Dowsing

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A dowser, from an 18th-century French book about superstitions

Dowsing is a type of divination employed in attempts to locate ground water, buried metals or ores, gemstones, oil, gravesites,[1] and many other objects and materials without the use of scientific apparatus. Dowsing is considered a pseudoscience, and there is no scientific evidence that it is any more effective than random chance.[2][3]

Dowsing is also known as divining (especially in reference to interpretation of results),[4] doodlebugging[5] (particularly in the United States, in searching for petroleum[6]) or (when searching specifically for water) water finding, water witching (in the United States) or water dowsing.

A Y-shaped twig or rod, or two L-shaped ones — individually called a dowsing rod, divining rod (Latin: virgula divina or baculus divinatorius), "vining rod", or witching rod — are sometimes used during dowsing, although some dowsers use other equipment or no equipment at all. Dowsing appears to have arisen in the context of Renaissance magic[citation needed] in Germany, and it remains popular among believers in Forteana[citation needed] or radiesthesia.[7][citation needed]

The motion of dowsing rods is now generally attributed to the ideomotor response.[8][9][10]

History[edit]

Dowsing for metal ore, from 1556 "De re metallica libri XII" book
Use of a divining Rod observed in Britain in the late 18th century
Curious Myths p 81 rod.jpg

Dowsing as practiced today may have originated in Germany during the 16th century, when it was used in attempts to find metals.

As early as 1518 Martin Luther listed dowsing for metals as an act that broke the first commandment (i.e., as occultism).[11] The 1550 edition of Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia contains a woodcut of a dowser with forked rod in hand walking over a cutaway image of a mining operation. The rod is labelled "Virgula Divina – Glück rüt" (Latin: divine rod; German "Wünschelrute": fortune rod or stick), but there is no text accompanying the woodcut. By 1556 Georgius Agricola's treatment of mining and smelting of ore, De Re Metallica, included a detailed description of dowsing for metal ore.[12]

...There are many great contentions between miners concerning the forked twig, for some say that it is of the greatest use in discovering veins, and others deny it. ... All alike grasp the forks of the twig with their hands, clenching their fists, it being necessary that the clenched fingers should be held toward the sky in order that the twig should be raised at that end where the two branches meet. Then they wander hither and thither at random through mountainous regions. It is said that the moment they place their feet on a vein the twig immediately turns and twists, and so by its action discloses the vein ; when they move their feet again and go away from that spot the twig becomes once more immobile. ...[13]

In the sixteenth century, German deep mining technology was in enormous demand all over Europe. German miners were licensed to live and work in Elizabethan England;[14] particularly in the Stannaries of Devon & Cornwall and in Cumbria. In other parts of England, the technique was used in Elizabeth's royal mines for calamine. By 1638 German miners were recorded using the technique in silver mines in Wales.[15]

The Middle Low German name for a forked stick (Y-rod) was schlag-ruthe [16] [17] (striking rod).[18] This was translated in the 16th century Cornish dialect to duschen [19] (duschan according to [18]) (Middle English, to strike or fall [20]).

In 1691 the philosopher John Locke, who was born in the West Country, used the term deusing-rod for the old Latin name virgula divina .[21] So, dowse is synonymous with strike, hence the phrases: to dowse/strike a light,[22] to dowse/strike a sail.[23]

In the lead-mining area of the Mendip Hills in Somerset in the 17th century the natural philosopher Robert Boyle, inspired by the writings of Agricola, watched a practitioner try to find "latent veins of metals". Boyle saw the hazel divining rod ("virgula divinatoria") stoop in the hands of the diviner, who protested that he was not applying any force to the twig; Boyle accepted the man's genuine belief but himself remained unconvinced.[24]

Although dowsing in search of water is considered an ancient practice by some, old texts about searching for water do not mention using the divining rod, and the first account of this practice was in 1568.[25] [26] Sir William F. Barrett wrote in his 1911 book Psychical Research that:

