear as much, it does no longer, and to give substance to a lie or to perpetuate a dead myth is to do no one any service really."[33] Leavis comments that "only best-seller novelists could have such illusions about human nature".[33]

The critic Sean Latham has defended Sayers, arguing that Wilson and Leavis simply objected to a detective story writer having pretensions beyond what they saw as her role of popular culture "hack".[28] Latham claims that, in their eyes, "Sayers's primary crime lay in her attempt to transform the detective novel into something other than an ephemeral bit of popular culture".[28]

Of major characters[edit]

Lord Peter Wimsey, Sayers's heroic detective, has been criticized for being too perfect; over time, the various talents that he displays grow too numerous for some readers to swallow. Edmund Wilson also expressed his distaste for Lord Peter in his criticism of The Nine Tailors: "There was also a dreadful stock English nobleman of the casual and debonair kind, with the embarrassing name of Lord Peter Wimsey, and, although he was the focal character in the novel ... I had to skip a good deal of him, too."[30]

Wimsey is rich, well-educated, charming, and brave, as well as an accomplished musician, an exceptional athlete, and a notable lover. He does, however, have serious flaws: the habit of over-engaging in what other characters regard as silly prattling, a nervous disorder (shell-shock), and a fear of responsibility. The last two both originate from his service in the First World War. The fear of responsibility turns out to be a serious obstacle to his maturation into full adulthood (a fact not lost on the character himself).

The character Harriet Vane, featured in four novels, has been criticized for being a mere stand-in for the author. Many of the themes and settings of Sayers's novels, particularly those involving Harriet Vane, seem to reflect Sayers's own concerns and experiences.[34] Vane, like Sayers, was educated at Oxford (unusual for a woman at the time) and is a mystery writer. Vane initially meets Wimsey when she is tried for poisoning her lover (Strong Poison); he insists on participating in the defence preparations for her re-trial, where he falls for her but she rejects him. In Have His Carcase, she collaborates with Wimsey to solve a murder but still rejects his proposals of marriage. She eventually accepts (Gaudy Night) and marries him (Busman's Honeymoon).

Alleged anti-Semitism[edit]

Biographers of Sayers have disagreed as to whether Sayers was anti-Semitic. In Sayers: A Biography,[35] James Brabazon argues that she was. This conclusion is supported by Carolyn G. Heilbrun in Dorothy L. Sayers: Biography Between the Lines,[36] who agrees with his assessment of anti-Semitism, but dissents from the excuses that he made for it. McGregor and Lewis argue in Conundrums for the Long Week-End that Sayers was not anti-Semitic but used popular British stereotypes of class and ethnicity. In 1936, a translator wanted "to soften the thrusts against the Jews" in Whose Body?; Sayers, surprised, replied that the only characters "treated in a favourable light were the Jews!"[37]

Personal life[edit]

Blue plaque for Dorothy L. Sayers on 23 & 24 Gt. James Street, WC1

In London in 1920, she entered into an unhappy affair with Russian emigre Imagist poet John Cournos who moved in literary circles with Ezra Pound and his contemporaries. Her affront at his subsequent marriage to a fellow crime writer—after claiming to disdain both monogamy and detective fiction—has been documented in her collected letters,[38] an experience fictionalized a decade later in her novel Strong Poison[39] and in Cournos' The Devil is an English Gentleman, published in 1932.[40]

In 1923 she was in a relationship with Denstone College graduate, part-time automoblie salesman William "Bill" White, a "rotten charmer"[41] whom she presented to her parents. She had met him when he moved into the flat above hers in 24, Great James Street in December 1922. [42] Only when she discovered her pregnancy in June 1923, Bill White admitted to already being married. [43] [44] What happened next could have been from one of Sayers’ fictional works [45]: Bill White told his wife Beatrice about the pregnancy the following morning and asked her for help with the birth. Mrs White agreed to meet Sayers in London. Together they went to Bill’s flat (he was then living off Theobalds Road) and found him with another woman. Sayers: “He’s like a child in a power house, starting off machinery regardless of results. No woman on earth could hold him”. In exchange for the promise to never see Bill again, Mrs White invited Sayers to a guest house in her hometown of Southborne during the last stages of pregnancy and arranged for her own brother, Dr Murray Wilson, to attend the birth at Tuckton Lodge, a nursing-home in Ilford Lane, Southbourne.[46] On 3 January 1924, at the age of 30, Sayers secretly gave birth to an illegitimate son, John Anthony (later surnamed Fleming) [47]. John Anthony "Tony" was given into care with her aunt and cousin, Amy and Ivy Amy Shrimpton, and passed off as her nephew to family and friends.[48][49][50] Details of these circumstances were revealed in a letter from Mrs White to her daughter Valeria, Tonys half-sister, in 1958 after Sayers death.[51]

