British undergraduate degree classification

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The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading structure for undergraduate degrees (bachelor's degrees and integrated master's degrees) in the United Kingdom. The system has been applied (sometimes with significant variations) in other countries and regions, including Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Kenya, Ghana, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Zimbabwe.[citation needed]

History[edit]

In the 16th century, the Regius Professor of Divinity at the University of Cambridge implemented norm referencing to distinguish the top 25% of candidates, the next 50%, and the bottom 25%.[1]

The classification system as currently used in the United Kingdom was developed in 1918.[1] Honours were then a means to recognise individuals who demonstrated depth of knowledge or originality, as opposed to relative achievement in examination conditions.[2]

Recently, there has been concern over possible grade inflation due to increasing numbers of higher-class honours degrees awarded per annum.[3][4] The number of first-class honours degrees has reportedly tripled since the 1990s.[5] As with claimed grade inflation of A-levels, prospective employers or educational institutions have observed increased difficulty in selecting candidates.[2][6] It is, however, unknown whether the rise in the number of first-class degrees is due to grade inflation of whether students are achieving higher levels than in the past,[7] and university leaders have also pointed at the higher A-levels attained by students as evidence that higher degree grades should be expected.[5] On the other hand, the practice of degree classification has been criticised for unduly stigmatising students and being unreflective of a graduate's success or potential for success, particularly in the workplace.[8]

Degree classification[edit]

A bachelor's degree can be an honours degree (bachelor's with honours) or an ordinary degree (bachelor's without honours). Honours degrees are classified based on a weighted average (with higher weight given to marks in the later years of the course, and often zero weight to those in the first year) of the marks gained in exams and other assessments. Grade boundaries can vary by institution, but typical values are given below.[9][10]

  • First-class honours (1st, 1 or I) – typically 70% or higher
  • Second-class honours, upper division (2:1, 2i or II-1) – typically 60–69%
  • Second-class honours, lower division (2:2, 2ii or II-2) – typically 50–59%
  • Third-class honours (3rd, 3 or III) – typically 40–49%

Students who do not achieve honours may be awarded an ordinary degree, sometimes known as a "pass". Ordinary degrees, and other exit awards such as the Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE; for completing the first two years of a degree course) and Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE; for completing the first year of a degree course), may be unclassified (pass/fail) or, particularly in Scotland where the ordinary degree is offered as a qualification in its own right, classified into pass, merit and distinction. Foundation degrees are normally classified into pass, merit and distinction.[11][12]

Integrated master's degrees are usually classified with honours in the same way as a bachelor's honours degree, although some integrated master's degrees are classified like postgraduate taught master's degrees into pass (usually 50%), merit (60%) and distinction (70%).[13][14]

At most institutions, the system allows a small amount of discretion.[8] A candidate may be elevated to the next degree class if his or her average marks are close to (or the median of their weighted marks achieves) the higher class, and if they have submitted several pieces of work worthy of the higher class. However, even students with a high average mark may be unable to take honours if they have failed part of the course and so have insufficient credits.

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a bachelor's degree with honours normally takes three years of full-time study and usually requires 360 credits, of which at least 90 are at level 6 (final year of a bachelor's degree) level, while an ordinary bachelor's degree normally requires 300 credits, of which 60 are at level 6.[15] In Scotland, the honours bachelor's degree takes four years and requires 480 credits with a minimum of 90 at level 10 of the Scottish framework (last year of the honours degree) and 90 at level 9 (penultimate year), while the ordinary degree takes three years and requires 360 credits with a minimum of 60 at level 9 (last year of the ordinary degree).[16]

In Scotland, it is possible to start university a year younger than in the rest of the United Kingdom, as the Scottish Higher exams are often taken at age 16 or 17 (as opposed to 18), so Scottish students often end a four-year course at the same age as a student from elsewhere in the UK taking a three-year course, assuming no gap years.

When a candidate is awarded a degree with honours, "(Hons)" may be suffixed to their designatory letters — for example, BA (Hons), BSc (Hons), BMus (Hons), MA (Hons).[17] An MA (Hons) would generally indicate a degree award from certain Scottish universities (c.f. Scottish MA) and is a the same level as a bachelor's degree.