...in a recent admirable Life of St. Teresa of Spain, the following incident is narrated: Teresa in 1568 was offered the site for a convent to which there was only one objection, there was no water supply; happily, a Friar Antonio came up with a twig in his hand, stopped at a certain spot and appeared to be making the sign of the cross; but Teresa says, "Really I cannot be sure if it were the sign he made, at any rate he made some movement with the twig and then he said, ' Dig just here ' ; they dug, and lo ! a plentiful fount of water gushed forth, excellent for 'drinking, copious for washing, and it never ran dry.' " As the writer of this Life remarks : " Teresa, not having heard of dowsing, has no explanation for this event," and regarded it as a miracle. This, I believe, is the first historical reference to dowsing for water.[27][28]

In 1662, dowsing was declared to be "superstitious, or rather satanic" by a Jesuit, Gaspar Schott, though he later noted that he wasn't sure that the devil was always responsible for the movement of the rod.[29] In the South of France in the 17th century it was used in tracking criminals and heretics. Its abuse led to a decree of the inquisition in 1701, forbidding its employment for purposes of justice.[30]

An epigram by Samuel Sheppard, from Epigrams theological, philosophical, and romantick (1651) runs thus:

Virgula divina.
"Some Sorcerers do boast they have a Rod,
Gather'd with Vowes and Sacrifice,
And (borne about) will strangely nod
To hidden Treasure where it lies;
Mankind is (sure) that Rod divine,
For to the Wealthiest (ever) they incline."

Early attempts at an explanation of dowsing were based on the notion that the divining rod was physically affected by emanations from substances of interest. The following explanation is from William Pryce's 1778 Mineralogia Cornubiensis:

The corpuscles... that rise from the Minerals, entering the rod, determine it to bow down, in order to render it parallel to the vertical lines which the effluvia describe in their rise. In effect the Mineral particles seem to be emitted from the earth; now the Virgula [rod], being of a light porous wood, gives an easy passage to these particles, which are also very fine and subtle; the effluvia then driven forwards by those that follow them, and pressed at the same time by the atmosphere incumbent on them, are forced to enter the little interstices between the fibres of the wood, and by that effort they oblige it to incline, or dip down perpendicularly, to become parallel with the little columns which those vapours form in their rise.

A study towards the end of the nineteenth century concluded that the phenomenon was attributed to cryptesthesia, whereby the practitioner made unconscious observations of the terrain and involuntarily influenced the movement of the rod.[31]

Dowsing was conducted in South Dakota in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to help homesteaders, farmers, and ranchers locate water wells on their property.[32]

In the late 1960s during the Vietnam War, some United States Marines used dowsing to attempt to locate weapons and tunnels.[33] As late as in 1986, when 31 soldiers were taken by an avalanche during an operation in the NATO drill Anchor Express in Vassdalen, Norway, the Norwegian army attempted to locate soldiers buried in the avalanche using dowsing as a search method.[34]

Despite the scientific evidence, dowsing is still used by some farmers and by water engineers in the UK.[35][36][37][38][39]

Equipment[edit]

Y-Rods[edit]

1942: George Casely uses a hazel twig to attempt to find water on the land around his Devon farm

Traditionally, the most common dowsing rod is a forked (Y-shaped) branch from a tree or bush. Some dowsers prefer branches from particular trees, and some prefer the branches to be freshly cut. Hazel twigs in Europe and witch-hazel in the United States are traditionally commonly chosen, as are branches from willow or peach trees. The two ends on the forked side are held one in each hand with the third (the stem of the Y) pointing straight ahead. Often the branches are grasped palms down. The dowser then walks slowly over the places where he suspects the target (for example, minerals or water) may be, and the dowsing rod is expected to dip, incline or twitch when a discovery is made. This method is sometimes known as "willow witching".

