McDonnell Douglas DC-9
|A Northwest Airlines DC-9-41, 2006|
|Role||Narrow-body jet airliner|
|Manufacturer||Douglas Aircraft Company
|First flight||February 25, 1965|
|Introduction||December 8, 1965 with Delta Air Lines|
|Status||In limited service|
|Primary users||USA Jet Airlines
Northwest Airlines (historical)
Delta Air Lines (historical)
US$41.5 to $48.5 million
|Variants||McDonnell Douglas C-9|
|Developed into||McDonnell Douglas MD-80
McDonnell Douglas MD-90
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It was first manufactured in 1965 with its maiden flight later that year. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982.
The DC-9-based airliners, MD-80, MD-90 and Boeing 717 later followed in production. With the final deliveries of the 717 in 2006, production of the DC-9/MD-80/90/717 aircraft family ceased after 41 years and over 2,400 units built.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Variants
- 3 Operators
- 4 Accidents and incidents
- 5 Aircraft on display
- 6 Specifications
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Design and development
During the 1950s Douglas Aircraft studied a short- to medium-range airliner to complement their higher capacity, long range DC-8. (DC stands for Douglas Commercial.) A medium-range four-engine Model 2067 was studied but it did not receive enough interest from airlines and it was abandoned. In 1960, Douglas signed a two-year contract with Sud Aviation for technical cooperation. Douglas would market and support the Sud Aviation Caravelle and produce a licensed version if airlines ordered large numbers. None were ordered and Douglas returned to its design studies after the cooperation deal expired.
In 1962, design studies were underway. The first version seated 63 passengers and had a gross weight of 69,000 lb (31,300 kg). This design was changed into what would be initial DC-9 variant. Douglas gave approval to produce the DC-9 on April 8, 1963. Unlike the competing but larger Boeing 727 trijet, which used as many 707 components as possible, the DC-9 was an all-new design. The DC-9 has two rear-mounted Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines, relatively small, efficient wings, and a T-tail. The DC-9's takeoff weight was limited to 80,000 lb (36,300 kg) for a two-person flight crew by Federal Aviation Agency regulations at the time. DC-9 aircraft have five seats across for economy seating. The airplane seats 80 to 135 passengers depending on version and seating arrangement.
The DC-9 was designed for short to medium routes, often to smaller airports with shorter runways and less ground infrastructure than the major airports being served by larger designs like the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8. Accessibility and short field characteristics were called for. Turnarounds were simplified by built-in airstairs, including one in the tail, which shortened boarding and deplaning times.
The tail-mounted engine design facilitated a clean wing without engine pods, which had numerous advantages. For example, flaps could be longer, unimpeded by pods on the leading edge and engine blast concerns on the trailing edge. This simplified design improved airflow at low speeds and enabled lower takeoff and approach speeds, thus lowering field length requirements and keeping wing structure light. The second advantage of the tail-mounted engines was the reduction in foreign object damage from ingested debris from runways and aprons. With this position, the engines could ingest ice streaming off the wing roots. Third, the absence of engines in underslung pods allowed a reduction in ground clearance, making the aircraft more accessible to baggage handlers and passengers.
The problem of deep stalling, revealed by the loss of the BAC One-Eleven prototype in 1963, was overcome through various changes, including the introduction of vortilons, small surfaces beneath the wing's leading edge used to control airflow and increase low speed lift.
The first DC-9, a production model, flew on February 25, 1965. The second DC-9 flew a few weeks later, with a test fleet of five aircraft flying by July. This allowed the initial Series 10 to gain airworthiness certification on November 23, 1965, and to enter service with Delta Air Lines on December 8. The DC-9 was always intended to be available in multiple versions to suit customer requirements, The first stretched version, the Series 30, with a longer fuselage and extended wing tips, flew on August 1, 1966, entering service with Eastern Air Lines in 1967. The initial Series 10 would be followed by the improved -20, -30, and -40 variants. The final DC-9 series was the -50, which first flew in 1974.
The DC-9 was a commercial success with 976 built when production ended in 1982. The DC-9 is one of the longest-lasting aircraft in operation. Its reliability and efficiency led to sales of its successors into the 21st century. The DC-9 family is one of the most successful jet airliners with a total of over 2,400 units produced; it ranks third behind the second-place Airbus A320 family with over 6,000 produced, and the first-place Boeing 737 with over 8,000 produced.
Studies aimed at further improving DC-9 fuel efficiency, by means of retrofitted wingtips of various types, were undertaken by McDonnell Douglas. However, these did not demonstrate significant benefits, especially with existing fleets shrinking. The wing design makes retrofitting difficult.