Distribution of classes[edit]

The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) has published the number of degrees awarded with different classifications since 1994/5. The relative proportions of different classes have changed over this period, with increasing numbers of students being awarded higher honours. The table below shows the percentage of classified degrees (i.e. not including fails or unclassified degrees such as MBBS) in each class at five year intervals; note that HESA stopped giving statistics separately for third class honours and pass degree after 2003 and that a small number of undivided second class honours degrees (shown under "other" along with "unknown", which makes up the bulk of this category) were awarded up to 1996.

Class 1995[18] 2000[19] 2005[20] 2010[21] 2015[22]
1st 7.0 8.2 11.6 14.4 22.0
2:1 40.3 42.9 47.4 48.3 49.5
2:2 34.8 34.0 33.1 29.8 23.0
3rd 5.8 5.3 8.0 7.5 5.5
Pass 11.7 9.6
Other 0.3[23]

First-class honours[edit]

First-class honours, referred to as a "first", is the highest honours classification and indicates high academic achievement.

In 2010 and 2011, the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) reported that approximately 15% of all degree candidates graduated with first-class honours.[3][24] The percentages of graduates achieving a first vary greatly by university and course studied.[25] For example, students of law are least likely to gain a first, whereas students of mathematical sciences are most likely to gain a first.[4] In 2006–2007 and 2010–2011, 5.8% and 8.1% of law students gained a first, respectively; however, in those years, 28.9% and 30.0% of mathematics students gained a first, respectively.[4]

It has been colloquially known in rhyming slang as a ''Geoff" – after former England international footballer Geoff Hurst.[26] An alternative name is Damian Hirst.[citation needed]

Upper second-class honours [edit]

The upper division is commonly abbreviated to "2:1" or "II.i" (pronounced two-one). The 2:1 is a minimum requirement for entry to many postgraduate courses in the UK. It is also required for the award of a research council postgraduate studentship in the UK, although possession of a master's degree can render a candidate eligible for an award if their initial degree was below the 2:1 standard. The percentage of candidates who achieve upper second-class honours can vary widely by degree subject, as well as by university.[24]

Lower second-class honours[edit]

This is the second division of second-class degrees and is abbreviated as "2:2" or "II.ii" (pronounced two-two).

It has been colloquially known in rhyming slang as a ''Desmond" - after South African social rights activist and retired Anglican archbishop Desmond Tutu.[27]

Third-class honours[edit]

Third-class honours, referred to as a "third", is the lowest honours classification in most modern universities. Historically, the University of Oxford awarded fourth-class honours degrees and, until the late 1970s, did not distinguish between upper and lower second-class honours degrees.[citation needed][1]

Informally, the third-class honours degree is referred to as a "gentleman's degree" (cf. the "gentleman's C" in the U.S.).[28]

It has been colloquially known in rhyming slang as a 'Douglas' – after Douglas Hurd, the former Conservative MP (who in reality took first class honours), or a 'Richard' - after King Richard III.

Approximately 7.2% of students graduating in 2006 with an honours degree received a third-class honours.[24]

Ordinary degree[edit]

While most university bachelor's degree courses lead to honours degrees, some universities offer courses leading to ordinary degrees.[29] Some honours courses permit students who do not gain sufficient credits in a year by a small margin to transfer to a parallel ordinary degree course. Ordinary degrees may also sometimes be awarded to honours degree students who do not pass sufficient credits in their final year to gain an honours degree, but pass enough to earn an ordinary degree.[30]

Some Scottish universities offer three-year ordinary degrees as a qualification in their own right, as well as an honours degree over four years. This is in contrast to English universities that have honours degrees with three years of study. An ordinary degree in Scotland is not a failed honours degree, as in certain English universities. Students can decide, usually at the end of their second or third year, whether or not they wish to complete a fourth honours year. Scottish universities may also award their ordinary degrees with distinction if a student achieves a particularly good grade average, usually 70% or above. A common example of a Scottish ordinary degree is the Bachelor of Laws course taken by graduates of other subjects, as this is sufficient (without honours) for entry into the legal profession.

Aegrotat[edit]

An aegrotat (/ˈɡrtæt/; from Latin aegrotat, meaning 'he is ill')[31] degree is an honours or ordinary degree without classification, awarded under the presumption that, had a candidate who was unable to undertake their exams due to illness or even death completed those exams, they would have satisfied the standard required for that degree.[32][33][34][35][36] Aegrotat degrees are often qualified with an appended "(aegrotat)".