Tony was raised by Amy and Ivy Amy Shrimpton and later was sent to a good boarding school. In 1935 he got legally adopted by Sayers and her then husband "Mac" Fleming. While still not revealing her identity as his mother, Sayers was constantly in contact with her son, provided him with good education and they maintained a close relationship.[52] John Anthony probably suspected Sayers' maternity since his youth but had proof only when he obtained his birth certificate applying for a passport. It is not known if he ever spoke to Sayers about the fact. [53] Much to Sayers's pride, Tony won a scholarship to Balliol College - the same Oxford college Sayers had chosen for Wimsey.

After publishing her first two detective novels, Sayers married Captain Oswald Atherton "Mac" Fleming, a Scottish journalist whose professional name was "Atherton Fleming".[54] The wedding took place on 8 April 1926 at Holborn Register Office, London. Fleming was divorced with two daughters.

Sayers and Fleming lived in the small flat at 24 Great James Street in Bloomsbury[55] that Sayers maintained for the rest of her life. Both worked, Fleming as an author and journalist and Sayers as an advertising copywriter and author. Over time, Fleming's health worsened, largely due to his First World War service, and as a result he became unable to work.

Sayers was a good friend of C. S. Lewis and several of the other Inklings. On some occasions, Sayers joined Lewis at meetings of the Socratic Club. Lewis said he read The Man Born to be King every Easter, but he claimed to be unable to appreciate detective stories. J. R. R. Tolkien read some of the Wimsey novels but scorned the later ones, such as Gaudy Night.[56]

Fleming died on 9 June 1950, at Sunnyside Cottage (now 24 Newland Street), Witham, Essex, after a decade of severe illnesses due to his WWI service. Sayers died suddenly of a coronary thrombosis[57] on 17 December 1957 at the same place, aged 64. Fleming was buried in Ipswich, while Sayers's remains were cremated and her ashes buried beneath the tower of St Anne's Church, Soho, London, where she had been a churchwarden for many years. Upon her death it was publicly revealed that her nephew, John Anthony, was her son; he was the sole beneficiary under his mother's will. He died on 26 November 1984 at age 60, in St. Francis's Hospital, Miami Beach, Florida. In 1991 his half-sister Valerie White tried to get to know John Anthony and wrote him a letter about his parents story, but was told by his publishers that he had already died [58]

Legacy[edit]

Bronze statue of Dorothy L. Sayers by John Doubleday. The statue is across the road from her home at 24 Newland Street, Witham

Some of the dialogue spoken by character Harriet Vane reveals Sayers poking fun at the mystery genre, even while adhering to various conventions.

Sayers's work was frequently parodied by her contemporaries. E. C. Bentley, the author of the early modern detective novel Trent's Last Case, wrote a parody entitled "Greedy Night" (1938).

Sayers was a founder and early president of the Detection Club, an eclectic group of practitioners of the art of the detective novel in the so-called golden age, for whom she constructed an idiosyncratic induction ritual. The Club still exists, and, according to the late P.D. James who was a long-standing member, still uses the ritual. In Sayers's day it was the custom of the members to publish collaborative detective novels, usually writing one chapter each without prior consultation. These works have not held the market, and have only rarely been in print since their first publication.

Her characters, and Sayers herself, have been placed in some other works, including:

  • Jill Paton Walsh has published four novels about Peter Wimsey and Harriet Vane: Thrones, Dominations (1998), a completion of Sayers's manuscript left unfinished at her death; A Presumption of Death (2002), based on the "Wimsey Papers", letters ostensibly written by various Wimseys and published in The Spectator during the Second World War; The Attenbury Emeralds (2010), based on Lord Peter's "first case", briefly referred to in a number of Sayers's novels; and a sequel The Late Scholar (2013) in which Peter and Harriet have finally become the Duke and Duchess of Denver.
  • Dorothy Sayers is mentioned by Agatha Christie in chapter 8 of her novel The Body in the Library, along with John Dickson Carr, H. C. Bailey and herself.
  • Wimsey appears (together with Hercule Poirot and Father Brown) in C. Northcote Parkinson's comic novel Jeeves (after Jeeves, the gentleman's gentleman of the P.G. Wodehouse canon).
  • Wimsey makes a cameo appearance in Laurie R. King's A Letter of Mary, one of a series of books relating the further adventures of Sherlock Holmes.
  • Sayers appears with Agatha Christie as a title character in Dorothy and Agatha ISBN 0-451-40314-2, a murder mystery by Gaylord Larsen, in which a man is murdered in Sayers's dining room and she has to solve the crime.
  • Wimsey is mentioned by Walter Pidgeon's character in the 1945 film Week-End at the Waldorf as one of three possible detectives waiting for him in the hall, outside the apartment of the character played by Ginger Rogers.
  • Edward "Rubber Ed" French, the guidance counsellor of Todd Bowden in Stephen King's novella Apt Pupil thinks that Kurt Dussander (alias "Arthur Denker"), who pretends to be Todd's grandfather Victor Bowden, looks like Lord Peter Wimsey.
  • In Tom Stoppard's comic mystery play The Real Inspector Hound, a parody of The Mousetrap by Agatha Christie, one of the critics (Moon) identifies Sayers as a notable literary figure.[59]

Sayers Classical Academy in Louisville, Kentucky, is named after her.

Minor planet 3627 Sayers is named after her. The asteroid was discovered by Luboš Kohoutek, but the name suggested by Brian G. Marsden with whom Sayers consulted extensively during the last year of her life in her attempt to rehabilitate the Roman poet Lucan [60]

