Douglas Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search


The Viscount Hailsham

Hailsham1.JPG
Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
In office
7 June 1935 – 9 March 1938
MonarchGeorge V
Edward VIII
George VI
Prime MinisterStanley Baldwin
Neville Chamberlain
Preceded byThe Viscount Sankey
Succeeded byThe Lord Maugham
In office
28 March 1928 – 4 June 1929
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterStanley Baldwin
Preceded byThe Viscount Cave
Succeeded byThe Viscount Sankey
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
5 November 1931 – 7 June 1935
Prime MinisterRamsay MacDonald
Preceded byThe Marquess of Reading
Succeeded byThe Marquess of Londonderry
Secretary of State for War
In office
5 November 1931 – 7 June 1935
Preceded byThe Marquess of Crewe
Succeeded byThe Viscount Halifax
Lord President of the Council
In office
9 March 1938 – 31 October 1938
Prime MinisterNeville Chamberlain
Preceded byThe Viscount Halifax
Succeeded byThe Viscount Runciman of Doxford
Member of Parliament
for St Marylebone
In office
15 November 1922 – 28 March 1928
Preceded bySir Samuel Scott
Succeeded byRennell Rodd
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
28 March 1928 – 16 August 1950
Hereditary peerage
Preceded bypeerage created
Succeeded by2nd Viscount Hailsham
Personal details
Born28 February 1872 (1872-02-28)
England
DiedAugust 16, 1950(1950-08-16) (aged 78)
England
NationalityBritish
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)
Elizabeth Marjoribanks
(m. 1905; her death 1925)

Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham, PC (28 February 1872 – 16 August 1950) was a British lawyer and Conservative politician who twice served as Lord Chancellor, in addition to a number of other Cabinet positions. Mooted as a possible successor to Stanley Baldwin as prime minister for a time in the 1930s, he was widely considered to be one of the leading Conservative politicians of his generation. It was said by Lord Denning that he "looked like Mr. Pickwick and spoke like Demosthenes".

Early life and career[edit]

Born in London, Hogg was the son of the merchant and philanthropist Quintin Hogg, the seventh son of Sir James Hogg, 1st Baronet, and of Alice Anna Hogg, née Graham. He was educated at Cheam School and Eton College, before spending eight years working for the family firm of sugar merchants, spending time in the West Indies and British Guiana. During the Boer War he served with the 19th (Berwick and Lothian) Yeomanry, and was wounded in action.

Returning from South Africa, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1902. As a junior, he built up a large practice in both common law and commercial law. He was appointed King's Counsel in 1917, and became a bencher of Lincoln's Inn and Attorney-General to the Prince of Wales in 1920.[1] He also devoted considerable time to the Royal Polytechnic institution, which his father had founded.

Political career[edit]

A Conservative, Hogg began to be involved in politics while still at the bar. He was approached to be the Party's candidate for Marylebone, but stood down before the 1918 election in deference to the sitting member. He also became involved in the Conservatives' legal attacks against the Liberals during the Marconi scandal.

Hogg was appointed Attorney General by Bonar Law in October 1922. Though not an MP, Hogg was chosen for the position because Bonar Law found himself short of law officers after the Conservative-Liberal coalition collapsed as a result of the Carlton Club meeting. He was returned to the House of Commons unopposed for St Marylebone in the 1922 general election. Though he had been involved with Conservative politics before, his sudden rise caused some comment. Harold Macmillan records the following exchange between the Earl of Derby and Duke of Devonshire:

'Ah,' said Lord Derby, 'you are too pessimistic. They have found a wonderful little man. One of those attorney fellows, you know. He will do all the work.' 'What's his name?', said the Duke. 'Pig,' said Lord Derby. Turning to me, the Duke replied, 'Do you know Pig? I know James Pigg [he was a great reader of Surtees]. I don't know any other Pig.' It turned out to be Sir Douglas Hogg! This was a truly Trollopian scene.

Hogg received the customary knighthood was sworn in the Privy Council in December 1922. Serving as Attorney General until Labour assumed office after the 1923 election, Hogg was reappointed to the post, with a seat in the Cabinet, when the Conservatives were returned to power in 1924.