L-Rods[edit]

Two L-shaped metal wire rods

Many dowsers today use a pair of simple L-shaped metal rods. One rod is held in each hand, with the short arm of the L held upright, and the long arm pointing forward. When something is "found", the rods cross over one another. If the object is long and straight, such as a water pipe, the rods may point in opposite directions, showing its orientation. The rods may be fashioned from wire coat hangers or wire flags used for locating utilities. Glass or plastic rods have also been accepted. Straight rods are also sometimes used for the same purposes, and were not uncommon in early 19th-century New England.

Police and military devices[edit]

Skeptic James Randi at a lecture at Rockefeller University, on October 10, 2008, holding an $800 device advertised as a dowsing instrument

A number of devices have been marketed for modern police and military use, for example ADE 651, Sniffex, and the GT200.[40][41] A US government study advised against buying "bogus explosive detection equipment" and noted that all testing has shown the devices to perform no better than random chance.[42]

Devices:

  • Sandia National Laboratories tested the MOLE Programmable System manufactured by Global Technical Ltd. of Kent, UK and found it ineffective.[40]
  • The ADE 651 is a device produced by ATSC (UK) and widely used by Iraqi police to detect explosives.[41] Many[41][43] have denied its effectiveness and contended that the ADE 651 failed to prevent many bombings in Iraq. On 23 April 2013, the director of ATSC, James McCormick was convicted of fraud by misrepresentation and later sentenced to 10 years in prison.[44] Earlier, the British Government had announced a ban on the export of the ADE 651.[45]
  • Sniffex was the subject of a report by the United States Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal that concluded "The handheld Sniffex explosives detector does not work."[46]
  • Global Technical GT200 is a dowsing type explosive detector which contains no scientific mechanism.[47][48]

Studies[edit]

  • Dowsing studies from the early 20th century were examined by geologist John Walter Gregory in a report for the Smithsonian Institution. Gregory concluded that the results were a matter of chance or explained by observations from ground surface clues.[49][50]
  • Geologist W. A. MacFadyen tested three dowsers during 1943-1944 in Algeria. The results were entirely negative.[51]
  • A 1948 study in New Zealand by P. A. Ongley tested 75 dowsers' ability to detect water. None of them was more reliable than chance. According to Ongley "not one showed the slightest accuracy."[52]
  • Archaeometrist Martin Aitken tested British dowser P. A. Raine in 1959. Raine failed to dowse the location of a buried kiln that had been identified by a magnetometer.[53][54]
  • In 1971, dowsing experiments were organized by British engineer R. A. Foulkes on behalf of the Ministry of Defence. The results were "no more reliable than a series of guesses".[55]
  • Physicists John Taylor and Eduardo Balanovski reported in 1978 a series of experiments they conducted that searched for unusual electromagnetic fields emitted by dowsing subjects, they did not detect any.[56]
  • A 1979 review by Evon Z. Vogt and Ray Hyman examined many controlled studies of dowsing for water, and found that none of them showed better than chance results.[2]
  • Three British academics Richard N Bailey, Eric Cambridge and H. Denis Briggs carried out dowsing experiments at the grounds of various churches. They reported successful results in their book Dowsing and Church Archaeology (1988).[57] Their experiments were critically examined by archaeologist Martijn Van Leusen who suggested they were badly designed and the authors had redefined the test parameters on what was classified as a "hit" or "miss" to obtain positive results.[57]
  • A 2006 study of grave dowsing in Iowa reviewed 14 published studies and determined that none of them correctly predicted the location of human burials, and simple scientific experiments demonstrated that the fundamental principles commonly used to explain grave dowsing were incorrect.[58]
  • A randomized double-blind trial in 2012 was carried out to determine whether homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia and placebo by use of a dowsing method. The results were negative.[59]

Kassel 1991 study[edit]

A 1990 double-blind study[60][61][62] was undertaken in Kassel, Germany, under the direction of the Gesellschaft zur Wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung von Parawissenschaften (Society for the Scientific Investigation of the Parasciences). James Randi offered a US$10,000 prize to any successful dowser. The three-day test of some 30 dowsers involved plastic pipes through which water flow could be controlled and directed. The pipes were buried 50 centimeters (19.7 in) under a level field, the position of each marked on the surface with a colored strip. The dowsers had to tell whether water was running through each pipe. All the dowsers signed a statement agreeing this was a fair test of their abilities and that they expected a 100 percent success rate. However, the results were no better than chance, thus no one was awarded the prize.