The DC-9 was followed by the introduction of the MD-80 series in 1980. This was originally called the DC-9-80 series. It was a lengthened DC-9-50 with a higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW), a larger wing, new main landing gear, and higher fuel capacity. The MD-80 series features a number of variants of the Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engine having higher thrust ratings than those available on the DC-9. The series includes the MD-81, MD-82, MD-83, MD-88, and shorter fuselage MD-87.
The MD-80 series was further developed into the McDonnell Douglas MD-90 in the early 1990s. It has yet another fuselage stretch, a glass cockpit (first introduced on the MD-88) and completely new International Aero V2500 high-bypass turbofan engines. In comparison to the very successful MD-80, relatively few MD-90s were built.
The final variant was the MD-95, which was renamed the Boeing 717-200 after McDonnell Douglas's merger with Boeing in 1997 and before aircraft deliveries began. The fuselage length and wing are very similar to those of the DC-9-30, but much use was made of lighter, modern materials. Power is supplied by two BMW/Rolls-Royce BR715 high-bypass turbofan engines.
China's Comac ARJ21 is derived from the DC-9 family. The ARJ21 is built with manufacturing tooling from the MD-90 Trunkliner program. As a consequence, it has the same fuselage cross-section, nose profile, and tail.
The original DC-9 (later designated the Series 10) was the smallest DC-9 variant. The -10 was 104.4 ft (31.8 m) long and had a maximum weight of 82,000 lb (37,000 kg). The Series 10 was similar in size and configuration to the BAC One-Eleven and featured a T-tail and rear mounted engines. Power was provided by a pair of 12,500 lbf (56 kN) Pratt & Whitney JT8D-5 or 14,000 lbf (62 kN) JT8D-7 engines. A total of 137 were built. Delta Air Lines was the initial operator.
The Series 10 was produced in two main subvariants, the Series 14 and 15, although, of the first four aircraft, three were built as Series 11s and one as Series 12. These were later converted to Series 14 standard. No Series 13 was produced. A passenger/cargo version of the aircraft with a 136 x 81 in side cargo door forward of the wing and a reinforced cabin floor, was certificated on March 1, 1967. Cargo versions included the Series 15MC (Minimum Change) with folding seats that can be carried at the rear of the aircraft, and the Series 15RC (Rapid Change) with seats removable on pallets. These differences disappeared over the years as new interiors have been installed.
The Series 10 was unique in the DC-9 family in not having leading edge slats. The Series 10 was designed to have short takeoff and landing distances without the use of leading edge high-lift devices. Therefore, the wing design of the Series 10 featured airfoils with extremely high maximum lift capability in order to obtain the low stalling speeds necessary for short field performance.
Series 10 features
The Series 10 has an overall length of 104.4 feet (31.82 m), a fuselage length of 92.1 feet (28.07 m), a passenger cabin length of 60 feet (18.29 m), and a wingspan of 89.4 feet (27.25 m).
The Series 10 was offered with the 14,000 lbf (62 kN) thrust JT8D-1 and JT8D-7. All versions of the DC-9 are equipped with an AlliedSignal (Garrett) GTCP85 APU, located in the aft fuselage. The Series 10, as with all later versions of the DC-9 is equipped with a two crew analog flightdeck.
The Series 14 was originally certificated at an MTOW of 85,700 lb (38,900 kg) but subsequent options offered increases to 86,300 and 90,700 lb (41,100 kg). The aircraft's MLW in all cases is 81,700 lb (37,100 kg). The Series 14 has a fuel capacity of 3,693 US gallons (with the 907 US gal centre section fuel). The Series 15, certificated on January 21, 1966, is physically identical to the Series 14 but has the increased MTOW of 90,700 lb (41,100 kg). Typical range with 50 passengers and baggage is 950 nmi (1,760 km), increasing to 1,278 nmi (2,367 km) at long range cruise. Range with maximum payload is 600 nmi (1,100 km), increasing to 1,450 nmi (2,690 km) with full fuel.
The aircraft is fitted with a passenger door in the port forward fuselage, and a service door/emergency exit is installed opposite. An airstair installed below the front passenger door was available as an option as was an airstair in the tailcone. This also doubled as an emergency exit. Available with either two or four overwing exits, the DC-9-10 can seat up to a maximum certified exit limit of 109 passengers. Typical all-economy layout is 90 passengers, and 72 passengers in a more typical mixed-class layout with 12 first and 60 economy-class passengers.
The Series 20 was designed to satisfy a Scandinavian Airlines request for improved short field performance by using the more powerful engines and improved wings of the -30 combined with the shorter fuselage used in the -10. Ten Series 20 aircraft were produced, all of them the Model -21.
In 1969, a DC-9 Series 20 at Long Beach was fitted with an Elliott Flight Automation Head-up display by McDonnell Douglas and used for successful three-month-long trials with pilots from various airlines, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the US Air Force.