Following the introduction of current regulations regarding mitigating circumstances, aegrotat degrees are less commonly awarded than they previously were.[37]

Variations in classification[edit]

At the University of Cambridge, undergraduate Tripos examinations are split into three parts (e.g. Part IA, IB, and II), or two parts (Part I and II). Part II is taken at the end of final year. Each student receives a formal classification for each part (i.e. Class I, II.I, II.II, or III).[38] Typically, the Part II grade that corresponds with final examinations is quoted, however officially a grade simply exists for every Part of the degree, not for the overall degree.

At the University of Oxford, a formal degree Class is given, and this is typically based on the final examinations. In Oxford, examinations for Prelims or Honour Moderations are also undertaken in first/second year, however these results do not typically affect the final degree classification. Until the 1970s, the four honours divisions in Oxford's moderations and final examinations were named first, second, third and fourth class, but eventually Oxford gave in and adopted the numbering used by other English universities.[1]

Variations of first-class honours[edit]

At the University of Cambridge, Triposes were previously split into two parts: Part I and Part II. Attaining First Class Honours in both parts would culminate in graduating with a "Double First".[38] Most Triposes were later split into three parts: "Part IA," "Part IB" and "Part II". Attaining a First Class in all three parts culminates in graduating with a "Triple First".[39][40][41][42][43][44] The frequency of this honour varies with subject, however typically less than 3% of students will achieve this distinction. It is possible in some of the humanities Triposes to be awarded a "Starred First".[45] The science Triposes do not award Starred Firsts.

Oxford sometimes grants a congratulatory first, which The New York Times described as "a highly unusual honor in which the examining professors ask no questions about the candidate's written work but simply stand and applaud",[46] and Martin Amis described as "the sort where you are called in for a viva and the examiners tell you how much they enjoyed reading your papers".[47] A "double first" at Oxford usually informally refers to first-class honours in both components of an undergraduate degree, i.e. Moderations/Prelims and the Final Honour School, or in both the bachelor's and master's components of an integrated master's degree.

At University College London, candidates who perform well beyond the requirements of a standard First Class Honours may be nominated to the Dean's List. This prestigious list is generated once per year and recognizes outstanding academic achievement in final examinations. There are no set criteria for nomination to the list, but typically only a nominal number of students from each faculty are nominated per year.[48]

International comparisons[edit]

France[edit]

The University of St Andrews gives equivalences between French and British grades for its study-abroad programme.[49] Equivalencies for the purposes of initial teacher training have also been derived by the UK NARIC for 1st, 2:1 and 2:2 degrees, which do not align with St Andrews' table.[50]

British class French grade range (St Andrews) French grade range (UK NARIC)
First 15–20 16+
Upper Second 12–14 13+
Lower Second 10–11 12+
Third 7–9
Pass 6

South Africa[edit]

The South African Qualifications Authority [51] (SAQA) compares international degrees with local degrees before any international student continues their studies in that country. While the British degree accreditation and classification system allows students to go straight from a three-year bachelor's degree onto a master's degree (normally requiring a 1st or a 2:1 – those with a 2:2 or a 3rd usually require appropriate professional experience),[52] South Africa does not do so unless the student has proven research capabilities. South African Honours degrees prepare the students to undertake a research-specific degree (in terms of master's), by spending an in-depth year (up to 5 modules) creating research proposals and undertaking a research project of limited scope. This prepares students for the research degrees later in their academic career.

Spain[edit]

The UK NARIC has derived equivalencies for the grades of the Spanish grado and licenciatura degrees for purposes of initial teacher training bursaries.[50]

British class Spanish equivalent
First 8.5+
Upper Second 7+
Lower Second 6 +

The Netherlands[edit]

The Netherlands organisation for international cooperation in higher education (NUFFIC) has compared UK degree classification to Dutch degree grades.[53] Dutch equivalencies have also been calculated by the UK NARIC.[50]

British class Dutch equivalent (NUFFIC) Dutch equivalent (UK NARIC)
First 8-10 8.5+
Upper Second 7 to 8 6.5+
Lower Second 6 to 7 6+
Third 5.5 to 6

Nuffic also noted that the grading culture is different in the Netherlands, so that it is very rare for even the smartest students in the Netherlands to be awarded a 9 or a 10, which represent near perfection and absolute perfection.[53]

United States and Canada[edit]

British honours degrees are sometimes considered equivalent (by British sources) to a US master's degree, with the US bachelor's degree being equivalent to a British pass degree, due to the much higher degree of specialisation in the UK.[54][55] However, many British institutions accept US bachelor's degrees for admission to postgraduate study (see below) and US comparison services treat British and American degrees as equivalent.[56] When US bachelor's degrees are compared to British honours degrees, equivalencies can be expressed in terms of either US Grade Point Averages (GPAs) or letter grades.