Bibliography[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Often pronounced /ˈs.ərz/, but Sayers herself preferred /sɛərz/ and encouraged the use of her middle initial to facilitate this pronunciation. Barbara Reynolds (1993). Dorothy L. Sayers: Her Life and Soul. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 361. ISBN 0-312-09787-5.
  2. ^ Reynolds (1993), pp. 1–14
  3. ^ Dale, Alvina Stone (2003). Master and Craftsman: The Story of Dorothy L. Sayers. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-0-595-26603-6.
  4. ^ "Inklings". Taylor University. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  5. ^ Reynolds (1993), p. 43
  6. ^ "The Biography of DLS". The Dorothy L. Sayers Society. The Dorothy L Sayers Society. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  7. ^ _____, "Degrees conferred at Oxford". Yorkshire Post, 15 October 1920. 5.
  8. ^ "Op. 1, by Dorothy Sayers". UPenn Digital Libraries: a Celebration of Women Writers. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  9. ^ "Op. I., by Dorothy L. Sayers". digital.library.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  10. ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, The Man Born To Be King: A Play-Cycle on the Life of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1990 [1943]), 29. ISBN 0-89870-307-7
  11. ^ Spencer-Thomas, Owen (2018). "Dorothy L Sayers (1893-1957)". Owen Spencer-Thomas. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  12. ^ a b Murder Must Advertise, chapter 5
  13. ^ Mitzi Brunsdale (1990). Dorothy L. Sayers. New York: Berg, p. 94.
  14. ^ Randi Sørsdal (2006). From Mystery to Manners: A Study of Five Detective Novels by Dorothy L. Sayers (Masters thesis). University of Bergen. p. 45., bora.uib.no
  15. ^ Umberto Eco (2003). Mouse or Rat? Translation as Negotiation. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 141. ISBN 0-297-83001-5.
  16. ^ Acocella, Joan (20 May 2013). "What the Hell". Retrieved on 22 December 2017 – via www.newyorker.com.
  17. ^ "BOOK REVIEW / The lost in translation: 'Hell' - Dante Alighieri, trs". 13 March 1994. Retrieved on 22 December 2017.
  18. ^ Thomson, Ian (21 December 2002). "Review: The Inferno of Dante Alighieri translated by Ciaran Carson". Retrieved on 22 December 2017 – via www.theguardian.com.
  19. ^ Dorothy L. Sayers (1949). The Divine Comedy 1: Hell (introduction). London: Penguin Books. p. 11.
  20. ^ Penguin UK web site (accessed 26 August 2009)
  21. ^ "The Divine Comedy, Purgatory by Dante Alighieri". www.penguin.co.uk. Retrieved on 22 December 2017.
  22. ^ "The Comedy of Dante Alighieri, Hell by Dante Alighieri". www.penguin.co.uk. Retrieved on 22 December 2017.
  23. ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, " '... And Telling You A Story' A Note on The Divine Comedy" in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, ed. C. S. Lewis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947), pp 1-37.
  24. ^ Examples, some hilarious, given in Chapter 10 of The Mind of the Maker, include a poet whose solemn ode to the Ark of the Covenant crossing Jordan contains the immortal couplet: "The [something] torrent, leaping in the air / Left the astounded river's bottom bare"
  25. ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, The Mind of the Maker, p. 105
  26. ^ Sayers, GBT, ISBN 978-1-60051-025-0.
  27. ^ Adam Schwartz (2000). "The Mind of a Maker: An Introduction to the Thought of Dorothy L. Sayers Through Her Letters". Touchstone Magazine, Volume 13, Issue 4 (May 2000), pp. 28–38.
  28. ^ a b c Sean Latham (2003). Am I A Snob? Modernism and the Novel. Cornell University Press. p. 197. ISBN 0-8014-4022-X.
  29. ^ from a letter to his former pupil Norman Malcolm, reproduced on page 109 of Malcolm's Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir, O.U.P., 2001, ISBN 0-19-924759-5
  30. ^ a b Wilson, Edmund. "Who Cares Who Killed Roger Ackroyd?" Originally published in The New Yorker, 20 January 1945.
  31. ^ Leavis 1968, p. 143
  32. ^ Leavis 1968, pp. 143–144
  33. ^ a b Leavis 1968, p. 144
  34. ^ Reynolds (1993)
  35. ^ James Brabazon, Sayers: A Biography, pp. 216–219
  36. ^ Carolyn G. Heilbrun in 'Dorothy L. Sayers: Biography Between the Lines' in Sayers Centenary.
  37. ^ From a letter Sayers wrote to David Highan, 27 November 1936, published in Sayers's Letters.
  38. ^ An Introduction to the Thought of Dorothy L. Sayers Through Her Letters by Adam Schwartz, Touchstone Magazine
  39. ^ SAYERS’ LIFE BETWEEN WORLD WARS I AND II DOROTHY L. SAYERS: HER LIFE AND WORK By Nancy G. West
  40. ^ DuBose, Martha Hailey (11 December 2000). Women of Mystery: The Lives and Works of Notable Women Crime Novelists. ASIN B000C4SKGK. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  41. ^ The Letters of Dorothy L. Sayers Vol II: 1937-1943: From Novelist to Playwright, p. 441
  42. ^ The Letters of Dorothy L. Sayers Vol II: 1937-1943: From Novelist to Playwright, p. 438
  43. ^ Martha Hailey Dubose: Women of Mystery, p. 184.
  44. ^ Reynolds (1993), pp. 118–122
  45. ^ The Letters of Dorothy L. Sayers Vol II: 1937-1943: From Novelist to Playwright, p. 439
  46. ^ The Letters of Dorothy L. Sayers Vol II: 1937-1943: From Novelist to Playwright, p. 439
  47. ^ Reynolds (1993), pp. 346
  48. ^ Reynolds (1993), p. 126
  49. ^ "gadetection / Sayers, Dorothy L".
  50. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Dorothy L. Sayers". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015.
  51. ^ The Letters of Dorothy L. Sayers Vol II: 1937-1943: From Novelist to Playwright, p. 440-442
  52. ^ Martha Hailey Dubose: Women of Mystery, p. 189,210.
  53. ^ Martha Hailey Dubose: Women of Mystery, p. 211.
  54. ^ '"Autumn in Galloway"' (1931)' Pastel landscape by Oswald Atherton (Mac) Fleming with photograph of artist
  55. ^ Lived in London English Heritage/Yale University Press (2009)
  56. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1981). "Letter #71". The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. George Allen & Unwin.
  57. ^ "Dorothy Sayers, Author, Dies at 64". The New York Times. 19 December 1957. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  58. ^ The Letters of Dorothy L. Sayers Vol II: 1937-1943: From Novelist to Playwright, p. 441
  59. ^ Stoppard, Tom (1988). The Real Inspector Hound and Other Plays. Grove Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-8021-3561-7.
  60. ^ (3627) Sayers In: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer. 2003. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_3626. ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7.

