Douglas Murray (author)

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Douglas Murray
Murray in 2019
Murray in 2019
BornDouglas Kear Murray
(1979-07-16) 16 July 1979 (age 41)
London, England
OccupationAuthor, political commentator
EducationSt Benedict's School
Eton College
Alma materMagdalen College, Oxford
Period2000–present
SubjectPolitics, culture, history
Notable worksBosie: A Biography of Lord Alfred Douglas (2000)
Neoconservatism: Why We Need It (2006)
Bloody Sunday: Truths, Lies and the Saville Inquiry (2011)
The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam (2017)
The Madness of Crowds: Gender, Race and Identity (2019)
Website
douglasmurray.net

Douglas Kear Murray (born 16 July 1979[1]) is a British author and political commentator.[2] He founded the Centre for Social Cohesion in 2007, which became part of the Henry Jackson Society, where he was associate director from 2011 to 2018. He is also an associate editor of the conservative-leaning British political and cultural magazine The Spectator.[3][4]

Murray has written columns for publications such as Standpoint and The Wall Street Journal. He is the author of Neoconservatism: Why We Need It (2005), Bloody Sunday: Truths, Lies and the Saville Inquiry (2011) about the Bloody Sunday Inquiry, The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam (2017) and The Madness of Crowds: Gender, Race and Identity (2019).

Murray has been described as a conservative,[5] a neoconservative[6][7][8] and a critic of Islam.[9] His views and ideology have been linked to far-right political ideologies by a number of academic[10] and journalistic[11] sources. He has also been accused of promoting far-right conspiracy theories,[12][13][14] and of being Islamophobic.[15] Murray has been linked to the so-called "Intellectual Dark Web", a loosely affiliated group of intellectuals who are critical of social justice and identity politics.[16]

Early life[edit]

Murray was born and raised in Hammersmith, London, by an English, civil servant mother, and a Scottish, Gaelic-speaking school teacher father. He has one elder brother.[2][17] He would go to his father's ancestral home, the Isle of Lewis, every summer as a boy, where he enjoyed fishing.[17][18]

Murray was educated at West Bridgford School and was awarded a music scholarship at St Benedict's School[19] and later at Eton College,[17][20] before going on to study English at Magdalen College, Oxford.[21]

Publications[edit]

At age 19, while in his second year at the University of Oxford, Murray published[22] Bosie: A Biography of Lord Alfred Douglas,[21] which was described by Christopher Hitchens as "masterly".[23] Bosie was awarded a Lambda Award for gay biography in 2000.[24] After leaving Oxford, Murray wrote a play, Nightfall, about the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg.[25]

In 2006, Murray published a defence of neoconservatism – Neoconservatism: Why We Need It – and went on a speaking tour promoting the book in the United States.[25] The publication was subsequently reviewed in the Arab journal Asharq Al-Awsat by the Iranian author Amir Taheri: "Whether one agrees with him or not Murray has made a valuable contribution to the global battle of ideas."[26] In 2007, he assisted in the writing of Towards a Grand Strategy for an Uncertain World: Renewing Transatlantic Partnership by Gen. Dr. Klaus Naumann, Gen. John Shalikashvili, Field Marshal The Lord Inge, Adm. Jacques Lanxade, and Gen. Henk van den Breemen.[27] His book Bloody Sunday was (jointly) awarded the 2011–2012 Christopher Ewart-Biggs Memorial Prize.[28] In June 2013, Murray's e-book Islamophilia: a Very Metropolitan Malady was published.[29]

In 2017, Murray published The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam, which spent almost 20 weeks on The Sunday Times bestseller list and was a No. 1 bestseller in non-fiction. It has subsequently been published in more than 20 languages worldwide.[30][31] In The Strange Death of Europe, Murray argued that Europe "is committing suicide" by allowing non-European immigration into its borders and losing its "faith in its beliefs".[32] The book received a polarized response from critics. Juliet Samuel of The Telegraph praised Murray, saying that: "His overall thesis, that a guilt-driven and exhausted Europe is playing fast and loose with its precious modern values by embracing migration on such a scale, is hard to refute."[33] An academic review in the Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs acclaimed the book as "explosive" and "an elegantly written, copiously documented exposé of Europe’s suicidal hypocrisy".[34] Rod Liddle of The Times called the book "a brilliant, important and profoundly depressing book".[35] Conversely, other reviews of the book were highly negative. Pankaj Mishra's review in The New York Times described the book as "a handy digest of far-right clichés".[36] Writing in The Intercept, Murtaza Hussain criticized what he called the "relentlessly paranoid tenor" and "apocalyptic picture of Europe" portrayed in the book, while challenging the links Murray makes between non-European immigration and large increases in crime.[37] In Middle East Eye, Georgetown professor Ian Almond called the book "a staggeringly one-sided flow of statistics, interviews and examples, reflecting a clear decision to make the book a rhetorical claim that Europe is doomed to self-destruction".[38] According to the New York Times review, Murray defends the German nationalist, anti-Islam, far-right group Pegida in The Strange Death of Europe; writes that the English nationalist, anti-Islam, far-right English Defence League "had a point"[36] and described Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán as a better sentinel of "European values" than George Soros.[36]