Series 20 features
The Series 20 has an overall length of 104.4 feet (31.82 m), a fuselage length of 92.1 feet (28.07 m), a passenger cabin length of 60 feet (18.29 m), and a wingspan of 93.3 feet (28.44 m). The DC-9 Series 20 is powered by the 15,000 lbf (67 kN) thrust JT8D-11 engine.
The Series 20 was originally certificated at an MTOW of 94,500 lb (42,900 kg) but this was increased to 98,000 lb (44,000 kg), some 8 percent up on the higher weight Series 14s and 15s. The aircraft's MLW is 95,300 lb (43,200 kg) and MZFW is 84,000 lb (38,000 kg). Typical range with maximum payload is 1,000 nmi (1,900 km), increasing to 1,450 nmi (2,690 km) with maximum fuel. The Series 20, using the same wing as the Series 30, 40 and 50, has a slightly lower basic fuel capacity than the Series 10 (3,679 US gallons).
Series 20 milestones
- First flight: September 18, 1968.
- FAA certification: November 25, 1968.
- First delivery: December 11, 1968 to SAS
- Entry into service: January 27, 1969 with SAS.
- Last delivery: May 1, 1969 to SAS.
The Series 30 was produced to counter Boeing's 737 twinjet; 662 were built, about 60% of the total. The -30 entered service with Eastern Airlines in February 1967 with a 14 ft 9 in (4.50 m) fuselage stretch, wingspan increased by just over 3 ft (0.9 m) and full-span leading edge slats, improving takeoff and landing performance. Maximum takeoff weight was typically 110,000 lb (50,000 kg). Engines for Models -31, -32, -33, and -34 included the P&W JT8D-7 and JT8D-9 rated at 14,500 lbf (64 kN) of thrust, or JT8D-11 with 15,000 lbf (67 kN).
Unlike the Series 10, the Series 30 had leading edge devices to reduce the landing speeds at higher landing weights; full-span slats reduced approach speeds by 6 knots despite 5,000 lb greater weight. The slats were lighter than slotted Krueger flaps, since the structure associated with the slat is a more efficient torque box than the structure associated with the slotted Krueger. The wing had a six percent increase in chord, all ahead of the front spar, allowing the 15 percent chord slat to be incorporated.
Series 30 versions
- DC-9-31: Produced in passenger version only. The first DC-9 Series 30 flew on August 1, 1966, and the first delivery was to Eastern Airlines on February 27, 1967 after certification on December 19, 1966. Basic MTOW of 98,000 lb (44,000 kg) and subsequently certificated at weights up to 108,000 lb (49,000 kg).
- DC-9-32: Introduced in the first year (1967). Certificated March 1, 1967. Basic MTOW of 108,000 lb (49,000 kg) later increased to 110,000 lb (50,000 kg). A number of cargo versions of the Series 32 were also produced:
- 32LWF (Light Weight Freight) with modified cabin but no cargo door or reinforced floor, intended for package freighter use.
- 32CF (Convertible Freighter), with a reinforced floor but retaining passenger facilities
- 32AF (All Freight), a windowless all-cargo aircraft.
- DC-9-33: Following the Series 31 and 32 came the Series 33 for passenger/cargo or all-cargo use. Certificated on April 15, 1968, the aircraft's MTOW was 114,000 lb (52,000 kg), MLW to 102,000 lb (46,000 kg) and MZFW to 95,500 lb (43,300 kg). JT8D-9 or -11 (15,000 lbf (67 kN) thrust) engines were used. Wing incidence was increased 1.25 degrees to reduce cruise drag. Only 22 were built, as All Freight (AF), Convertible Freight (CF) and Rapid Change (RC) aircraft.
- DC-9-34: The last variant was the Series 34, intended for longer range with an MTOW of 121,000 lb (55,000 kg), an MLW of 110,000 lb (50,000 kg) and an MZFW of 98,000 lb (44,000 kg). The DC-9-34CF (Convertible Freighter) was certificated April 20, 1976, while the passenger followed on November 3, 1976. The aircraft has the more powerful JT8D-9s with the -15 and -17 engines as an option. It had the wing incidence change introduced on the DC-9-33. Twelve were built, five as convertible freighters.
Series 30 features
The DC-9-30 was offered with a selection of variants of JT8D including the -1, -7, -9, -11, -15. and -17. The most common on the Series 31 is the JT8D-7 (14,000 lbf (62 kN) thrust), although it was also available with the −9 and -17 engines. On the Series 32 the JT8D-9 (14,500 lbf (64 kN) thrust) was standard, with the -11 also offered. The Series 33 was offered with the JT8D-9 or -11 (15,000 lbf (67 kN) thrust) engines and the heavyweight -34 with the JT8D-9, -15 (15,000 lbf (67 kN) thrust) or -17 (16,000 lbf (71 kN) thrust) engines.
