|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
1-ethyl-4- (2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)- 3,3-diphenyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
|Molar mass||378.507 g/mol|
Mechanism of action
Doxapram is a white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder that is stable in light and air. It is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in ether. Injectable products have a pH from 3.5-5. Benzyl alcohol or chlorobutanol is added as a preservative agent in the commercially available injections.
Doxapram is used in intensive care settings to stimulate the respiratory rate in patients with respiratory failure. It may be useful for treating respiratory depression in patients who have taken excessive doses of drugs such as buprenorphine which may fail to respond adequately to treatment with naloxone.
Side effects include high blood pressure, panic attacks, rapid heart rate, tremor, sweating and vomiting. Convulsions have been reported. Its use is relatively contraindicated in people with coronary heart disease, epilepsy, and high blood pressure. It is also contraindicated in newborns and small children, mainly due to the presence of benzyl alcohol, which is included as a preservative.
- Pentethylcyclanone (similar structure)
- Buprenorphine Drug Data Sheet
- Singh, P; Dimitriou, V; Mahajan, RP; Crossley, AW (1993). "Double-blind comparison between doxapram and pethidine in the treatment of postanaesthetic shivering". British journal of anaesthesia 71 (5): 685–8. doi:10.1093/bja/71.5.685. PMID 8251281.