Murray wrote about social justice and identity politics in his 2019 book The Madness of Crowds: Gender, Race and Identity which became a Sunday Times bestseller. It was also nominated as an audio book of the year for the British Book Awards.[39][40][41] In the book, Murray points to what he sees as a cultural shift, away from established modes of religion and political ideology, in which various forms of victimhood can provide markers of social status.[42] He divides his book into sections dealing with different forms of victimhood, including types of LGBT identity, feminism and racial politics.[43] Murray criticises the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault for what he sees as a reduction of society to a system of power relations.[44] Murray's book drew polarized responses from critics. Tim Stanley in The Daily Telegraph praised the book, calling Murray "a superbly perceptive guide through the age of the social justice warrior".[45] Katie Law in the Evening Standard said that Murray "tackled another necessary and provocative subject with wit and bravery".[46] Conversely, William Davies gave a highly critical review of Murray's work in The Guardian, describing the book as "the bizarre fantasies of a rightwing provocateur, blind to oppression".[47]

Journalistic career[edit]

Douglas Murray being interviewed on the Mark Steyn Show in 2019

In 2016, Murray organised a competition through The Spectator in which entrants were invited to submit offensive poems about Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, with a top prize of £1,000 donated by a reader.[48] This was in reaction to the Böhmermann affair, in which German satirist Jan Böhmermann was prosecuted under the German penal code for such a poem.[49] One of Murray's articles on the affair[50] contributed to his being longlisted for the 2017 Orwell Prize for Journalism,[51] five years after his book Bloody Sunday: Truths, Lies and The Saville Inquiry, had been longlisted for the 2012 Orwell Book Prize.[52] He announced the winner of the poetry competition as Conservative MP Boris Johnson (former editor of the magazine, current British prime minister and former Mayor of London).[53]

Views[edit]

Murray is a frequent critic of Islam, saying that there is "a creed of Islamic fascism—a malignant fundamentalism, woken from the Dark Ages to assault us here and now".[54][55] In the wake of the 2017 London Bridge attack, Murray stated in a radio interview:

We've fallen into the idea that answer [to terrorism] is more Islam. This is the argument of the Muslim Brotherhood and other groups. 'You don't like this Islam? Well we've got some other Islam, or different Islam.' And I just say, look, we need a bit less Islam.[56]

Murray's criticisms of Islam have been described as a form of far-right entryism,[57] and he has drawn scrutiny for praising the anti-Muslim author Robert B. Spencer, who is banned from entering the UK, and appearing on the podcast The Milo Yiannopoulos Show in 2016, hosted by the eponymous far-right figure.

In 2008, Murray listed the cases of 27 writers, activists, politicians and artists – including Sir Salman Rushdie, Maryam Namazie and Anwar Shaikh, all three of whom had received death threats due to their criticism of Islam. Murray said that "Unless Muslims are allowed to discuss their religion without fear of attack there can be no chance of reform or genuine freedom of conscience within Islam."[58]

In February 2006, speaking at the "Pim Fortuyn Memorial Conference on Europe and Islam", Murray said:

Conditions for Muslims in Europe must be made harder across the board: Europe must look like a less attractive proposition… From long before we were first attacked it should have been made plain that people who come into Europe are here under our rules and not theirs… Where a mosque has become a centre of hate it should be closed and pulled down. If that means that some Muslims don't have a mosque to go to, then they'll just have to realise that they aren't owed one.[59][60][61]

After Murray refused Paul Goodman's offer to disown these comments, the Conservative Party frontbench severed formal relations with Murray and his Centre for Social Cohesion.[60][62]

In 2010, Murray argued against the motion in an Intelligence Squared US debate titled "Is Islam a Religion of Peace?"[63] In 2014, he argued for the motion in an Oxford Union debate titled "This House Believes postwar Britain has seen too much immigration".[64]

In 2009, Murray was prevented from chairing a debate at the London School of Economics between Alan Sked and Hamza Tzortzis, with the university citing security concerns following a week-long student protest against Israel's attacks on Gaza.[65] The move was criticised by the conservative press such as The Daily Telegraph and The Spectator.[66][67][68]

In June 2009, Murray accepted an invitation to a debate with Anjem Choudary, leader of the banned group Al-Muhajiroun, on the subject of Sharia law and British law at Conway Hall. Members of Al-Muhajiroun acying as security guards tried to segregate men and women at the entrance of the event. Clashes broke out near the entrance between Choudary's and Murray's supporters and Conway Hall cancelled the debate because of the attempted forced separation of men and women. Outside the building, a confrontation between Choudary and Murray over the cancellation of the event occurred.[69] Murray's Centre for Social Cohesion later published a study arguing that one in seven Islam-related terrorist cases in the UK could be linked to Al-Muhajiroun,[70]