The DC-9-40 is a further lengthened version. With a 6 ft 6 in (2 m) longer fuselage, accommodation was up to 125 passengers. The Series 40 was fitted with Pratt & Whitney engines with thrust of 14,500 to 16,000 lbf (64 to 71 kN). A total of 71 were produced. The variant first entered service with Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) in March 1968.
The Series 50 was the largest version of the DC-9 to enter airline service. It features an 8 ft 2 in (2.49 m) fuselage stretch and seats up to 139 passengers. It entered revenue service in August 1975 with Eastern Airlines and included a number of detail improvements, a new cabin interior, and more powerful JT8D-15 or -17 engines in the 16,000 and 16,500 lbf (71 and 73 kN) class. McDonnell Douglas delivered 96, all as the Model -51. Some visual cues to distinguish this version from other DC-9 variants include side strakes or fins below the side cockpit windows, spray deflectors on the nose gear, and thrust reversers angled inward 17 degrees as compared to the original configuration. The thrust reverser modification was developed by Air Canada for its earlier aircraft, and adopted by McDonnell Douglas as a standard feature on the series 50. It was also applied to many earlier DC-9s in the course of regular maintenance.
Military and government
A total of 77 DC-9 aircraft (all variants) were in commercial service as of January 2014. As of July 14, 2015 operators included USA Jet Airlines (10), Everts Air Cargo (4), Aeronaves TSM (6), LASER Airlines (3), Fly SAX (2), African Express Airways (2), Fly540 (2) and other operators with fewer aircraft. It is estimated[by whom?] that less than 60 DC-9s are flying commercially as of 2016, with the majority operating as freighters.
Delta Air Lines since acquiring Northwest Airlines, has operated a fleet of DC-9 aircraft, most over 30 years old. With severe increases in fuel prices in the summer of 2008, Northwest Airlines began retiring its DC-9s, switching to Airbus A319s that are 27% more fuel efficient. As the Northwest/Delta merger progressed, Delta returned several stored DC-9s to service. Delta Air Lines made its last DC-9 commercial flight from Minneapolis/St. Paul to Atlanta on January 6, 2014 with the flight number DL2014.
Because of the usage of the aging JT8D engines, as of the late 2000s (decade) DC-9s are considered fuel guzzlers when compared to other more recent airliner designs. Studies aimed at improving DC-9 fuel efficiency, by means of retrofitted wingtip extensions of various types, have not succeeded in demonstrating significant benefits.
With the existing DC-9 fleet shrinking, modifications do not appear to be likely to occur, especially since the wing design makes retrofitting difficult. DC-9s are therefore likely to be further replaced in service by newer airliners such as Boeing 737, Airbus A320, Embraer E-Jets, and the Bombardier CSeries. However, it is probable for several DC-9s to continue in service for years.
One ex-SAS DC-9-21 is operated as a skydiving jump platform at Perris Valley Airport in Perris, California. With the steps on the ventral stairs removed, it is the only airline transport class jet certified to date by the FAA for skydiving operations as of 2016.
Accidents and incidents
- On October 1, 1966, West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashed with eighteen fatalities and no survivors. This accident marks the first loss of a DC-9.
- On March 9, 1967, TWA Flight 553 fell to the earth in a field in Concord Township, near Urbana, Ohio, following a mid-air collision with a Beechcraft Baron, an accident that triggered substantial changes in air traffic control procedures. All 25 people on board the DC-9 were killed.
- On March 16, 1969, Viasa Flight 742, a DC-9-32, crashed into the La Trinidad neighborhood of Maracaibo during a failed take-off. All 84 people on board the aircraft, as well as 71 people on the ground, were killed. With 155 dead in all, this was the deadliest crash involving a member of the original DC-9 family, as well as the worst crash in aviation history at the time it took place.
- On June 27, 1969, Douglas DC-9-31 N906H of Hawaiian Airlines was struck on the ground by Vickers Viscount N7410 of Aloha Airlines at Honolulu International Airport. The Viscount was damaged beyond repair. The DC-9 was repaired and flew with Hughes Airwest, Republic Airlines, and Northwest Airlines until 2002.
- On September 9, 1969, Allegheny Airlines Flight 853, a DC-9-30, collided in mid-air with a Piper PA-28 Cherokee near Fairland, Indiana. The DC-9 carried 78 passengers and 4 crew members, the Piper one pilot. The occupants of both aircraft were killed in the accident and the aircraft were destroyed.
- On February 15, 1970, a Dominicana de Aviación DC-9 crashed after taking off from Santo Domingo, in what is known as the Dominicana DC-9 air disaster. The crash, possibly caused by contaminated fuel, killed all 102 passengers and crew, including champion boxer Teo Cruz.
