Downtown Dallas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dallas Central Business District
Central business district and residential area
Downtown Dallas
Skyline of Downtown Dallas seen from Reunion Tower
Skyline of Downtown Dallas seen from Reunion Tower
Big "D"
Location in Dallas
Location in Dallas
Country United States
State Texas
Counties Dallas
City Dallas
 • Total3.63 km2 (1.4 sq mi)
 • Land3.63 km2 (1.4 sq mi)
 • Water0 km2 (0 sq mi)  0%
130 m (440 ft)
 • Total10,766
 • Density2,966/km2 (7,690/sq mi)
ZIP code
75201, 75202, 75270
Area codes214, 469, 972

Downtown Dallas is the central business district (CBD) of Dallas, Texas, United States, located in the geographic center of the city. It is the second-largest business district in the state of Texas. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop, bounded on the east by I-345 (although known and signed as the northern terminus of I-45 and the southern terminus of US 75 (Central Expressway), on the west by I-35E, on the south by I-30, and on the north by Woodall Rodgers Freeway.

The strong organic growth of Downtown Dallas since the early 2000s and continuing into the present has now resulted in Downtown Dallas, Inc.'s expansion of the term "Downtown" to include the explosive growth occurring immediately north of the Woodall Rodgers Freeway in the Victory Park and Uptown/Turtle Creek Districts, as well as past Central Expressway to the east in the Deep Ellum and Bryan Place Districts, past Interstate 30 to the south with the Cedars District, and jumping over Interstate 35E to the west to include the Design District and Lower Oak Lawn. In total, 15 districts now form "Downtown".[1]

Downtown Dallas is now viewed as an interconnected grouping of dense and urban center city districts, that while unique in their own right, also share strong urban linkages to each other and collectively participate in their role as Downtown Dallas.[2]


Downtown Dallas achieved notoriety on November 22, 1963, with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Both President Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally (who survived) were shot as their motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in what is now the West End Historic District. Part of the former Texas School Book Depository is now the Sixth Floor Museum, with exhibits about Kennedy and the assassination. Nearby is the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial.

The building boom of the 1970s and 1980s produced a distinctive contemporary profile for the downtown skyline influenced by nationally prominent architects. At the same time, the establishment of the West End Historic District in the 1980s preserved a very large group of late 19th-century brick warehouses that have been adapted for use as restaurants and shops.

With the construction of the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts in the Arts District of Downtown, Dallas will be the only city in the world that has four buildings within one contiguous block designed by four separate and distinguished Pritzker Architecture Prize winners.

Downtown Dallas has also gained more recent national attention for the 2016 shooting of police officers and the 2019 courthouse shooting.


The area has been undergoing a transition as dozens of residential conversions and new high-rise condominiums bringing more permanent residents to the downtown area. (See: North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG).[3]) As of 2017, an estimated 10,766 residents lived within the area.[4] Its redeveloped Main Street has recently become more of a place for Dallasites to play after several restaurants, hotels, and residential towers opened their doors along the strip. Downtown's growth can partially be attributed to Dallas Area Rapid Transit's four light rail lines and one commuter line Trinity Railway Express that run through Downtown and an aggressive stance taken by the city to drive development at all costs. The city has invested $160 million of public funds in Downtown Dallas for residential development that attracted $650 million of private investment.[5]

Downtown Dallas as seen from Lake Cliff in Oak Cliff

Two of the first new-construction office building projects downtown in over 20 years broke ground in 2005—One Arts Plaza, a 24-story mixed-use office, retail, residential development in the Arts District, which is the new home of 7-Eleven's world headquarters; and the vibrant, 17-story Hunt Consolidated office building, with its spectacular, state-of-the-art LED exterior lighting, which is the national headquarters for and fully occupied by Hunt Oil. Additionally, the $200 million, 42-story Museum Tower residential skyscraper in the Downtown Dallas Arts District was completed in 2013.

Downtown Dallas seen across from the Trinity River from the Flood of 2015.