Murray supported the 'Leave' side in the UK's 2016 EU referendum, citing concerns with the Eurozone, immigration and the prospect of ever-closer union.[71] In the wake of the Brexit vote, Murray expressed concern that the result "has just not been accepted by an elite" and said that the result "should be celebrated by anybody who actually believes in democracy".[72]

In 2018, Murray filmed a video for PragerU entitled "The Suicide of Europe" which drew considerable criticism for purportedly "evok[ing] the common white nationalist trope of white genocide with its rhetoric of 'suicide' and 'annihilation'.[73] As part of an article for Sludge journalist Alex Kotch interviewed a senior editor at the Anti-Defamation League's Center on Extremism Mark Pitcavage, who stated that there was "almost certainly prejudice in the video" and that it was "filled with anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim rhetoric".[73] Similarly, the Southern Poverty Law Center described the video as a "dog whistle to the extreme right",[74] while Evan Halper in the Los Angeles Times argued that the video "echoed some of the talking points of the alt-right".[75]

In 2019, Murray spent weeks urging New Statesman journalist George Eaton and editor Jason Cowley to share the original recording of an interview between Eaton and Sir Roger Scruton, with Murray branding the published interview - which attributed a number of controversial statements to Scruton - as "journalistic dishonesty".[76] Murray eventually managed to acquire the recording, which formed the basis of an article defending Scruton, arguing that his remarks had been misinterpreted.[77] The New Statesman subsequently apologised for Eaton's misrepresentation.[78][79][80]

Murray is known for his association with Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. The Guardian has described Murray as Orbán's favorite author[81] and in March 2018, Orbán posted a photo on his official Facebook account of himself reading the Hungarian-language edition of The Strange Death of Europe.[82][83] Murray has disputed the claim that Hungary is experiencing significant democratic backsliding under Orbán, and has called Freedom House's comparisons of Orbán's government to a dictatorship as "increasingly off-kilter".[84] In May 2018, Murray was personally received by Orbán in Budapest as part of the "Future of Europe" conference along with other conservative figures like Steve Bannon, and according to Hungarian state media had an individual discussion and photograph with Orbán.[85][86]

Murray expressed strong support for Israel during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[87] During a visit to Israel in 2019, Murray praised Israeli society, saying that Israel "has a healthier attitude towards nationalism than Europe" and lauded Israel's restrictive approach to immigration.[88]

In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Murray came out against a second national lockdown in the UK, claiming it was "absolute madness" and "simply unsustainable".[89]

Murray is the recipient of frequent death threats as a result of his views.[90] Following the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, he was advised by the police not to appear in public.[90]

He is on the international advisory board of NGO Monitor.[91] As of 2020, he is one of the directors of the Free Speech Union.[92]

Criticism[edit]

A number of academic and journalistic sources have linked Murray's ideology and political views to the far right[93][94] (including the Eurabia conspiracy theory),[95] the alt-right,[96] the white nationalist right,[97] the Islamophobic[98] right or some combination thereof. Several commentators observed these themes in Murray's book The Strange Death of Europe, with reviewer Nafeez Ahmed arguing in Middle East Eye that Murray expressed a form of "far-right entryism" in the book.[99] In a similar vein, a review of The Strange Death of Europe in The Guardian described Murray's book as "gentrified xenophobia".[100]

Murray's work has been perceived as putting a socially acceptable face on what would otherwise be considered fringe ideologies. Arun Kundnani, who has written on radicalization, said in an article for Security and Human Rights that the "counterjihadist" ideology embodied by Murray and other conservative intellectuals is, "through reworking far-right ideology and appropriating official discourse... able to evade categorisation as a source of far-right violence".[101] Similarly, Murray's views have been described as a kind of "mainstreamist" ideology that defies easy categorization as extremist while remaining "entangled with the far right".[102]

Murray has been accused of promoting several far-right conspiracy theories. In Ethnic and Racial Studies Ed Pertwee argued that Murray's work is an "extemporization of the basic theme" of the Eurabia conspiracy theory as developed by Bat Ye'Or in the 2005 book Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis.[103] Ilgın Yörükoğlu of the City University of New York remarked that by promoting the Eurabia theory while being a best-selling author, Murray had provided the "emotional energy" for the conspiracy theory.[104] Murray has also been accused of promoting the related far-right Great Replacement conspiracy, which contends that the developed world is being deliberately overwhelmed with non-white immigration as part of an elite conspiracy.[105] Murray's book The Madness of Crowds has also drawn scrutiny for "remodelling" the far-right Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory,[106] though Murray has indicated that he personally dislikes the term "Cultural Marxism".[107]