British institutions normally state equivalence in terms of GPAs. Approximate mappings between British classifications and GPAs can be inferred from the graduate admissions criteria used by British universities, which often give international equivalents. For example, University College London (UCL) equates the minimum classification for entrance to GPAs using 1st = 3.6, 2:1 = 3.3 and 2:2 = 3.0.[57] However, different universities convert grades differently: the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) considers a GPA (U.S.) of 3.5 or better as equivalent to gaining a 2:1,[58] while the department of English Language and Literature at Oxford considers a GPA of "about 3.8" equivalent to a first class degree.[59] Similarly, the UK NARIC gives equivalent GPAs for determining eligibility for teacher training bursaries.[50] In contrast, Durham University's North American Parents' Guide 2016 gives a conversion table as a guide to understanding British classifications (rather than for admission to postgraduate study) of 1st = 3.8–4.0, 2:1 = 3.3–3.7, 2:2 = 2.8–3.2 and 3rd = 2.3–2.7.[60] The GPA conversions are summarised in the following table:

British Degree Classification US GPA Equivalent (UCL)[57] US GPA Equivalent (Durham)[60] US GPA Equivalent (NARIC)[50] US GPA Equivalent (Other)
First 3.6+ 3.8–4.0 3.7+ 3.8+ (Oxford)[59]
Upper Second 3.3+ 3.3–3.7 3.2+ 3.5+ (LSE)[58]
Lower Second 3.0+ 2.8–3.2 2.6+
Third 2.3–2.7

Letter grade equivalents are more commonly used by American institutions. World Education Services (WES),[61] a nonprofit organisation which provides qualification conversion services to many universities and employers, gives 1st = A, 2:1 = A-/B+, 2:2 = B, 3rd = B-, Pass = C, which would convert British degrees to higher GPAs than the conversion used by UCL if the guidelines for converting grades to GPA given by Duke University[62] are used. The Fulbright Commission has also created "an unofficial chart with approximate grade conversions between UK results and US GPA."[63]

British Degree Classification US Grade Equivalent (Fulbright)[63] US GPA Equivalent (Fulbright)[63] US Grade Equivalent (WES)[61] Equivalent GPA to WES Grades (Duke)[62]
First A 4.00 A 4.0
Upper Second A-/B+ 3.33–3.67 A-/B+ 3.7/3.3
Lower Second B 3.00 B 3.0
Third C+ 2.30 B- 2.7
Pass C 2.00 C 2.0

Canadian GPAs are sometimes seen to differ from the US but other sources treat them as equivalent. The Durham conversion is for "North American" GPAs generally,[60] while the UK NARIC has separate GPA conversions for the four-year bachelor's honours, baccalauréat and professional bachelor's degrees (which differ from their US GPA equivalents by at most 0.1) and the three-year bachelor's degree (which is seen as a lower standard).[50] The British Graduate Admissions Fact Sheet from McGill University uses the conversion 1st = 4.0; 2:1 = 3.0; 2:2 = 2.7; 3rd = 2.0; Pass = 1.0; Fail = 0.0.[64]

British Degree Classification Canadian GPA Equivalent (Durham)[60] Canadian 4-year GPA Equivalent (NARIC)[50] Canadian 3-year GPA Equivalent (NARIC)[50] Canadian GPA Equivalent (McGill)[64]
First 3.8–4.0 3.7+ 3.9+ 4.0
Upper Second 3.3–3.7 3.1+ 3.5+ 3.0
Lower Second 2.8–3.2 2.5 3.1 2.7
Third 2.3–3.7 2.0
Pass 1.0

Degrees in the UK are mapped to levels of the Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies (FHEQ), which includes the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland (FQHEIS), which has an alternative numbering of levels corresponding to those of the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF). Bachelor's degrees (including the Scottish MA, but not including medical degrees, dentistry degrees or degrees in veterinary science) attained in the UK are at FHEQ level 6/FQHEIS level 9 (ordinary) or 10 (honours); master's degrees (including integrated master's degrees and first degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science) are at FHEQ level 7/FQHEIS level 11, and doctoral degrees are at FHEQ level 8/FQHEIS level 12. Bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees map to first, second and third cycle qualifications in the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area.[65][66]

