Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.
|Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.|
Fairbanks in 1973, by Allan Warren
|Born||Douglas Elton Fairbanks, Jr.
December 9, 1909
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Died||May 7, 2000
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Cause of death||Heart attack|
|Occupation||Actor, Naval officer|
Mary Lee Eppling
(m.1939–1988; her death)
(m.1991–2000; his death)
Anna Beth Sully
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1941–54|
Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. was born in New York City, the only child of actor Douglas Fairbanks and his first wife, Anna Beth Sully. His parents divorced when he was nine years old, and both remarried. He lived with his mother in New York, California, Paris and London.
Fairbanks's father was one of cinema's first icons, noted for such swashbuckling adventure films as The Mark of Zorro, Robin Hood and The Thief of Bagdad. Largely on the basis of his father's name, Fairbanks, Jr. was given a contract with Paramount Pictures at age 14. After making some undistinguished films, he took to the stage, where he impressed his father, his stepmother Mary Pickford, and Charlie Chaplin, who encouraged him to continue with acting.
He began his career during the silent film era. He initially played mainly supporting roles in a range of films featuring many of the leading female players of the day: Belle Bennett in Stella Dallas (1925), Esther Ralston in An American Venus (1926) and Pauline Starke in Women Love Diamonds (1927). In the last years of the silent period, he was elevated to star billing opposite Loretta Young in several pre-Code films and Joan Crawford in Our Modern Maidens (1929). He supported John Gilbert and Greta Garbo in A Woman of Affairs (1928). Progressing to sound, he played opposite Katharine Hepburn in her Oscar-winning role in the film Morning Glory (1933).
Although celebrated as an actor, Fairbanks was commissioned a reserve officer in the United States Navy at the onset of World War II and assigned to Lord Mountbatten's Commando staff in the United Kingdom.
World War II
Having witnessed (and participated in) British training and cross-Channel harassment operations emphasizing the military art of deception, Fairbanks attained a depth of understanding and appreciation of military deception then unheard of in the United States Navy. Lieutenant Fairbanks was subsequently transferred to Virginia Beach where he came under the command of Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, who was preparing U.S. naval forces for the invasion of North Africa.
Fairbanks convinced Hewitt of the advantages of a military deception unit, then repeated the proposal at Hewett's behest to Admiral Ernest King, Chief of Naval Operations. King thereupon issued a secret letter on March 5, 1943 charging the Vice Chief of Naval Operations with the recruitment of 180 officers and 300 enlisted men for the Beach Jumper program.
The Beach Jumpers' mission would simulate amphibious landings with a very limited force. Operating dozens of kilometers from the actual landing beaches and utilizing their deception equipment, the Beach Jumpers would lure the enemy into believing that theirs was the principal landing.
United States Navy Beach Jumpers saw their initial action in Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. Throughout the remainder of the war, the Beach Jumpers conducted their hazardous, shallow-water operations throughout the Mediterranean.
For his planning the diversion-deception operations and his part in the amphibious assault on Southern France, Lieutenant Commander Fairbanks was awarded the United States Navy's Legion of Merit with bronze V (for valor), the Italian War Cross for Military Valor, the French Légion d'honneur and the Croix de guerre with Palm, and the British Distinguished Service Cross. Fairbanks was also awarded the Silver Star for valor displayed while serving on PT boats and the National Order of the Southern Cross, conferred by the Brazilian government. Among his other exploits was the sinking of the corvette UJ-6083 (formerly the Regia Marina Gabbiano-class Capriolo) while in command of a mixed division of American PT Boats and British Insect-class gunboats plus assorted other small craft. Fairbanks commanded from HMS Aphis.
Fairbanks returned to Hollywood at the conclusion of World War II, but as a confirmed Anglophile, he spent a considerable amount of his time in the United Kingdom, where he was well known in the highest social circles. He was made an Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) in 1949. In 1961, he was a guest at the wedding of Katharine Worsley to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent.
Between 1954 and 1956 he also made a number of half-hour programs at one of the smaller Elstree film studios as part of a syndicated anthology series for television called Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Presents. In the middle 1950s, Fairbanks was a guest star on NBC's The Martha Raye Show. On February 7, 1957, he appeared on NBC's The Ford Show starring Tennessee Ernie Ford. On stage, Fairbanks toured in My Fair Lady in 1968, and in The Pleasure of His Company several times, including tours in the U.S. in 1970–72 and the 1977 Australian production with Stanley Holloway.
In 1982, Fairbanks was awarded the German Federal Cross of Merit for his contribution to the relief of the needy in occupied Germany.
Fairbanks was a friend of Laurence Olivier and was among the contributors to a documentary by The South Bank Show called Laurence Olivier: A Life. He was also a close friend of Sir Rex Harrison and was a presenter at Harrison's New York City memorial service.
He wrote his autobiography, Salad Days, in 1988. In addition, Fairbanks wrote a chronicle of his experiences during the Second World War, A Hell of a War published in 1993. Beyond his two volumes of autobiography, Fairbanks collaborated with Richard Schickel on the illustrated survey of Fairbanks Sr. and Jr. called The Fairbanks Album (1975) and Jeffrey Vance with a critical study/biography of Fairbanks Sr. ultimately published as Douglas Fairbanks (2008).
His first notable relationship was with the actress Joan Crawford, whom he began to date seriously during the filming of Our Modern Maidens. Fairbanks and Crawford married on June 3, 1929 at St. Malachy in New York City. Fairbanks was only 19, Crawford was four years older.