Murray has contended that he is frequently mislabelled politically, and that the mainstream right are unfairly conflated with the far-right in modern political discourse: he wrote in 2020 that in modern politics "up is down, [and] right is far-right".[108] In 2017, Murray argued in The Spectator that the term 'far right' is used far too often by the political left. He also has said that political parties previously identified as far-right should be recognised as being able to moderate their politics over time but has criticised some European parties that espouse what he considers to be genuinely extremist or hard-line policies.[109]

In another Spectator article in August 2019, Murray again criticised what he perceived as the overuse of terms like "far-right", this time in reference to commentators, saying that since the election of Donald Trump and the Brexit vote "there has been an acceleration in claimed sightings [of the far right] and a blurring of the definitions". He contended that this was "wrong not just because it means that perfectly decent people are maligned, but also because distinctly dangerous groups are confused with harmless ones".[110]

Personal life[edit]

Murray is an atheist, having been an Anglican until his twenties,[17][25] but has described himself variously as a cultural Christian[111] and a Christian atheist,[112] and believes that Christianity is an important influence on British and European culture.[17][31][113][114] Murray is gay.[115]

Works[edit]

  • Brandon, James; Murray, Douglas (2007), Hate on the State: How British libraries encourage Islamic extremism (PDF), Westminster, UK: Centre for Social Cohesion.
  • Murray, Douglas (2000), Bosie: A Biography of Lord Alfred Douglas, ISBN 0-340-76771-5.
  • ——— (2005), Neoconservatism: Why We Need It, ISBN 1-904863-05-1.
  • ——— (2007), Towards a Grand Strategy for an Uncertain World: Renewing Transatlantic Partnership (PDF)
  • ———; Verwey, Johan Pieter (2008), Victims of Intimidation: Freedom of Speech Within Europe's Muslim Communities (PDF), London, UK: Centre for Social Cohesion.
  • ——— (2011), Bloody Sunday: Truths, Lies and the Saville Inquiry, London: Dialogue, ISBN 978-1-84954-149-7.
  • ——— (2013), Islamophilia: A Very Metropolitan Malady, emBooks, ISBN 978-1-62777050-7.
  • ——— (2017), The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam, Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-1-47294224-1.
  • ——— (2019), The Madness of Crowds: Gender, Race and Identity, Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-1-47295995-9.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Monk, Paul (26 August 2017). "Europe: immigration, identity, Islam: Douglas Murray warns of dangers". The Australian. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b Law, Katie (4 May 2017). "Douglas Murray on immigration, Islam and identity". The Evening Standard.
  3. ^ "Douglas Murray". Henry Jackson Society. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  4. ^ "24/8/2016". Newsnight. 24 August 2016. BBC. BBC Two. Retrieved 29 August 2016. And from our Oxford studio, Douglas Murray, Associate Editor of The Spectator
  5. ^ Dolsten, Josefin (5 June 2019). "Meet the conservative activists who want to override the Supreme Court". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  6. ^ "Douglas Murray on immigration, Islam and identity". London Evening Standard. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  7. ^ Mughal, Fiyaz. "The Neo-Conservative Speaker, Douglas Murray, Is Simply Wrong It Comes to British Muslims and Extremism". Huffington post. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  8. ^ Oudenampsen, Merijn (27 October 2020). "How US Neocons Inspired the Netherlands' New Radical Right". Jacobin. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Douglas Murray on immigration, Islam and identity". Standard. 4 May 2017.
  10. ^
    • Stewart, Blake (2020). "The Rise of Far-Right Civilizationism" (EPUB). Critical Sociology. 46 (7–8): 1207–1220. doi:10.1177/0896920519894051. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Acclaim for Murray’s thought has been widespread, and ranges from liberal French public intellectual Bernard Henri-Levy, who claimed him to be ‘one of the most important public intellectuals today’, to authoritarian anti-immigrant hardliners such as Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who went so far as to promote The Strange Death of Europe on his Facebook page in Spring 2018... Murray’s book [The Madness of Crowds] remodels a much older theory of so-called ‘cultural Marxism’, which has long history in far-right thought.
    • Kundnani, Arun (2012). "Blind spot? Security narratives and far-right violence". Security and Human Rights. 23 (2): 129–146. doi:10.1163/18750230-99900008. Retrieved 2 January 2021. in January 2011, Douglas Murray, the associate director of the Henry Jackson Society, which influences the government on national security policy, stated that, in relation to the EDL: ‘If you were ever going to have a grassroots response from non-Muslims to Islamism, that would be how you’d want it, surely.’ … these statements suggest that ‘counterjihadist’ ideologies, through reworking far-right ideology and appropriating official discourse, are able to evade categorisation as a source of far-right violence.