Importantly, the Trinity River Corridor is poised to undergo a significant transformation (the Trinity River Project) into a giant urban park. The park is expected to include an equestrian center, lakes, trails, and three bridges designed by Santiago Calatrava. Funding over the years, however, has been a constant problem, though serious work on the project now appears imminent, with the first two bridges having received significant private backing.[citation needed]

Downtown Dallas in 2016
Central Business District Population, Household, and Employment Projections
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Population 14,654 20,646 29,446 33,139 39,781 47,098 59,337
Households 1,122 3,318 6,015 7,029 7,868 8,611 9,340
Employment 130,473 135,148 138,224 140,961 149,936 155,966 160,733


Dallas skyline from the West Village neighborhood
Stone Street Gardens is a landscaped oasis lined with bistros, pubs, and restaurants connecting Main Street to Elm Street in Downtown Dallas

Downtown Dallas has undergone a series of important changes that city officials believe will drastically improve the city's core. These changes are located in four downtown areas: Victory Park, the Arts District, the Trinity River, and the Convention Center corridor.

Victory Park, named one of the nation's most successful brownfield reclamation projects, is home to the American Airlines Center, built in 2001, and several new high-rise hotels, residential towers, and office buildings, including the 33-story "W Dallas Victory Hotel and Residences" (2006), the 28-story "Cirque" residential tower (2007), the 29-story "The House" residential tower (2008), and the 20-story "One Victory Park" office tower (2009), and near Victory Park the new "Perot Museum of Nature and Science", a $185 million, 14-story, ultra-modern addition to Downtown Dallas that opened in late 2012.

The Dallas Arts District, already one of the world's largest, recently completed the final stages of a massive 10-year construction project that resulted in a 2,300-seat opera house, a series of theaters, residential space, retail, parks, and a gleaming, 42-story residential tower known as Museum Tower that opened in 2013. One of the prominent attractions in the Arts District is the Dallas Museum of Art.

Of all the changes in downtown Dallas, the Trinity River corridor is undergoing the most dramatic. Currently, the river runs in an artificially straight line a large distance from any part of downtown, but Dallas is in the process of returning the river to its natural course, creating two large lakes to border the downtown area, and has commissioned two large cable-stayed bridges to be built across the river and new lakes. Dubbed the Trinity River Project by local officials, plans are also in place for improved levees to protect downtown from possible flooding.

Separated from Victory Park and the Arts District by the Downtown CBD is the Convention Center corridor, which hosts the over 2 million-ft2 Dallas Convention Center. The Omni Dallas Hotel is a new, 23-story, convention-center hotel that opened in 2011. Dallas hopes these changes will bring more permanent residents into the downtown area; as of the 2010 Census the downtown population has grown to 5,291 from the 1,000 citizens who lived in downtown at the end of the 20th century.

The City of Dallas, along with several nonprofit organizations, constructed a $110 million urban deck park over Woodall Rodgers Freeway to create a physically seamless Uptown/Downtown District; the urban deck park opened in 2012. The 5.2-acre urban green space, named the Klyde Warren Park, further strengthens the existing synergy between the Uptown real estate market and the booming development occurring in the Downtown Dallas Arts District, which together help further the continuing growth and redevelopment of Downtown Dallas. The park is often called an "urban oasis" due to its unique location and features.

Major employers[edit]

AT&T is headquartered at the Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas; AT&T moved to Dallas from San Antonio in 2008. Mayor of Dallas Tom Leppert said in 2008 that he hoped that AT&T would stay in the central city.[6] Comerica is headquartered in the Comerica Bank Tower.[7][8] TM Advertising has its headquarters in the same building.[9] Tenet Healthcare is headquartered in the Fountain Place building in Downtown Dallas. The company announced in 2008 that it was moving from the northern suburban areas of Dallas to Fountain Place due to high gasoline prices and the revitalization of Downtown Dallas.[10]