- On May 2, 1970, an Overseas National Airways DC-9, wet-leased to ALM Dutch Antilles Airlines and operating as ALM Flight 980, ditched in the Caribbean Sea on a flight from New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport to Princess Juliana International Airport on Saint Maarten. After three landing attempts in poor weather at Saint Maarten, the pilots began to divert to their alternate of Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands but ran out of fuel 30 mi (48 km) short of the island. After about 10 minutes, the aircraft sank in 5,000 ft (1524 m) of water and was never recovered. 40 people survived the ditching; 23 perished.
- On November 14, 1970, Southern Airways Flight 932, a DC-9, crashed into a hill near Tri-State Airport in Huntington, West Virginia. All 75 on board were killed (including 37 members of the Marshall University Thundering Herd football team, eight members of the coaching staff, 25 boosters, and others).
- On June 6, 1971, Hughes Airwest Flight 706, midair collision between commercial DC-9 and a U.S. Marine Corp jet. All 49 people on board the DC-9 died; one of two pilots from the F-4E Phantom ejected and survived.
- On January 21, 1972, a Turkish Airlines DC-9-32 TC-JAC diverted to Adana, Turkey after pressurization problems. The aircraft hit the ground during downwind on the 2nd approach and caught fire. There was one fatality.
- On January 26, 1972, JAT Flight 367 from Copenhagen to Belgrade, DC-9-32 registration YU-AHT, was destroyed in flight by a bomb placed on board. The sole survivor was a flight attendant, Vesna Vulović, who holds the record for the world's longest fall without a parachute when she fell some 33,000 ft (10,000 m) inside a section of the airplane and survived.
- On November 10–11, 1972, Southern Airways Flight 49 was hijacked while departing Birmingham, Alabama's airport by three armed men. The hijackers then proceeded to fly the passengers and crew to multiple locations in the United States, Canada, and Cuba, including Chattanooga, Tennessee, where the less-than-demanded ransom money was delivered, the now-defunct McCoy Air Force Base in Orlando, Florida, where the FBI shot out two of the DC-9's four main landing wheels, and Havana, where the 30 hours and 4,000 miles (6,400 km) odyssey came to an end with no fatalities or injuries between the passengers and crew members. This incident is notable for being the first hijacking in which an aircraft left Cuba with the hijackers on board.
- On December 20, 1972, North Central Airlines Flight 575, DC-9-31 registration N954N, collided during its takeoff roll with Delta Air Lines Flight 954, a Convair CV-880 that was taxiing across the same runway at O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois. The DC-9 was destroyed, killing 10 and injuring 15 of the 45 people on board; two people among the 93 aboard the Convair 880 suffered minor injuries.
- On July 31, 1973, Delta Air Lines Flight 723, DC-9-31 registration N975NE, crashed into a seawall at Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts, killing all 83 passengers and 6 crew members on board. One of the passengers initially survived the accident but later died in a hospital.
- On September 11, 1974, Eastern Air Lines Flight 212, a DC-9-30 crashed just short of the runway at Charlotte, North Carolina, killing 71 out of the 82 occupants.
- On October 30, 1975, an Inex-Adria Aviopromet DC-9-32 hit high ground during an approach in fog near Prague-Suchdol, Czechoslovakia. 75 people were killed.
- On September 10, 1976, an Inex-Adria Aviopromet DC-9-31 collided with a British Airways Trident over the Croatian town of Vrbovec, killing all 176 people aboard both aircraft and another person on the ground, in what is known as the 1976 Zagreb mid-air collision.
- On April 4, 1977, Southern Airways Flight 242, a DC-9-31, lost engine power in a storm then crash landed onto a highway in New Hope, Georgia, US, striking road side buildings. The crash and fire resulted in the death of both flight crew and 61 passengers. Nine people on the ground also died. Both flight attendants and 20 passengers survived.
- On June 26, 1978, Air Canada Flight 189, a DC-9 overran the runway in Toronto after a blown tire aborted the takeoff. Two of the 107 passengers and crew were killed.
- On September 14, 1979, Aero Trasporti Italiani Flight 12, a DC-9-32 crashed in the mountains near Cagliari, Italy while approaching Cagliari-Elmas Airport. All 27 passengers and 4 crew members died in the crash and ensuing fire.
- On June 27, 1980, Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870, a DC-9-15 suffered an in-flight explosion and crashed into the sea near the Italian island of Ustica. All 81 passengers and crew on board were killed. Italian prosecutors and the Parliament Commissions came to the conclusion that the DC-9 was mistakenly identified by French, US and Italian fighters as an executive jet believed to be carrying Libyan leader M. Qaddafi and shot down.
- On July 27, 1981, Aeroméxico Flight 230, a DC-9 ran off the runway in Chihuahua. Bad weather and pilot error were blamed.