    • Lux, Julia; David Jordan, John (2019). "Alt-Right 'cultural purity' ideology and mainstream social policy discourse - Towards a political anthropology of 'mainstremeist' ideology". In Elke, Heins; James, Rees (eds.). Social Policy Review 31: Analysis and Debate in Social Policy, 2019. Policy Press. ISBN 978-1-4473-4400-1. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Media pundit, journalist, and conspiracy entrepreneur Douglas Murray is a prime example of illustrating the influence of an ‘organic intellectual’. Murray has written passionately in support of British fascist Tommy Robinson (Murray, 2018) and describes Islam as an “opportunistic infection” (Hasan, 2013) linked to the “strange death of Europe” (Murray, 2017a). Murray’s ideas are not only entangled with the far-right (working class or otherwise), but with wider social connections.
    • Busher, Joel (2013). "Grassroots activism in the English Defence League: Discourse and public (dis) order". In Taylor, Max; Holbrook, Donald (eds.). Extreme Right Wing Political Violence and Terrorism. A&C Black. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-4411-4087-6. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Popular commentators and public figures among the [EDL] activists that I have met include Geert Wilders, Robert Spencer, Melanie Philips, Andrew Gilligan, Douglas Murray, Pat Condell, and some of the commentators who contribute to forums like Alan Lake’s Four Freedoms website.
    • Bloomfield, Jon (2020). "Progressive Politics in a Changing World: Challenging the Fallacies of Blue Labour". The Political Quarterly. 91 (1): 89–97. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.12770. Retrieved 2 January 2021. In the post‐Enoch Powell era, the UK has evolved a broad, cross‐party consensus that maintains that British citizenship and identity is not defined ethnically. The white nationalist right like Roger Scruton and Douglas Murray reject that.
  11. ^
  12. ^ Murray and the Eurabia conspiracy theory:
    • Pertwee, Ed (2020). "Donald Trump, the anti-Muslim far right and the new conservative revolution". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 43 (16): 211–230. doi:10.1080/01419870.2020.1749688. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Ye’Or’s Eurabia: the Euro-Arab Axis (2005) is the canonical work of the genre (Bangstad 2013; Larsson 2012), but extemporizations on her basic theme can be found in the work of many conservative writers during the late 2000s and 2010s, such as Melanie Phillips, Mark Steyn, Bruce Bawer, Christopher Caldwell, Douglas Murray and, more recently, Alt-Right-linked figures such as Lauren Southern and Raheem Kassam. The conclusive differentiator between counter-jihadist and more mainstream conservative laments about Western decline is the former’s decidedly conspiratorial framing...
    • Yörükoğlu, Ilgın (2 July 2020). "We Have Never Been Coherent: Integration, Sexual Tolerance, Security". Acts of Belonging in Modern Societies (E-Book). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. pp. 27–51. ISBN 978-3-030-45172-1. Retrieved 6 January 2021. It is not only far-right political parties and “alt-right” blogs that are fueling the fire of xenophobia. In our century, be it the Financial Times columnist Christopher Caldwell’s Reflections on a Revolution in Europe (2009) that recapitulates the idea of a slow-moving Muslim barbarian invasion, along with the Muslim “disorder, penury and crime”, or the works by Douglas Murray and Thilo Sarrazin (which I mention below), a number of European and American best sellers have supplied the emotional force to the Eurabia conspiracy in particular and the alt-right in general.
  13. ^ Murray and the Great Replacement conspiracy theory:
    • Ramakrishna, Kumar (2020). "The White Supremacist Terrorist Threat to Asia". Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. 12 (4). doi:10.2307/26918075. Retrieved 7 January 2021. This Great Replacement motif articulated by Murray, Camus and other prominent conservative intellectuals has been weaponised as a rallying cry for white supremacists around the world, including Robert Bowers, who killed 11 worshippers at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October 2018 and Tarrant, the Christchurch attacker, whose own manifesto posted online is called “The Great Replacement”.
  14. ^ Murray and the Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory:
    • Stewart, Blake (2020). "The Rise of Far-Right Civilizationism" (EPUB). Critical Sociology. 46 (7–8): 1207–1220. doi:10.1177/0896920519894051. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Acclaim for Murray’s thought has been widespread, and ranges from liberal French public intellectual Bernard Henri-Levy, who claimed him to be ‘one of the most important public intellectuals today’, to authoritarian anti-immigrant hardliners such as Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who went so far as to promote The Strange Death of Europe on his Facebook page in Spring 2018... Murray’s book [The Madness of Crowds] remodels a much older theory of so-called ‘cultural Marxism’, which has long history in far-right thought.
  15. ^ Murray described as Islamophobic: Murray described as 'Islamophobic': Murray listed as a right-wing Islamophobe:
    • Chambers, Stuart (22 January 2021). "Islamophobia in western media is based on false premises". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021. The rhetoric of Canadian conservative author Mark Steyn is typical of right-wing Islamophobia. For instance, Steyn claims that “most Muslims either wish or are indifferent to the death of the societies in which they live.” Likewise, Dutch politician and right-wing populist Geert Wilders refers to the Qur’an as “a source of inspiration for, and justification of, hatred, violence and terrorism in the world, Europe and America.” British conservative political commentator Douglas Murray suggests that to reduce terrorism, the United Kingdom requires “a bit less Islam.”