Belo and A. H. Belo have their headquarters in the Belo Building.[11][12] 7-Eleven has its corporate headquarters in the One Arts Plaza building.[13] Energy Future Holdings Corporation has its headquarters in the Energy Plaza complex.[14] Greyhound Lines is located at 350 North St. Paul Street.[15] The Dallas Morning News has its headquarters in Downtown.[16] Neiman Marcus has its headquarters in One Neiman Square in Downtown.[17] The Trammell Crow Company has its headquarters in the Trammell Crow Center.[18] The KPMG Centre in Downtown Dallas has the Dallas offices of KPMG and Sidley Austin.[19][20] Which Wich? has its headquarters in Downtown Dallas.[21] Deloitte has its offices in the JPMorgan Chase Tower.[22] Visitdallas, the 501(c)(6) contracted by the City of Dallas to increase tourism and attract conventions, is headquartered in downtown Dallas.[23]


Within Loop[edit]

Outside Loop[edit]

Tallest structures[edit]

  1. Bank of America Plaza - 921 feet (281 m)
  2. Renaissance Tower - 886 feet (270 m)
  3. Comerica Bank Tower - 787 feet (240 m)
  4. JPMorgan Chase Tower - 738 feet (225 m)
  5. Fountain Place - 720 feet (219 m)
  6. Trammell Crow Center 686 ft (209 m)
  7. 1700 Pacific 655 ft (200 m)
  8. Thanksgiving Tower 645 ft (197 m)
  9. Energy Plasa 629 ft (192 mt)
  10. The Drever 628 ft (191 mt)


Looking south down Market in the West End Historic District

Downtown Dallas is surrounded by a major highway loop composed of, from the north and clockwise, Spur 366 (Woodall Rodgers Freeway), unsigned Interstate 345 (connecting U.S. Highway 75 (Central Expressway) to the north and Interstate 45 to the south), Interstate 30, and Interstate 35E. The loop is the center of Dallas's hub-and-spoke highway system, which can be likened to a wagon wheel. U.S. Highway 67 is carried through downtown on Interstate 35E to the south and Interstate 30 to the east, and U.S. Highway 175 and the Dallas North Tollway join with other major highways within a mile of downtown.

Downtown is the center of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) light-rail system. The Blue and Red light-rail lines run through, from south to north, Convention Center, Union, West End, Akard, St Paul, and Pearl stations. The Trinity Railway Express commuter train, which connects Downtown Fort Worth with Downtown Dallas, terminates at Union Station. Union Station also has Amtrak service, with trains connecting to Chicago and Los Angeles.

The McKinney Avenue Transit Authority operates the M-Line, a free trolley service that runs down St. Paul Street from Uptown and terminates at Ross Avenue. North from downtown, it travels to McKinney Avenue from St. Paul, runs through the LoMac neighborhood, and finally loops around the West Village along Blackburn and Cole Avenues. A spur adjacent to the West Village runs to Cityplace Station.[24]

Greyhound Lines operates a terminal at 205 South Lamar Street.[25] DART operates the West and East Transfer Centers as hubs for its public bus system.[26] The Denton County Transportation Authority operates an express commuter bus route that serves two stops in Denton, one stop in Lewisville, and another that makes two stops, one in Denton and another in Carrollton.

The Dallas Pedestrian Network is a system of grade-separated walkways covering 36 city blocks under Downtown Dallas. The system connects buildings, garages, and parks through tunnels and above-ground skybridges. The network contains an underground city of shops, restaurants, and offices during weekday business hours.

The Dallas CBD Vertiport, located at the south end of the Convention Center, is claimed to be the world's largest elevated heliport/vertiport.[27] The facility has two 60 x 60 ft. (18 x 18 m) concrete helipads[28] and 169,000 square feet (15,700 m2) of flight deck, and is capable of handling tiltrotor aircraft such as the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey.[27]


D Magazine, Dallas Morning News, WFAA, and KDFW are headquartered in Downtown.[29]

Government and infrastructure[edit]

Dallas City Hall

Dallas City Hall is located in Downtown Dallas.

The Texas Fifth District Court of Appeals is located in the George L. Allen, Sr. Courts Building in Downtown Dallas.[30]

The United States Postal Service operates the Downtown Dallas Post Office at 400 North Ervay Street.[31]

J. Erik Jonsson Central Library.

J. Erik Jonsson Central Library, the largest and main library of the Dallas Public Library system, is located downtown.


Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Downtown Dallas is served by the Dallas Independent School District.[32]

Three schools: Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, Dr. Wright L. Lassiter Jr. Early College High School at El Centro College, and the Pegasus School of Liberal Arts and Sciences are located downtown. The Pegasus Complex is also in downtown.