- On June 2, 1983, Air Canada Flight 797, a DC-9 experienced an electrical fire in the aft lavatory during flight, resulting in an emergency landing at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. During evacuation, the sudden influx of oxygen caused a flash fire throughout the cabin, resulting in the deaths of 23 of the 41 passengers, including Canadian folk singer Stan Rogers. All five crew members survived.
- On December 7, 1983, the Madrid runway disaster took place where a departing Iberia Boeing 727 struck an Aviaco Douglas DC-9 causing the death of 93 passengers and crew. All 42 passengers and crew on board the DC-9 were killed.
- On September 6, 1985, Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105, operated with a DC-9-14, crashed just after takeoff from General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The crash was caused by improper control inputs by the flight crew after the number 2 engine failed, and all 31 aboard were killed.
- On August 31, 1986, Aeroméxico Flight 498 collided in mid-air with a Piper Cherokee over the city of Cerritos, California, then crashed into the city, killing all 64 aboard the aircraft, 15 people on the ground, and all 3 in the small plane.
- On April 4, 1987, Garuda Indonesia Flight 035, a DC-9-32, hit a pylon and crashed on approach to Polonia International Airport in bad weather with 24 fatalities.
- On December 3, 1990, Northwest Airlines Flight 1482, a DC-9-14, went on the wrong taxiway in dense fog at Detroit-Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, Michigan (DTW). It entered the active runway instead of taxiway instructed by air traffic controllers. It collided with a departing Northwest Boeing 727. Nine people were killed.
- On April 18, 1993, Japan Air System Flight 451, a DC-9-41 JA8448 crashed while landing at Hanamaki Airport in Japan. There were 19 injuries, all of the 77 passengers and crew survived. The aircraft was written off.
- On June 21, 1993, Garuda Indonesia Flight 630, a DC-9-32 PK-GNT landed heavily on runway 09 (forces of 5g) and taxied safely to apron at Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Major structural damage was discovered there. The aircraft was high on approach, which was overcorrected, causing the aircraft coming too low. Thrust was increased and the DC-9 then struck the runway in a nose up attitude. No deaths.
- On July 2, 1994, USAir Flight 1016, a DC-9-31 N954VJ crashed in Charlotte, North Carolina while performing a go-around because of heavy storms and wind shear at the approach of runway 18R. There were 37 fatalities and 15 injured among the passengers and crew. Although the airplane came to rest in a residential area with the tail section striking a house, there were no fatalities or injuries on the ground.
- On May 11, 1996, ValuJet Flight 592, a DC-9-32 N904VJ crashed in the Florida Everglades due to a fire caused by the activation of chemical oxygen generators illegally stored in the hold. The fire damaged the plane's electrical system and eventually overcame the crew, resulting in the deaths of 110 people.
- On October 10, 1997Austral Flight 2553, a DC-9-32 registration LV-WEG, en route from Posadas to Buenos Aires, crashed near Fray Bentos, Uruguay, killing all 69 passengers and 5 crew on board. ,
- On February 2, 1998, Cebu Pacific Flight 387, a DC-9-32 RP-C1507 crashed on the slopes of Mount Sumagaya in Misamis Oriental, Philippines, killing all 104 passengers and crew on board. Aviation investigators deemed the incident to be caused by pilot error when the plane made a non-regular stopover to Tacloban.
- On November 9, 1999, TAESA Flight 725 crashed a few minutes after leaving the Uruapan Airport en route to Mexico City. 18 people were killed in the accident.
- On October 6, 2000, Aeroméxico Flight 250, a DC-9-31 en route from Mexico City to Reynosa, Mexico, could not stop at the end of the runway and crashed into houses and fell into a small canal. Four people on the ground were killed. None of 83 passengers and 5 crew members were killed. The DC-9 was heavily damaged and classified as a loss. The runway had seen heavy rainfall as a result of Hurricane Keith.
- On 10 December 2005, Sosoliso Airlines Flight 1145 from Abuja crash-landed at Port Harcourt International Airport, Nigeria. There were 108 fatalities and 2 survivors.
- On May 10, 2005, a Northwest Airlines DC-9 collided on the ground with a Northwest Airlines Airbus A319 that had just pushed back from the gate at Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport. The DC-9 suffered a malfunction in one of its hydraulic systems in flight. After landing, the captain shut down one of the plane's engines, inadvertently disabling the remaining working hydraulic system. Six people were injured and both planes were substantially damaged.
- On April 15, 2008, Hewa Bora Airways Flight 122 crashed into a residential neighborhood, in the Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, resulting in the deaths of at least 44 people,.
- On July 6, 2008, USA Jet Airlines Flight 199, a DC-9-15F, crashed after taking off from Shreveport, LA airport bound for Saltillo, Mexico. The captain died and first officer was seriously injured.
Aircraft on display
- CF-TLL, a former Air Canada DC-9-32, is displayed at the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
- PK-GNT, an ex-Garuda Indonesia DC-9-32, is preserved at Transportation Museum, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, in Jakarta, Indonesia. It was relegated to display status after suffering heavy damage in a landing accident in 1993.