  16. ^ Kaufmann, Eric. "The Madness of Crowds by Douglas Murray — slay the dragon, then stop". Financial Times.
  17. ^ a b c d e Holloway, Richard (7 May 2017). "Sunday Morning With..." BBC Radio Scotland.
  18. ^ "4 Douglas Murray". The Scotsman. 9 November 2003. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  19. ^ "ACTIVITIES BULLETIN 6" (PDF). Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2009.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  20. ^ "Education Supplements: Chance of a lifetime – Douglas Murray". spectator.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  21. ^ a b Smith, Dinitia (18 July 2000). "Article". New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  22. ^ "Pass Notes: Douglas Murray". The Guardian. London. 8 June 2000. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  23. ^ Hitchens, Christopher (30 August 2006). "Christopher Hitchens: Young Brit defends American people, politics and policies". washingtonexaminer.com/. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
  24. ^ Cerna, Antonio Gonzalez (10 July 2001). "13th Annual Lambda Literary Awards". Lambda Literary. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  25. ^ a b c Daniel Freedman (17 August 2006). "Mugged by Reality". New York Sun. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  26. ^ Taheri, Amir. "Neoconservatism: Why We Need It". Asharq al-Awsat. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Towards a Grand Strategy for an Uncertain World: Renewing Transatlantic Partnership" (PDF). Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  28. ^ "The 2011 – 2012 Prize | Christopher Ewart-Biggs Memorial Prize for advancing peace and understanding on the island of Ireland". Ewartbiggsprize.org.uk. 30 January 1972. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  29. ^ Fowler, Jack (10 June 2013). "Islamophilia". National Review. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  30. ^ Liddle, Rod. "The Strange Death of Europe". Jewish Book Week.
  31. ^ a b Murray, Douglas (2017). The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam (1 ed.). London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. ISBN 9781472942241.
  32. ^ Murray, Douglas (2017). The Strange Death of Europe. London: Bloosmbury. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9781472942241.
  33. ^ Samuel, Juliet (6 May 2017). "Yanis Varoufakis and Douglas Murray: why Europe is weary". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  34. ^ Geron Pilon, Juliana (2017). "The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam/The End of Europe: Dictators, Demagogues, and the Coming Dark Age". Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs. 11 (2): 255–260. doi:10.1080/23739770.2017.1375282. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  35. ^ Liddle, Rod (7 May 2017). "Books: The Strange Death of Europe by Douglas Murray". ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  36. ^ a b c Mishra, Pankaj (14 September 2017). "How the New Immigration Is Shaking Old Europe to Its Core". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  37. ^ Hussain, Murtaza (25 December 2018). "THE FAR RIGHT IS OBSESSED WITH A BOOK ABOUT MUSLIMS DESTROYING EUROPE. HERE'S WHAT IT GETS WRONG". The Intercept. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  38. ^ Almond, Ian (11 August 2017). "Misrecognising the problem: Douglas Murray's The Strange Death of Europe". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  39. ^ "The British Book Awards 2020".
  40. ^ Battle of Ideas. "Douglas Murray author, The Madness of Crowds: gender, race and identity; journalist; columnist; associate editor, Spectator". Battle of Ideas. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  41. ^ Murray, Douglas (2019). The Madness of Crowds: Gender, Identity, Morality. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. ISBN 9781635579987.
  42. ^ Goodwin, Matthew (22 September 2019). "The Madness of Crowds by Douglas Murray review — identity politics attacked". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  43. ^ Shriver, Lionel (19 September 2019). "The Madness of Crowds by Douglas Murray review — why identity politics has gone too far". The Times. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  44. ^ Kearns, Madeleine (6 September 2018). "Douglas Murray Interview: 'The Madness of Crowds' Author on Gender, Race & Identity". National Review. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  45. ^ Stanley, Tim (27 September 2019). "The Madness of Crowds by Douglas Murray, review: unleashing a liberal dose of outrage". Telegraph. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  46. ^ "The Madness of Crowds by Douglas Murray". London Evening Standard (review). 19 September 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  47. ^ Davies, William (2019). "The Madness of Crowds by Douglas Murray review – a rightwing diatribe". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  48. ^ Murray, Douglas (18 April 2016). "Introducing 'The President Erdogan Offensive Poetry Competition'". The Spectator.
  49. ^ "'Insult Turkey's Erdogan' contest set up by Spectator magazine". 19 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  50. ^ Murray, Douglas (23 April 2016). "Send us your entries for our 'President Erdogan Insulting Poetry Competition'". The Spectator.
  51. ^ "2017 Journalism Prize Longlist". The Orwell Prize. Institute of Advanced Studies. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  52. ^ "Orwell Prize 2012 Longlists Announced". The Orwell Prize. Institute of Advanced Studies. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
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  93. ^ Academic sources:
    • Stewart, Blake (2020). "The Rise of Far-Right Civilizationism" (EPUB). Critical Sociology. 46 (7–8): 1207–1220. doi:10.1177/0896920519894051. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Acclaim for Murray’s thought has been widespread, and ranges from liberal French public intellectual Bernard Henri-Levy, who claimed him to be ‘one of the most important public intellectuals today’, to authoritarian anti-immigrant hardliners such as Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who went so far as to promote The Strange Death of Europe on his Facebook page in Spring 2018... Murray’s book [The Madness of Crowds] remodels a much older theory of so-called ‘cultural Marxism’, which has long history in far-right thought.
    • Kundnani, Arun (2012). "Blind spot? Security narratives and far-right violence". Security and Human Rights. 23 (2): 129–146. doi:10.1163/18750230-99900008. Retrieved 2 January 2021. in January 2011, Douglas Murray, … stated that, in relation to the EDL: ‘If you were ever going to have a grassroots response from non-Muslims to Islamism, that would be how you’d want it, surely.’ Both these statements suggest that ‘counterjihadist’ ideologies, through reworking far-right ideology and appropriating official discourse, are able to evade categorisation as a source of far-right violence.
    • Lux, Julia; David Jordan, John (2019). "Alt-Right 'cultural purity' ideology and mainstream social policy discourse - Towards a political anthropology of 'mainstremeist' ideology". In Elke, Heins; James, Rees (eds.). Social Policy Review 31: Analysis and Debate in Social Policy, 2019. Policy Press. ISBN 978-1-4473-4400-1. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Media pundit, journalist, and conspiracy entrepreneur Douglas Murray is a prime example of illustrating the influence of an ‘organic intellectual’. Murray has written passionately in support of British fascist Tommy Robinson (Murray, 2018) and describes Islam as an “opportunistic infection” (Hasan, 2013) linked to the “strange death of Europe” (Murray, 2017a). Murray’s ideas are not only entangled with the far-right (working class or otherwise), but with wider social connections.
    • Busher, Joel (2013). "Grassroots activism in the English Defence League: Discourse and public (dis) order". In Taylor, Max; Holbrook, Donald (eds.). Extreme Right Wing Political Violence and Terrorism. A&C Black. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-4411-4087-6. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Popular commentators and public figures among the [EDL] activists that I have met include Geert Wilders, Robert Spencer, Melanie Philips, Andrew Gilligan, Douglas Murray, Pat Condell, and some of the commentators who contribute to forums like Alan Lake’s Four Freedoms website.
  94. ^ Journalistic sources:
    • Kotch, Alex (27 December 2018). "Who funds PragerU's anti-Muslim content?". Sludge. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020. “Europe is committing suicide,” says British author Douglas Murray in a video published by the far-right educational nonprofit Prager University. The cause? “The mass movement of peoples into Europe…from the Middle East, North Africa and East Asia” who allegedly made Europe lose faith in its beliefs and traditions
    • Ahmed, Nafeez (9 March 2015). "White supremacists at the heart of Whitehall". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2021. Murray’s screed against the free speech of those asking questions about the intelligence services is ironic given that in a separate Wall Street Journal comment, he laments that the attacks in Paris and Copenhagen prove the West is losing the war on “free speech” being waged by Islamists. But Murray’s concerns about free speech are really just a ploy for far-right entryism.
    • Hussain, Murtaza (25 December 2018). "THE FAR RIGHT IS OBSESSED WITH A BOOK ABOUT MUSLIMS DESTROYING EUROPE. HERE'S WHAT IT GETS WRONG". The Intercept. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  95. ^ Murray and the Eurabia conspiracy theory:
    • Pertwee, Ed (2020). "Donald Trump, the anti-Muslim far right and the new conservative revolution". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 43 (16): 211–230. doi:10.1080/01419870.2020.1749688. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Ye’Or’s Eurabia: the Euro-Arab Axis (2005) is the canonical work of the genre (Bangstad 2013; Larsson 2012), but extemporizations on her basic theme can be found in the work of many conservative writers during the late 2000s and 2010s, such as Melanie Phillips, Mark Steyn, Bruce Bawer, Christopher Caldwell, Douglas Murray and, more recently, Alt-Right-linked figures such as Lauren Southern and Raheem Kassam. The conclusive differentiator between counter-jihadist and more mainstream conservative laments about Western decline is the former’s decidedly conspiratorial framing...
    • Yörükoğlu, Ilgın (2 July 2020). "We Have Never Been Coherent: Integration, Sexual Tolerance, Security". Acts of Belonging in Modern Societies (E-Book). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. pp. 27–51. ISBN 978-3-030-45172-1. Retrieved 6 January 2021. It is not only far-right political parties and “alt-right” blogs that are fueling the fire of xenophobia. In our century, be it the Financial Times columnist Christopher Caldwell’s Reflections on a Revolution in Europe (2009) that recapitulates the idea of a slow-moving Muslim barbarian invasion, along with the Muslim “disorder, penury and crime”, or the works by Douglas Murray and Thilo Sarrazin (which I mention below), a number of European and American best sellers have supplied the emotional force to the Eurabia conspiracy in particular and the alt-right in general.