The neighborhood schools for Downtown are outside of the loop. Almost all of Downtown (inside the loop) is zoned to Ben Milam Elementary School,[33] with a small section zoned to Ignacio Zaragoza Elementary School.[34] All residents of Downtown (inside the loop) are zoned to Alex W. Spence Middle School and North Dallas High School.[35][36]

City Park Elementary School in Cedars served southern parts of Downtown until it closed in 2012.[37][38] Other elementary schools that formerly served Downtown include Martin Luther King Jr.,[38] Sam Houston,[39] and Esperanza "Hope" Medrano.[40] Middle schools formerly serving sections include Billy Earl Dade and Thomas J. Rusk.[41][42] James Madison High School formerly served parts of Downtown.[43]

Luna Academy, a K-3, 6 charter school of Uplift Education, is in Downtown Dallas.[44] It used to be called Laureate, but there were other schools with the name and if they did not change it they would have been sued.[citation needed]

Private school[edit]

First Baptist Academy of Dallas Downtown Campus

Residents are also served by First Baptist Academy of Dallas, a college preparatory Pre-K through 12 school located in the city center district of downtown Dallas. Holy Trinity Catholic School is a nearby centrally located private school providing early education to three-year-olds through eighth grade.[45] It is supported by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas.

Colleges and universities[edit]

El Centro College

El Centro College of the Dallas College is in downtown.

The University of North Texas, located 40 miles (64 km) to the northwest in Denton, opened a law school downtown.[46]

The University of Texas at Arlington, Texas A&M University-Commerce, and University of North Texas offer degree programs at the Universities Center at Dallas located in downtown.[47]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Pacific Plaza, a park on 3.7 acres (1.5 ha), opened in 2019. The organization Parks for Downtown Dallas provided the funds for it. Sharon Grigsby of The Dallas Morning News stated that the park replaced a "no-man's land".[48] A grand opening ceremony was held on Monday October 14, 2019.[49]