Progression to postgraduate study[edit]

Regulations governing the progression of undergraduate degree graduates to postgraduate programmes vary among universities, and are often flexible. A candidate for a postgraduate master's degree is usually required to have at least a 2:2 bachelor honours degree, although candidates with 2:1s are in a considerably stronger position to gain a place in a postgraduate course and to obtain funding, especially in medical and natural sciences. Some institutions specify a 2:1 minimum for certain types of master's program, such as for a Master of Research course.[67][68]

Candidates with a Third or an Ordinary degree are sometimes accepted, provided they have acquired satisfactory professional experience subsequent to graduation. A candidate for a doctoral programme who does not hold a master's degree is nearly always required to have a First or 2:1 at bachelor's level.

Variations[edit]

International degrees[edit]

Australia[edit]

Some universities, such as those in Australia, offer ordinary or pass degrees, (for instance, as a three-year B.A. or a three-year BSc) by default. High-achieving students may be recognised with an honours classification without further coursework or research, as is often the case in engineering, which often contains a research and thesis component,[69][70] or law.[71] However, other courses (such as humanities, arts, social sciences, and sciences) and other universities may recognise high-achieving students with an honours classification with further coursework or research, undertaken either concurrently with, and as part of or in addition to, a bachelor's course,[72] or after completion of a bachelor's course requirements and attaining adequately competitive grades.[73][74]

Some graduate degrees have been or are classified;[75] however, under the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), no graduate-level degrees (i.e., master's by coursework, master's by research, or higher research degrees) may be classified. To comply with this standard, some institutions have commenced, or will commence, offering high-achieving graduates with "distinction".[76] Notably, this is consistent with British graduate degree classification.[77]

British medical and dental degrees[edit]

In the United Kingdom, medicine is usually taught as an undergraduate course, with graduates being awarded a master's level qualification: normally the conjoined degrees of Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, BM BCh, MB ChB, etc.) although at Queen's University Belfast (and universities in Ireland) Bachelor in the Art of Obstetrics (BAO) is added, and at some universities only the Bachelor of Medicine is awarded - all of these have equal standing. Unlike most undergraduate degrees, the MBBS is not normally considered an honours degree, and thus is not classified into first class honours, etc. Students may be awarded "Merits" and "Distinctions" for parts of the course or the whole course (depending on the institution) and "Honours" may be awarded at some institutions for exceptional performance throughout the course (as a grade above Distinction).[78][79]

Medical schools split their year groups into one of 10 deciles. These deciles are the major factor in the calculation of Educational Performance Measure (EPM) points used as part of medical students' Foundation Programme applications, with the top decile receiving 43 points, decreasing by a point for each decile (so the lowest gets 34 points); 7 points can be awarded for other educational achievements (other degrees and publications), and the EPM points are combined with up to 50 points from the Situational Judgement Test to give a total out of 100.[80][81]

British Grade Point Average[edit]

Following the recommendation of the Burgess report into the honours degree classification system in 2007, the Higher Education Academy ran a pilot in 2013–2014 in collaboration with 21 institutions delivering higher education (ranging from Russell Group universities to Further Education colleges) to investigate how a Grade Point Average (GPA) system would work best in Britain. Two main weighting systems were tested: an American-style average of all marks, weighted only by credit value, and weighting by "exit velocity" in the manner of the honours classification, where modules in the first year are given a low or zero weight and modules in the final year have a higher weight (a third model was only rarely used). Over two thirds of providers preferred exit-velocity weighting to the straight average.[82]

A GPA scale, tied to percentage marks and letter grades, was recommended for use nationally following the study, to run in parallel with the honours degree classification system.[82]

Percentage Grade Grade points
75–100 A+ 4.25
71–74 A 4.00
67–70 A- 3.75
64–66 B+ 3.50
61–63 B 3.25
57–60 B- 3.00
54–56 C+ 2.75
50–53 C 2.50
48–49 C- 2.25
43–47 D+ 2.00
40–42 D 1.50
38–39 D- 1.00
35–37 F+ 0.75
30–34 F 0.50
0–20 F- 0.00

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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