As Attorney-General, Hogg guided the Trade Disputes Act of 1927 through the House of Commons after the general strike of 1926 which had ended with large-scale unemployment while those still employed were forced to accept longer hours, lower wages, and district wage agreements. The Trade Disputes and Trade Union Act made mass picketing and all sympathetic strikes illegal and directed that union members had to contract into any political levy. It also forbade civil service unions from affiliating with the Trades Union Congress.

Lord Chancellorship[edit]

On 29 March 1928, Hogg became Lord Chancellor in Stanley Baldwin's government, succeeding to the Viscount Cave, and on 5 April was created Baron Hailsham, of Hailsham in the County of Sussex.[2] His elevation to the peerage barred him from the premiership, and would later interfere with the political ambitions of his elder son, Quintin Hogg, who was said to have stood in Christ Church's Peckwater Quad to cry in frustration. He held the Great Seal until the government's defeat in 1929. In that year's Birthday Honours he was created Viscount Hailsham, of Hailsham in the County of Sussex.

Between 1930 and 1931 Hailsham was the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. During that period, he was spoken of as Baldwin's potential successor. He was passed over for the Lord Chancellorship in the National Government of August–October 1931, and refused to join it as Lord Privy Seal. After the October 1931 elections he joined the second National Government as Secretary of State for War and Leader of the House of Lords.

In 1935, Hailsham returned to the Lord Chancellorship, first under Baldwin, then under Neville Chamberlain. During his second term, he was the last Lord High Steward to preside over the trial of a peer (the 26th Baron de Clifford) in the House of Lords.

Later life[edit]

In 1938, ill-health led to his appointment as Lord President of the Council, a post with less onerous duties, but he had to retire from the government a few months later, four days before his son was first elected to the House of Commons.[1] He died on 16 August 1950.[3]

The first Viscount Hailsham served as President of the MCC in 1933. He was an important contributor to the diplomacy involved following the Bodyline Series problems of 1932-33 during the English Cricket tour of Australia under the captaincy of Douglas Jardine [4]

Family[edit]

Lord Hailsham married Elizabeth Marjoribanks (née Brown), widow of the Hon Archibald Marjoribanks, and daughter of James Trimble Brown of Tennessee, in 1905. They had two sons:[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ramsden, John. "Hogg, Douglas McGarel, first Viscount Hailsham (1872–1950)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33925. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ "King Appoints Hogg Lord High Chancellor. Inskip Succeeds Him As Attorney General And Merriman Becomes Solicitor General". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 29, 1928.
  3. ^ "Lord Hailsham, 78, Legal Leader, Dies. Former Attorney General and Lord Chancellor in Britain. Powerful Conservative Aided Defeat of MacDonald Was Acting Prime Minister". The New York Times. August 17, 1950.
  4. ^ 1996: Bradman: an Australian Hero written by Charles Williams, Baron Williams of Elvel
  5. ^ The Peerage, entry for 1st Viscount Hailsham
  6. ^ "Lady Douglas Hogg Dead. Wife of British Attorney General Was a Nashville Judge's Daughter". The New York Times. May 11, 1925.

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sir Samuel Edward Scott
Member of Parliament for St Marylebone
19221928
Succeeded by
Sir James Rennell Rodd
Legal offices
Preceded by
Ernest Pollock
Attorney General
1922–1924
Succeeded by
Patrick Hastings
Preceded by
Patrick Hastings
Attorney General
1924–1928
Succeeded by
Thomas Inskip
Political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Cave
Lord Chancellor
1928–1929
Succeeded by
The Viscount Sankey
Preceded by
The Marquess of Crewe
Secretary of State for War
1931–1935
Succeeded by
The Viscount Halifax
Preceded by
The Marquess of Reading
Leader of the House of Lords
1931–1935
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Londonderry
Preceded by
The Viscount Sankey
Lord Chancellor
1935–1938
Succeeded by
The Lord Maugham
Preceded by
The Viscount Halifax
Lord President of the Council
1938
Succeeded by
The Viscount Runciman of Doxford
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords
1931–1935
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Londonderry
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Hailsham
1929–1950
Succeeded by
Quintin Hogg
Baron Hailsham
1928–1950