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  2. ^ "Downtown Dallas 15 Distinct Districts". Downtown Dallas Inc. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  3. ^ Downtown Dallas Population Forecasts Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Downtown Dallas Demographics & Statistics — Employment, Education, Income Averages in Downtown Dallas — Point2 Homes". Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  5. ^ "What to expect this time next year from the $160 million redevelopment of RedBird". Dallas News. June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  6. ^ Godinez, Victor and David McLemore. "AT&T moving headquarters to Dallas from San Antonio Archived 2009-06-26 at the Wayback Machine." The Dallas Morning News. Saturday June 28, 2008. Retrieved on June 18, 2009.
  7. ^ "Contact Us Archived April 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Comerica. Retrieved on April 19, 2009.
  8. ^ "Comerica to move headquarters to Dallas from Detroit." Northwestern Financial Review. April 1–14, 2007. Retrieved on April 17, 2009.
  9. ^ Hethcock, Bill. "Large ad agency cites area's vibrancy in decision to return." Dallas Business Journal. December 9, 2007. p. 2. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  10. ^ Brown, Steve. "Tenet Healthcare moving to downtown Dallas' Fountain Place." The Dallas Morning News. Friday August 8, 2008. Retrieved on December 8, 2009.
  11. ^ "Contact Us Archived 2010-03-09 at the Wayback Machine." Belo Corporation. Retrieved on November 21, 2009.
  12. ^ "Contact Us Archived 2010-02-06 at the Wayback Machine." A. H. Belo. Retrieved on November 21, 2009.
  13. ^ "7-Eleven, Inc. Announces Aggressive Growth Plans Throughout SoCal Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." 7-Eleven. Retrieved on November 15, 2009.
  14. ^ "Contact Archived December 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Energy Future Holdings Corporation. Retrieved on November 13, 2009.
  15. ^ "Route Map Archived April 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on May 4, 2009.
  16. ^ "Contact Us." The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved on November 21, 2009.
  17. ^ "Company Information." Neiman Marcus. Retrieved on December 7, 2009.
  18. ^ "Contact Us Archived 2010-04-09 at the Wayback Machine." Trammell Crow. Retrieved on December 16, 2009.
  19. ^ "Offices." KPMG. Retrieved on December 17, 2009.
  20. ^ "Dallas Archived December 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." Sidley Austin. Retrieved on December 17, 2009.
  21. ^ "Which Wich? Headquarters." (Go to Contact) Which Wich? Retrieved on February 25, 2010.
  22. ^ "Deloitte LLP Corporate Office Consolidation & Expansion in Downtown Dallas Archived 2010-01-14 at the Wayback Machine." City of Dallas. October 5, 2009. 6. Retrieved on January 15, 2010.
  23. ^ "Audit of VisitDallas" (PDF). City of Dallas. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  24. ^ - M-Line Service. Retrieved 18 September 2006.
  25. ^ "Dallas, Texas Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on May 4, 2009.
  26. ^ - Locations : Dallas, Texas[permanent dead link]. Retrieved September 18, 2006.
  27. ^ a b "Dallas Executive Airport - Dallas CBD Heliport/Vertiport". Dallas Executive Airport. July 15, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  28. ^ FAA Airport Form 5010 for 49T PDF. Federal Aviation Administration. Effective 26 April 2018.
  29. ^ Home page. D Magazine. Retrieved on May 30, 2014. "750 N St Paul St Ste 2100 Dallas, TX 75201"
  30. ^ "About the Texas Fifth District Court of Appeals Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Fifth District Court of Appeals. Retrieved on March 9, 2010.
  31. ^ "Post Office Location - DOWNTOWN DALLAS." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 4, 2008.
  32. ^ "Downtown Improvement District (DID) Archived April 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine." City of Dallas Economic Development. Retrieved on November 19, 2011.
  33. ^ "2016-17 Ben Milam Elementary Attendance Zone Grades PK-5." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on April 26, 2017.
  34. ^ "2016-17 Ignacio Zaragoza Elementary Attendance Zone Grades PK-5." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on April 26, 2017.
  35. ^ "Alex W. Spence Talented and Gifted Academy Attendance Zone Attendance Zone Grades 6-8." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on April 26, 2017.
  36. ^ "North Dallas High School Attendance Zone Grades 9-12 Archived 2017-04-27 at the Wayback Machine." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on April 26, 2017.
  37. ^ "Fall 2011 City Park Elementary Attendance Zone Grades PK-5." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on April 26, 2017.
  38. ^ a b "2012-13 Martin Luther King Jr. Learning Center Attendance Zone." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on April 26, 2017.
  39. ^ "Fall 2011 Sam Houston Elementary Attendance Zone Grades PK-5." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on September 6, 2011.
  40. ^ "Fall 2011 Esperanza "Hope" Medrano Elementary Attendance Zone Grades PK-5." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on September 6, 2011.
  41. ^ "Fall 2011 Billy Earl Dade Middle School Attendance Zone Grades 6-8." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on September 6, 2011.
  42. ^ "Fall 2011 Thomas J. Rusk Middle School Attendance Zone Grades 6-8." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on September 6, 2011.
  43. ^ "Fall 2011 James Madison High School Attendance Zone Grades 9-12." Dallas Independent School District. Retrieved on September 6, 2011.
  44. ^ "Luna Preparatory Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine." Uplift Education. Retrieved on September 6, 2011. "2020 N. Lamar Dallas, TX 75202"
  45. ^ Holy Trinity Catholic School
  46. ^ "University of North Texas Law School | About UNT Dallas College of Law". Archived from the original on August 9, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  47. ^ "UNT at Universities Center at Dallas | University of North Texas". Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  48. ^ Grigsby, Sharon (October 12, 2019). "A peek inside the newest green refuge in downtown Dallas as Pacific Plaza opens Monday". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  49. ^ Norimine, Hayat (October 15, 2019). "'We're not stopping': Dallas opens new downtown park to the public". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved October 16, 2019.

External links[edit]