Betz 1990 study[edit]

In a 1987–88 study in Munich by Hans-Dieter Betz and other scientists, 500 dowsers were initially tested for their skill, and the experimenters selected the best 43 among them for further tests. Water was pumped through a pipe on the ground floor of a two-storey barn. Before each test, the pipe was moved in a direction perpendicular to the water flow. On the upper floor, each dowser was asked to determine the position of the pipe. Over two years, the dowsers performed 843 such tests and, of the 43 pre-selected and extensively tested candidates, at least 37 showed no dowsing ability. The results from the remaining 6 were said to be better than chance, resulting in the experimenters' conclusion that some dowsers "in particular tasks, showed an extraordinarily high rate of success, which can scarcely if at all be explained as due to chance ... a real core of dowser-phenomena can be regarded as empirically proven."[63]

Five years after the Munich study was published, Jim T. Enright, a professor of physiology who emphasised correct data analysis procedure, contended that the study's results are merely consistent with statistical fluctuations and not significant. He believed the experiments provided "the most convincing disproof imaginable that dowsers can do what they claim",[64] stating that the data analysis was "special, unconventional and customized". Replacing it with "more ordinary analyses",[65] he noted that the best dowser was on average 4 millimeters (0.16 in) out of 10 meters (32.81 ft) closer to a mid-line guess, an advantage of 0.04%, and that the five other "good" dowsers were on average farther than a mid-line guess. Enright emphasized that the experimenters should have decided beforehand how to statistically analyze the results; if they only afterward chose the statistical analysis that showed the greatest success, then their conclusions would not be valid until replicated by another test analyzed by the same method. He further pointed out that the six "good" dowsers did not perform any better than chance in separate tests.[66] Another study published in Pathophysiology hypothesized that such experiments as this one that were carried out in the 20th century could have been interfered with by man-made radio frequency radiation, as test subjects' bodies absorbed the radio waves and unconscious hand movement reactions took place following the standing waves or intensity variations.[67]

Scientific reception[edit]

Dowsing is considered to be a pseudoscience.[68][69][70]

Science writers such as William Benjamin Carpenter (1877), Millais Culpin (1920) and Martin Gardner (1957) considered the movement of dowsing rods to be the result of unconscious muscular action [71][72][73] This view is widely accepted amongst the scientific community.,[8][9][74][75] and also by some in the dowsing community.[76] The dowsing apparatus is known to amplify slight movements of the hands caused by a phenomenon known as the ideomotor response: people's subconscious minds may influence their bodies without consciously deciding to take action. This would make the dowsing rod susceptible to the dowsers's subconscious knowledge or perception; but also to confirmation bias.[8][77][78][79][80]

Psychologist David Marks in a 1986 article in Nature included dowsing in a list of "effects which until recently were claimed to be paranormal but which can now be explained from within orthodox science."[81] Specifically, dowsing could be explained in terms of sensory cues, expectancy effects and probability.[81]

Science writer Peter Daempfle has noted that when dowsing is subjected to scientific testing, it fails. Daempfle has written that although some dowsers claim success, this can be attributed to the underground water table being distributed relatively uniformly in certain areas.[82]

In regard to dowsing and its use in archaeology, Kenneth Feder has written that "the vast majority of archaeologists don't use dowsing, because they don't believe it works."[54]

Psychologist Chris French has noted that "dowsing does not work when it is tested under properly controlled conditions that rule out the use of other cues to indicate target location."[75]

Notable dowsers[edit]

Notable dowsers include:

A report in The Guardian on the subject of British water company employees using dowsing, including from Anglian and Severn Trent, noted that "The disclosure has prompted calls for the regulator to stop companies passing the cost of a discredited medieval practice on to their customers. Ofwat said any firm failing to meet its commitments to customers faced a financial penalty." Anglian Water also attested to "the effectiveness of dowsing rods".[38] A similar report from the BBC noted "All the companies emphasised they do not encourage the use of divining rods nor issue them to engineers, and said modern methods such as drones and listening devices were preferred."[37]

Dowsing in fiction[edit]

Fictional dowsers include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whittaker, William E (23 December 2006). "Grave Dowsing Reconsidered". The University of Iowa. Office of the State Archaeologist. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b Vogt, Evon Z.; Ray Hyman (1979). Water Witching U.S.A. (2nd ed.). Chicago: Chicago University Press. ISBN 978-0-226-86297-2. via Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (Second ed.). Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 420. ISBN 978-1-57392-979-0.
  3. ^ Regal, Brian. (2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. pp. 55–57. ISBN 978-0-313-35507-3
  4. ^ Discovering Dowsing and Divining, p. 5, Peter Naylor
  5. ^ "Dowsing, Doodlebugging, and Water Witching". Association of Independent Readers and Rootworkers Wiki. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  6. ^ "Keystone Folklore Quarterly". 1967.
  7. ^ As translated from one preface of the Kassel experiments, "roughly 10,000 active dowsers in Germany alone can generate a conservatively-estimated annual revenue of more than 100 million DM (US$50 million)". GWUP-Psi-Tests 2004: Keine Million Dollar für PSI-Fähigkeiten Archived April 10, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. (in German) and English version Archived August 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine..
  8. ^ a b c Zusne, Leonard; Jones, Warren H. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. pp. 105–110. ISBN 978-0-805-80507-9
  9. ^ a b Novella, Steve; Deangelis, Perry. (2002). Dowsing. In Michael Shermer. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 93–94. ISBN 1-57607-654-7 "Despite widespread belief, careful investigation has demonstrated that the technique of dowsing simply does not work. No researcher has been able to prove under controlled conditions that dowsing has any genuine divining power... A more likely explanation for the movement of a dowser's focus is the ideomotor effect, which entails involuntary and unconscious motor behavior."
  10. ^ Lawson, T. J; Crane, L. L. (2014). Dowsing Rods Designed to Sharpen Critical Thinking and Understanding of Ideomotor Action. Teaching of Psychology 41 (1): 52-56.
  11. ^ Decem praecepta Wittenbergensi populo praedicta, Martin Luther
  12. ^ William Barrett and Theodore Besterman. The Divining Rod: An Experimental and Psychological Investigation. (1926) Kessinger Publishing, 2004: p.7
  13. ^ Agricola, Georgius (1556). De Re Metallica (tr. Herbert Hoover, 1950, Dover Publications, New York ed.). Basel. p. 38ff. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  14. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1215
  15. ^ Gough, John Weidhofft (1930). The Mines of Mendip. Oxford University Press. p. 6. OCLC 163035417.
  16. ^ "Wiktionary entry for schlag". Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  17. ^ "Wiktionary entry for ruthe". Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  18. ^ a b Barrett, William (1911). Psychical Research. New York and London: Henry Holt & Co. (N.Y.), Williams and Norgate (London). p. 170. Retrieved 2 January 2018. Now, the colloquial German word for the rod was then schlag-ruthe or striking-rod; this, translated into the Middle English became the duschan or striking rod, and finally "deusing or dowsing rod".
