|Alternative names||Thosai (in Tamil), Dosai, Dose (in Kannada), Dosha (in Malayalam)|
|Course||Breakfast , snacks|
|Place of origin||South India|
|Main ingredients||rice and black lentils batter|
|Variations||Masala dosa, Rava dosa, Onion dosa, Ghee dosa|
|Cookbook: Dosa Media: Dosa|
Dosa is a fermented crepe made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple dish in South Indian states of Tamil nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Telangana. It is also popular in other parts of India, and other countries like Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Singapore.
Dosa is indigenous to South India; its exact birthplace in that region is a matter of conjecture. According to food historian K. T. Achaya, dosa (as dosai) was already in use in ancient Tamil country around the 1st century AD, as per references in the Sangam literature. According to P. Thankappan Nair, dosa originated in the Udupi town of present-day Karnataka.
In popular tradition, the origin of dosa is linked to Udupi, probably because of the dish's association with the Udupi restaurants. Also, the original Tamil dosa was softer and thicker. The thinner and crispier version of dosa, which became popular all over India, was first made in present-day Karnataka.
Dosa is known by several names. The standard transliterations and pronunciations of the word in various South Indian languages are as follows:
Other spellings used include dosé, dosai, dhosa, dosey, dosay, doza, dozé, dozai, dhoza, dozey, dozay, thosa, thosé, thosai, thhosa, thosey, thosay, thoza, thozé, thozai, thhoza, thozey and thozay.
Dosa, a common breakfast dish and street food, is high in carbohydrates, and contains no sugar or saturated fats. As its constituent ingredients are rice and urad dal (Vigna mungo), it is also a source of protein. The fermentation process increases the vitamin B and vitamin C content. There are also instant mix products for making dosa, with somewhat lower nutritional benefits. Dosa are considered a high glycemic index food and should be avoided by diabetics. Dosa are high in fat but are considered low in calorie.
A mixture of rice and urad dal (ulundu) that has been soaked in water is ground finely to form a batter. Some add a handful of fenugreek seeds soaked along with the rice. The proportion of rice to lentils is generally 4:1 or 5:1. The batter is allowed to ferment overnight. After the overnight fermentation, the batter is mixed with water to get the desired thickness. The batter is then ladled onto a hot tava (griddle) greased with oil or ghee (clarified butter). It is spread out evenly with the base of a ladle or bowl to form a pancake. A dosa is served hot, either folded in half or rolled like a wrap. It is also usually served with chutney and sambar. The mixture of urad dal and rice can be replaced with highly refined wheat flour or semolina.
Batter poured on a tava griddle
Dosa can be stuffed with fillings of vegetables and sauces to make a quick meal. They are typically served with a vegetarian side dish which varies according to regional and personal preferences. Common side items are:
- Wet chutney: examples include coconut chutney (a semisolid paste made up of coconut, dal (lentils), green chilli and mint or coriander)
- There are variety of chutney served along with Dosai
- Dry chutney (podi or molagapodi): a powder of spices and sometimes desiccated coconut
- Indian pickles
Though dosa typically refers to the version made with rice and lentils, many other versions exist.
|Masala dosa||spiced potatoes|
|Mini soya dosa||soya milk and wheat flour|
|Pesarattu (Green Dosa)||green gram|
|Light white dosa||rice and coconut|
|Mysore Masala Dosa||rice, black gram, fenugreek seeds|
|Onion Rava Dosa||Semolina, rice flour|
|Ragi Wheat Dosa||Ragi, Whole Wheat Flour|
|Rava dosa||rava or sooji|
|Neer dosa||watery rice batter|
|Amboli and Dhirde||In coastal parts of Maharashtra, variations known as amboli and dhirde (or Dhirade) exist. Amboli (like dosa) is prepared with fermented battler, while dhirde is prepared with unfermented batter.|
neer dosa with thick coconut chutney
The masala dosa is made by stuffing a dosa with a lightly cooked filling of potatoes, fried onions and spices. The dosa is wrapped around an onion and potato curry or masala. Masala dosa was listed as number 49 on World's 50 most delicious foods compiled by CNN Go in 2011.
- Uttapam: a dosa-like dish made from the same batter. Unlike a dosa, which is crisp and unlike relatively soggy crepes, it is a thick pancake mostly topped with diced onions, tomatoes, cilantro or cheese. Uttapam is sometimes characterized as an Indian pizza.
- Pesarattu: a dosa-like preparation prepared from mung bean, which is typically served with a ginger and tamarind chutney
- Adai: a dosa-like dish prepared from a combination of lentils, namely urad, kadalai (Chickpea) and moong (Mung bean) paruppu.
- Appam/aappam/hopper : a pancake prepared from a combination of patted rice batter. The center is thicker and the outer rim is very thin. Served with sweet coconut milk.
- Chakuli pitha: batter contains more black gram and less rice flour
- Charmaine O' Brien (15 December 2013). The Penguin Food Guide to India. Penguin Books Limited. p. 378. ISBN 978-93-5118-575-8.
- K. T. Achaya. The Story of Our Food. Universities Press. p. 80. ISBN 81-7371-293-X.
- P. Thankappan Nair (2004). South Indians in Kolkata. Punthi Pustak. p. 320. ISBN 81-86791-50-7.
- Vir Sanghvi (1 January 2004). Rude Food: The Collected Food Writings of Vir Sanghvi. Penguin Books India. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-14-303139-0.
- "Eat healthy: dosa". livestrong.com. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- Dalal, Tarla. Mumbai Roadside Snacks. Sanjay & Co. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-89491-66-6.
- Srilakshmi, B. (2006) . Nutrition Science (Revised 2nd ed.). New Age International (formerly Wiley Eastern Ltd.). p. 403. ISBN 978-81-224-1633-6. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Pal, Dr J. S. (December 2006). "Traditional Indian Foods: Physio-Chemical Aspects" (PDF). PFNDAI Bulletin: 3. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- Nutrition and Dietetics - Higher Secondary - First Year (PDF). Directorate of School Education, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2004. p. 31. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Calories in Dosa (Pan Cake)". calorie count. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- "Miracle Diets - Glycemic Index". lisamiraclediet.com.
- "how healthy are dosas". live strong.
- "Recipes and nutrition fact". Arogya food.
- refer the link http://www.chitrasfoodbook.com/2014/10/35-chutney-recipes-sidedish-for-idli.html
- "Recipe: Mini soya dosa". The Times of India.
- "Mini Soya Dosa". food.ndtv.com.
- "Healthy snack recipe: Green Dosa". The Times of India.
- "Pesarattu (Green Gram Dosa)". food.ndtv.com.
- "Recipe: Light white dosa". The Times of India.
- "Mysore Masala Dosa". food.ndtv.com.
- "Onion Rava Dosa". food.ndtv.com.
- "Ragi Wheat Dosa". food.ndtv.com.
- CNN Go World's 50 most delicious foods 21 July 2011.