They travelled to England on a delayed honeymoon, where he was entertained by Noël Coward, Gertrude Lawrence, Beatrice Lillie, and Prince George, Duke of Kent. He became active in both society and politics, but Crawford was far more interested in her career and had an affair with Clark Gable. The couple divorced in 1933.
Despite their divorce, Fairbanks was quick to defend Crawford when her adopted daughter Christina Crawford published Mommie Dearest, a scathing biography of Crawford's personal life. He firmly stated, "The Joan Crawford that I've heard about in Mommie Dearest is not the Joan Crawford I knew back then."
On April 22, 1939, Fairbanks married Mary Lee Hartford (née Mary Lee Epling), a former wife of Huntington Hartford, the A&P supermarket heir. He remained devoted to her until her death in 1988. They had three daughters: Daphne, Victoria, and Melissa, as well as eight grandchildren and ten great-grandchildren.
On May 30, 1991, Fairbanks married Vera Lee Shelton, a merchandiser for QVC Network Inc.
Death and legacy
Fairbanks has three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: one for motion pictures at 6318 Hollywood Boulevard, one for television at 6665 Hollywood Boulevard and one for radio at 6710 Hollywood Boulevard. In 1969 he was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the International Best Dressed List.
Fairbanks's estate was auctioned September 13, 2011 by Doyle New York, surpassing estimated proceeds by netting over a half-million dollars.
- Stephen Steps Out (1923)
- The Air Mail (1925)
- Wild Horse Mesa (1925)
- Stella Dallas (1925)
- The American Venus (1926)
- Padlocked (1926)
- Broken Hearts of Hollywood (1926)
- Man Bait (1927)
- Women Love Diamonds (1927)
- Is Zat So? (1927)
- A Texas Steer (1927)
- Dead Man's Curve (1928)
- Modern Mothers (1928)
- The Toilers (1928) (extant; Library of Congress)
- The Power of the Press (1928)
- The Barker (1928)
- A Woman of Affairs (1928)
- Hollywood Snapshots #11 (1929) (short subject)
- The Forward Pass (1929)
- The Jazz Age (1929)
- Our Modern Maidens (1929)
- The Way of All Men (1930)
- Loose Ankles (1930)
- Outward Bound (1930)
- The Dawn Patrol (1930)
- Little Caesar (1931)
- Chances (1931)
- I Like Your Nerve (1931)
- It's Tough to Be Famous (1932)
- Union Depot (1932)
- Love Is a Racket (1932)
- Scarlet Dawn (1932)
- Parachute Jumper (1933)
- The Life of Jimmy Dolan (1933)
- The Narrow Corner (1933)
- Morning Glory (1933)
- Captured! (1933)
- The Rise of Catherine the Great (1934)
- Success at Any Price (1934)
- Man of the Moment (1935)
- Accused (1936)
- The Amateur Gentleman (1936)
- The Prisoner of Zenda (1937)
- Jump for Glory (1937)
- Joy of Living (1938)
- The Rage of Paris (1938)
- Having Wonderful Time (1938)
- The Young in Heart (1938)
- Gunga Din (1939)
- Rulers of the Sea (1939)
- Green Hell (1940)
- Angels Over Broadway (1940)
- The Corsican Brothers (1941)
- Sinbad the Sailor (1947)
- The Exile (1947)
- That Lady in Ermine (1948)
- The Fighting O'Flynn (1949)
- State Secret (1950)
- Mister Drake's Duck (1951)
- The Triangle (1953)
- The Genie (1953)
- The Hostage Tower (1980)
- Ghost Story (1981)
Awards and honors
American military awards
- Silver Star
- Legion of Merit
- American Defense Service Medal with "A" device
- American Campaign Medal
- European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
- World War II Victory Medal
- Naval Reserve Medal
- Navy Expert Pistol Shot
- Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (United Kingdom)
- Knight of the Legion of Honor (France)
- Order of the Southern Cross (Brazil)
- Distinguished Service Cross (United Kingdom)
- Croix de Guerre avec palme (France)
- War Cross for Military Valor (Italy)
- "Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Film Star, TV Producer and Good-Will Ambassador, Dies at 90". The New York Times. May 8, 2000. p. B7.
- "HMS Scarab WW2". frankstaylorfamilyandroyalnavyhistory.net.
- British Pathé. "Wedding At York Wedding Of Prince Edward". britishpathe.com.
- Halliwell's Television Companion, Third edition, Grafton Books 1986.
- Warren Hoge, "London Journal: A Sex Scandal of the 60's, Doubly Scandalous Now," The New York Times, August 16, 2000.
- "'Headless men' in sex scandal finally named", Sarah Hall 10 August 2000, The Guardian
- Fairbanks, Douglas, Jr., Salad Days, Doubleday, 1988, ISBN 978-0-385-17404-6
- Fairbanks, Douglas, Jr., A Hell of a War, St. Martin's Press, 1993, ISBN 0-312-08807-8
- Schickel, Richard. The Fairbanks Album. Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975. ISBN 0-8212-0637-0
- Vance, Jeffrey. Douglas Fairbanks. Berkeley, CA: Academy Imprints/University of California Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-520-25667-5
- Vanity Fair
- Wise, James. Stars in Blue: Movie Actors in America's Sea Services. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997. ISBN 1557509379 OCLC 36824724
- Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. at the Internet Movie Database
- Douglas Fairbanks Jr – Daily Telegraph obituary
- Photographs of Douglas Fairbanks Jr.
- Navy Department History entry
- 1983 US passport at Passport-Collector.com
- Imperial War Museum Interview