References[edit]

  • Op. I by Dorothy Sayers (poetry): digital.library.upenn.edu
  • The Lost Tools of Learning by Dorothy L. Sayers: Audio of this Essay ISBN 978-1-60051-025-0
  • Brabazon, James, Dorothy L. Sayers: a Biography (1980; New York: Avon, 1982) ISBN 978-0-380-58990-6
  • Dale, Alzina Stone, Maker and Craftsman: The Story of Dorothy L. Sayers (1993; backinprint.com, 2003) ISBN 978-0-595-26603-6
  • Leavis, Q.D. (1937). "The Case of Miss Dorothy Sayers". Scrutiny. VI.
  • McGregor, Robert Kuhn & Lewis, Ethan Conundrums for the Long Week-End : England, Dorothy L. Sayers, and Lord Peter Wimsey (Kent, OH, & London: Kent State University Press, 2000) ISBN 0-87338-665-5
  • Prescott, Barbara, "Dorothy L. Sayers & the Mutual Admiration Society: Friendship and Creative Writing in an Oxford Women's Literary Group." INKLINGS FOREVER, Vol. 10. Proceedings of the 2016 Frances W. Eubank Colloquium on Lewis & Friends. (Winged Lion Press, 2017)
  • Reynolds, Barbara, Dorothy L. Sayers: Her Life and Soul (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1993; rev. eds 1998, 2002) ISBN 0-340-72845-0
  • Sørsdal, Randi, From Mystery to Manners: A Study of Five Detective Novels by Dorothy L. Sayers, Masters thesis, University of Bergen, bora.uib.no

Further reading and scholarship[edit]

  • Brown, Janice, The Seven Deadly Sins in the Work of Dorothy L. Sayers (Kent, OH, & London: Kent State University Press, 1998) ISBN 0-87338-605-1
  • Connelly, Kelly C. "From Detective Fiction to Detective Literature: Psychology in the Novels of Dorothy L. Sayers and Margaret Millar." CLUES: A Journal of Detection 25.3 (Spring 2007): 35–47
  • Coomes, David, Dorothy L. Sayers: A Careless Rage for Life (1992; London: Chariot Victor Publishing, 1997) ISBN 978-0-7459-2241-6
  • Dean, Christopher, ed., Encounters with Lord Peter (Hurstpierpoint: Dorothy L. Sayers Society, 1991) ISBN 0-9518000-0-0
  • —, Studies in Sayers: Essays presented to Dr Barbara Reynolds on her 80th Birthday (Hurstpierpoint: Dorothy L. Sayers Society, 1991) ISBN 0-9518000-1-9
  • Downing, Crystal, Writing Performances: The Stages of Dorothy Sayers (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) ISBN 1-4039-6452-1
  • Gorman, Anita G., and Leslie R. Mateer. "The Medium Is the Message: Busman's Honeymoon as Play, Novel, and Film." CLUES: A Journal of Detection 23.4 (Summer 2005): 54–62
  • Kenney, Catherine, The Remarkable Case of Dorothy L. Sayers (1990; Kent, OH, & London: Kent State University Press, 1992) ISBN 0-87338-458-X
  • Lennard, John, 'Of Purgatory and Yorkshire: Dorothy L. Sayers and Reginald Hill's Divine Comedy', in Of Modern Dragons and other essays on Genre Fiction (Tirril: Humanities-Ebooks, 2007), pp. 33–55. ISBN 978-1-84760-038-7
  • Loades, Ann. "Dorothy L. Sayers: War and Redemption." In Hein, David, and Edward Henderson, eds. C. S. Lewis and Friends: Faith and the Power of Imagination, pp. 53–70. London: SPCK, 2011.
  • Nelson, Victoria, L. is for Sayers: A Play in Five Acts (Dreaming Spires Publications, 2012) ISBN 0-615-53872-X
  • Prescott, Barbara, Lyric Muse: The Oxford Poetry of Dorothy L. Sayers. (©2017, Prepublication Ms.)
  • Webster, Peter, 'Archbishop Temple's offer of a Lambeth degree to Dorothy L. Sayers'. In: From the Reformation to the Permissive Society. Church of England Record Society (18). Boydell and Brewer, Woodbridge, 2010, pp. 565–582. ISBN 978-1-84383-558-5. Full text in SAS-Space
  • Young, Laurel. "Dorothy L. Sayers and the New Woman Detective Novel."CLUES: A Journal of Detection 23.4 (Summer 2005): 39–53

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