  19. ^ Stratmann, Francis. A Middle-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 15 January 2018. duschen,v., ? = M.L.G. duschen ; =dweschen ; strike, beat; dusched {pret.) Ar. & Mer. 5624 ; A. P. ii. 1538 ; dusched a doun . . . hure fon Fer. 3068 ; see daschen, dusching, sb., tumbling ; . . . dinning and dusching of sinfulle PR. C. 7350.
  20. ^ "1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Dowser and Dowsing". Retrieved 13 January 2018. DOWSER and DOWSING (from the Cornish “dowse,” M.E. duschen, to strike or fall), one who uses, or the art of using, the dowsing-rod (called “deusing-rod” by John Locke in 1691), or “striking-rod” or divining-rod, for discovering subterranean minerals or water.
  21. ^ Locke, John. Some considerations of the consequences of lowering the interest, and raising the value of money. In a letter sent to a Member of Parliament, in the year 1691. Retrieved 15 January 2018. That four per cent. is not of the nature of the deusing-rod, or virgula divina, able to discover mines of gold and silver, I believe will easily be granted me.
  22. ^ Skeat, Walter W. (2005). An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York. p. 181. Retrieved 19 January 2018. DOWSE (3), to extinguish. (E.) A cant term; dowse the glim, i.e. to extinguish the light. Probably only a particular use of dowse (1), to strike. Possibly suggested by dout, to extinguish.
  23. ^ Barrett, William (1911). Psychical Research. New York and London: Henry Holt & Co. (N.Y.), Williams and Norgate (London). p. 170. Retrieved 19 January 2018. To dowse or " strike " the sail is still a common expression in Cornwall
  24. ^ Boyle, Robert (1661). "On Unsucceeding Experiments". Works. One (1743 ed.). Thomas Birch. pp. 342–3.
  25. ^ Hill, Sharon A. "Witching for water". Spooky Geology. Archived from the original on 2017-03-20. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  26. ^ Sharon A. Hill (2017-03-26). "15 Credibility Street #13". Doubtful News (Podcast). Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  27. ^ Barrett, William (1911). Psychical Research. New York and London: Henry Holt & Co. (N.Y.), Williams and Norgate (London). p. 171. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  28. ^ of Avila, Saint, Teresa of (1573). The book of the foundations of S. Teresa of Jesus of the Order of our Lady of Carmel, with the visitation of nunneries, the rule and constitutions. University of Toronto - Robarts Library: London, Baker. p. 116. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  29. ^ Michel Eugène Chevreul, De La Baguette Divinatoire du pendule dit explorateur at des table tournants au point de vue de l'histoire, de la critique, and de la méthode expérimentale, Paris, 1854. "Le père Gaspard Schott (jés.) considère l'usage de la baguette comme superstitieux ou plutôt diabolique, mais des renseignements qui lui furent donnés plus tard par des hommes qu'il considérait comme religieux et probe, lui firent dire dans une notation à ce passage, qu'il ne voudrait pas assurer que le demon fait toujours tourner la baguette." (Physica Curiosa, 1662, lib. XII, cap. IV, pag. 1527). See facsimile on Google Books
  30. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Divining-rod". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 333–334.
  31. ^ Pass, A.C.; Tawney, Edward. B. (1876). "The divining rod". Proceedings. Bristol Naturalists' Society. I: 60 et seq.
  32. ^ Grace Fairchild and Walker D. Wyman, Frontier Woman: The Life of a Woman Homesteader on the Dakota Frontier (River Falls: University of Wisconsin-River Falls Press, 1972), 50; Robert Amerson, From the Hidewood: Memories of a Dakota Neighborhood (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1996), 290–98.
  33. ^ FIX ME (could not access entire article) Claudia Sandlin (1989-11-30). "Divining Ways; Dowsers Use Ancient Art in Many Kinds of Searches". Washington Post. [Louis Matacia] worked as a Marine Corps analyst at Quantico during The Vietnam War teaching Marines how to dowse...
  34. ^ Rolf Manne (2005). "Ønskekvist i snøskred – psevdovitenskap i praksis?". Pseudovitenskap og Etikk, published at Norwegian University of Science and Technology, page 45.
  35. ^ California Farmers Hire Dowsers to Find Water, ABC news
  36. ^ The Water Witch of Wyoming
  37. ^ a b c Scientist finds UK water companies use 'magic' to find leaks, BBC Oxford, 21 November 2017. (retrieved 21 November 2017)