- N675MC, an ex-Delta Air Lines DC-9-50, is preserved at the Delta Flight Museum at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia.
- N779NC, another former Delta DC-9-50, is displayed at the Carolinas Aviation Museum at Charlotte Douglas International Airport in Charlotte, North Carolina. Its ferry flight to Charlotte was the last scheduled passenger DC-9 flight in the United States.
|Length||104 ft 4¾ in
|119 ft 3½ in
|125 ft 7¼ in
|133 ft 7¼ in
|Wingspan||89 ft 5 in
|93 ft 5 in
|Height||27 ft 6 in
|28 ft 0 in
|Wing Area||934.3 sq ft
|1,000.7 sq ft
|Empty weight||49,020 lb
|Powerplants (2x)||P&W JT8D-5 or −7||P&W JT8D-11||P&W JT8D-7, −9, -11, -15 or -17||P&W JT8D-9, -11, -15 or -17||P&W JT8D-15 or -17|
|Engine thrust||12,250 to 14,000 lbf (54.5 to 62.3 kN)||14,500 lbf (64.5 kN)||14,000 to 16,000 lbf (62.3 to 71.2 kN)||14,500 to 16,000 lbf (64.5 to 71.2 kN)||15,500 to 16,000 lbf (69 to 71.2 kN)|
(at 25,000 ft (7,620 m))
|Max range||1,590 nmi
|Fuel capacity||3,700 US gallons (14,000 l)||3,679 US gallons (13,930 l)||5,038 US gallons (19,070 l)|
- Cabin cross section:
- External width: 10 ft 11.6 in (3.34 m)
- Internal width: 10 ft 3.7 in (3.14 m)
- External height: 11 ft 8 in (3.6 m)
- Internal height: 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m)
Source: Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77 except where specified.
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "DC-1 Commercial Transport". Boeing. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- Endres, Gunter. McDonnell Douglas DC-9/MD-80 & MD-90. London: Ian Allan, 1991. ISBN 0-7110-1958-4.
- Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner. "DC-9: Twinjet Workhorse". Douglas Jetliners. MBI Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0676-1.
- "The DC-9 and the Deep Stall". Flight International: 442. 25 March 1965. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- Air International June 1980, p. 293.
- Air International June 1980, p. 292.
- Assessment of Wingtip Modifications to Increase the Fuel Efficiency of Air Force Aircraft. The National Academies Press. 2007. p. 40. ISBN 0-309-10497-1.
- Burchell, Bill. "Setting Up Support For Future Regional Jets". Aviation Week, October 13, 2010.
- Airclaims Jet Programs 1995
- Jane's Civil and Military Aircraft Upgrades 1995
- Shevell, Richard S. and Schaufele, Roger D., "Aerodynamic Design Features of the DC-9", AIAA paper 65-738, presented at the AIAA/RAeS/JSASS Aircraft Design and Technology Meeting, Los Angeles California, November 1965. Reprinted in the AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol.3 No.6, November/December 1966, pp.515–523.
- The Boeing Company
- Schaufele, Roger D. and Ebeling, Ann W., "Aerodynamic Design of the DC-9 Wing and High-Lift System", SAE paper 670846, presented at the Aeronautic & Space Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting, Los Angeles California, October 1967.
- Waddington, Terry, McDonnell Douglas DC-9; Great Airliners Series, Volume Four, World Transport Press, Inc., 1998, p.126. ISBN 978-0-9626730-9-2.
- http://www.airlinercafe.com/page.php?id=396[unreliable source?]
- "Aircraft Quick Search". ch-aviation.ch. Retrieved 9 Aug 2013.
- "To Save Fuel, Airlines Find No Speck Too Small". New York Times, June 11, 2008.
- Soaring Fuel Prices Pinch Airlines Harder, Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2008, p. B1.
- Trejos, Nancy (January 7, 2014). "Delta DC-9 aircraft makes final flight". USA Today. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- "Delta retires last DC-9 - CNN.com". CNN. January 7, 2014.
- "Bombardier Launches CSeries Jet". New York Times, July 13, 2008.
- Perris Valley Skydiving DC-9 Video
- Order and Deliveries – User Defined Reports. Boeing
- McDonnell Douglas DC-9-10/15 summary, DC-9-20 summary, DC-9-30 summary, DC-9-40 summary, DC-9-50 summary. Aviation-Safety.net.
- McDonnell Douglas DC-9-10/15 Statistics, DC-9-20 Statistics, DC-9-30 Statistics, DC-9-40 Statistics, DC-9-50 Statistics. Aviation-Safety.net, 3 December 2007.