  96. ^
    • Halper, Evan (23 August 2019). "How a Los Angeles-based conservative became one of the internet's biggest sensations". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021. Prager says he disavows the alt-right ideology that has gained ground in the Trump era, but the online lessons often echo some of the movement’s talking points. A video of Dinesh D’Souza, the right-wing author, opining on why Western cultures are superior to others has been viewed 4.7 million times, for example. Another, featuring Douglas Murray, the British author of several books about Europe and immigration, laments that North African and Middle Eastern immigrants have been permitted to destroy European culture by refusing to assimilate. It has 6.7 million views
    • Yörükoğlu, Ilgın (2 July 2020). "We Have Never Been Coherent: Integration, Sexual Tolerance, Security". Acts of Belonging in Modern Societies (E-Book). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. pp. 27–51. ISBN 978-3-030-45172-1. Retrieved 6 January 2021. It is not only far-right political parties and “alt-right” blogs that are fueling the fire of xenophobia. In our century, be it the Financial Times columnist Christopher Caldwell’s Reflections on a Revolution in Europe (2009) that recapitulates the idea of a slow-moving Muslim barbarian invasion, along with the Muslim “disorder, penury and crime”, or the works by Douglas Murray and Thilo Sarrazin (which I mention below), a number of European and American best sellers have supplied the emotional force to the Eurabia conspiracy in particular and the alt-right in general.
  97. ^ Bloomfield, Jon (2020). "Progressive Politics in a Changing World: Challenging the Fallacies of Blue Labour". The Political Quarterly. 91 (1): 89–97. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.12770. Retrieved 2 January 2021. In the post‐Enoch Powell era, the UK has evolved a broad, cross‐party consensus that maintains that British citizenship and identity is not defined ethnically. The white nationalist right like Roger Scruton and Douglas Murray reject that.
  98. ^ Murray described as Islamophobic: Murray described as 'Islamophobic':
  99. ^ Ahmed, Nafeez (9 March 2015). "White supremacists at the heart of Whitehall". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2021. Murray’s screed against the free speech of those asking questions about the intelligence services is ironic given that in a separate Wall Street Journal comment, he laments that the attacks in Paris and Copenhagen prove the West is losing the war on “free speech” being waged by Islamists. But Murray’s concerns about free speech are really just a ploy for far-right entryism.
  100. ^ Hinsliff, Gabby (6 May 2017). "The Strange Death of Europe by Douglas Murray review – gentrified xenophobia". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  101. ^ Kundnani, Arun (2012). "Blind spot? Security narratives and far-right violence". Security and Human Rights. 23 (2): 129–146. doi:10.1163/18750230-99900008. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  102. ^ Lux, Julia; David Jordan, John (2019). "Alt-Right 'cultural purity' ideology and mainstream social policy discourse - Towards a political anthropology of 'mainstremeist' ideology". In Elke, Heins; James, Rees (eds.). Social Policy Review 31: Analysis and Debate in Social Policy, 2019. Policy Press. ISBN 978-1-4473-4400-1. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Media pundit, journalist, and conspiracy entrepreneur Douglas Murray is a prime example of illustrating the influence of an ‘organic intellectual’. Murray has written passionately in support of British fascist Tommy Robinson (Murray, 2018) and describes Islam as an “opportunistic infection” (Hasan, 2013) linked to the “strange death of Europe” (Murray, 2017a). Murray’s ideas are not only entangled with the far-right (working class or otherwise), but with wider social connections.
  103. ^ Pertwee, Ed (2020). "Donald Trump, the anti-Muslim far right and the new conservative revolution". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 43 (16): 211–230. doi:10.1080/01419870.2020.1749688. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  104. ^ Yörükoğlu, Ilgın (2 July 2020). "We Have Never Been Coherent: Integration, Sexual Tolerance, Security". Acts of Belonging in Modern Societies (E-Book). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. pp. 27–51. ISBN 978-3-030-45172-1. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  105. ^ Ramakrishna, Kumar (2020). "The White Supremacist Terrorist Threat to Asia". Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. 12 (4). doi:10.2307/26918075. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  106. ^ Stewart, Blake (2020). "The Rise of Far-Right Civilizationism" (EPUB). Critical Sociology. 46 (7–8): 1207–1220. doi:10.1177/0896920519894051. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
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  110. ^ Murray, Douglas (15 August 2019). "War of Words". The Spectator. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  111. ^ Murray, Douglas (29 December 2008). "Studying Islam has made me an atheist". The Spectator.
  112. ^ Harris, Samuel 'Sam' (22 November 2015). "On the Maintenance of Civilization". Podcast.
  113. ^ "This House Believes Religion Has No Place In The 21st Century". The Cambridge Union Society. 31 January 2013.
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  115. ^ Law, Katie (4 May 2017) "Douglas Murray on immigration, Islam and identity", Evening Standard.

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