  38. ^ a b c d Matthew Weaver, UK water firms admit using divining rods to find leaks and pipes, The Guardian, 21 November 2017.
  39. ^ Camila Domonoske, U.K. Water Companies Sometimes Use Dowsing Rods To Find Pipes, The Two-Way, NPR, 21 November 2017.
  40. ^ a b Double-Blind Field Evaluation of the MOLE Programmable Detection System, Sandia National Laboratories Archived November 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  41. ^ a b c Iraq Swears by Bomb Detector U.S. Sees as Useless
  42. ^ Guide for the Selection of Commercial Explosives Detection Systems for Law Enforcement Applications (NIJ Guide 100-99), Chapter 7. Warning: Do Not Buy Bogus Explosives Detection Equipment
  43. ^ A Direct, Specific, Challenge From James Randi and the JREF
  44. ^ "'James McCormick guilty of selling fake bomb detectors". BBC News. 2013-04-23. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  45. ^ "Government statement on 'bomb detectors' ban". BBC News. 2010-01-22. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  46. ^ Test Report: The detection capabilities of the SNIFFEX explosive detector, p.8
  47. ^ "Tests show bomb scanner ineffective, Thailand says". CNN. 2010-02-17.
  48. ^ E-k9.net Archived July 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  49. ^ Gregory, J. W. (1928). Water Divining. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution. United States Government Printing Office. pp. 325-348.
  50. ^ Mill, Hugh Robert. (1927) Belief and Evidence in Water Divining. Nature 120: 882-884.
  51. ^ MacFadyen, W. A. (1946). Some Water Divining in Algeria. Nature 157: 304-405.
  52. ^ Ongley, P. (1948). "New Zealand Diviners". New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology. 30: 38–54. via Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (Second ed.). Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 420. ISBN 978-1-57392-979-0.
  53. ^ Aitken, M. J. (1959). Test for Correlation Between Dowsing Response and Magnetic Disturbance. Archaeometry 2: 58-59.
  54. ^ a b Feder, Kenneth L. (2010). Encyclopedia of Dubious Archaeology: From Atlantis to Walam Olum. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-313-37918-5
  55. ^ Foulkes, R. A. (1971). Dowsing Experiments. Nature 229: 163-168.
  56. ^ Taylor, J. G. & Balanovski, E. (1978). "Can electromagnetism account for extra-sensory phenomena?". Nature. 276 (5683): 64–67. doi:10.1038/276064a0. PMID 740020.
  57. ^ a b Leusen, Martijn Van. (1998). Dowsing and Archaeology. Archaeological Prospection 5: 123-138.
  58. ^ Whittaker, William E. "Grave Dowsing Reconsidered" (PDF). Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  59. ^ McCarney R, Fisher P, Spink F, Flint G, van Haselen R. (2002). Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 95: 189–191.
  60. ^ GWUP-Psi-Tests 2004: Keine Million Dollar für PSI-Fähigkeiten Archived April 10, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. (in German) and English version Archived August 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine..
  61. ^ The Kassel Dowsing Test – Part 1
  62. ^ The Kassel Dowsing Test – Part 2
  63. ^ Wagner, H., H.-D. Betz, and H. L. König, 1990. Schlußbericht 01 KB8602, Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie. As quoted by Jim T. Enright in the Skeptical Inquirer.
  64. ^ Enright, Jim T. (January–February 1999). "The Failure of the Munich Experiments". Skeptical Inquirer. CSICOP. Retrieved 2006-11-14. The researchers themselves concluded that the outcome unquestionably demonstrated successful dowsing abilities, but a thoughtful re-examination of the data indicates that such an interpretation can only be regarded as the result of wishful thinking.
  65. ^ Enright, J. T. (1995). "Water dowsing: The Scheunen experiments". Naturwissenschaften. 82: 360–369. doi:10.1007/s001140050198.
  66. ^ Enright, J. T. (June 1996). "Dowsers lost in a Barn" (PDF). Naturwissenschaften. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. 83 (6): 275–277. doi:10.1007/BF01149601. ISSN 1432-1904. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
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