- National Transportation Safety Board (1967-12-11). "Aircraft Accident Report. West Coast Airlines, Inc DC-9 N9101. Near Wemme, Oregon" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-03-22.
- National Transportation Safety Board (1968-06-19). "Aircraft Accident Report. Trans World Airlines, Inc., Douglas DC-9, Tann Company Beechcraft Baron B-55 In-flight Collision near Urbana, Ohio, March 9, 1967" (PDF). AirDisaster.Com. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Disasters: The Worst Ever
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- NTSB Report (PDF)
- McGlaun, Dan. "Allegheny 853 Crash Site Pictures". www.mcglaun.com. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- D. Gero (2005-05-21). "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 HI-177 Santo Domingo". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "Former Champ Teo Cruz Dies in Plane Crash". Modesto Bee. Modesto, California. Associated Press. 1970-02-16. p. A-6. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- National Transportation Safety Board (1971-03-31). "Aircraft Accident Report: Overseas National Airways, Inc., operating as Antilliaanse Luchtvaart Maatschappij Flight 980, near St. Croix, Virgin Islands, May 2, 1970. DC-9 N935F." (PDF). AirDisaster.Com. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Mickolus, Edward F.; Susan L. Simmons (2011). The Terrorist List. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-313-37471-5. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- National Transportation Safety Board Report Number NTSB-AAR-73-15 “Aircraft Accident Report North Central Airlines, Inc., McDonnell Douglas DC-9-31, N954N, and Delta Air Lines, Inc., Convair CV-880, N8807E, O’Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, December 20, 1972,” adopted July 5, 1973
- ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 YU-AJO Praha-Ruzyne International Airport (PRG
- National Transportation Safety Board (1978-01-26). "Aircraft Accident Report: Southern Airways, Inc. DC-9-31, N1335U. New Hope, Georgia. April 4, 1977." (PDF). AirDisaster.Com. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Vanderbilt, Tom (2010-03-12). "When Planes Land on Highways: The ins and outs of a surprisingly frequent phenomenon". Slate.
- Priest, Lisa; Rick Cash (2005-03-08). "Takeoffs and landings always pose risk of calamity, as history shows" (Fee required.). Globe & Mail. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
The last time an aircraft skidded off the runway in Toronto, seriously injuring passengers, was more than a quarter-century ago. On June 26, 1978, an Air Canada DC-9 skidded off a taxi strip at Toronto International Airport (what is today Pearson International Airport) during an aborted takeoff, then belly-flopped into a swampy ravine, killing two passengers and injuring more than a hundred others.[dead link]
- "ASN Aircraft Accident description of the 14 SEP 1979 accident of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 I-ATJC at Sarroch". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. February 21, 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
- "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-9-14 N3313L Detroit-Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, Michigan (DTW)". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. 2008-11-23. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- National Transportation Safety Board (1991-06-25). "Aircraft Accident Report: Northwest Airlines Inc. Flights 1482 & 299, Runway Incursion and Collision, Detroit Metropolitan/Wayne County Airport, Romulus, Michigan, December 3, 1990" (PDF). AirDisaster.Com. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 LV-WEG Nuevo Berlin". Aviation Safety Network. 24 February 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-31F XA-TKN Uruapan." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on July 4, 2010.
- "06 Oct 2000 accident entry." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on March 23, 2011.
- "NTSB: Pilot caused airport collision". Twincities.com. 2007-03-05. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
- "Plane crashes into African marketplace" Archived April 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. CNN, April 15, 2008.
- "Toll from Congo plane crash rises to 44". Associated Press, 2008-04-17
- USA Jet Flight 199. aviation-safety.net
- Washburn, Mark (January 23, 2014). "Delta's last DC-9 retires at Charlotte museum". Charlotte Observer.
- "DC-9: Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning: Douglas Aircraft Company June 1984". Boeing. June 1984. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/81bb7f7f3caf760686257ca80068d081/$FILE/A6WE_Rev_30.pdf
- Taylor 1976, pp. 330–331.
- Becher, Thomas. Douglas Twinjets, DC-9, MD-80, MD-90 and Boeing 717. The Crowood Press, 2002. ISBN 1-86126-446-1.
- "Super 80 For the Eighties". Air International, Vol 18 No 6, June 1980. pp. 267–272, 292–296. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1966–67. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1966.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00538-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- DC-9 page on Boeing.com
- DC-9 history page on Boeing.com
- DC-9-10/20/30 on Airliners.net and DC-9-40/50 on Airliners.net
- DC-9 History on AviationHistoryOnline.com
|Douglas and McDonnell Douglas aircraft production timeline, 1950-2006|
|McDonnell Douglas DC-9|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-80|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-90|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-95 (Boeing 717)|
|McDonnell Douglas DC-10||McDonnell Douglas MD-11|
|= Piston-engined||= Narrow-body jet||= Wide-body jet|