Atkins diet

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The Atkins diet, also known as the Atkins nutritional approach, is a commercial weight-loss program devised by Robert Atkins. The Atkins diet is classified as a low-carbohydrate fad diet.[1] The diet is marketed with questionable claims that carbohydrate restriction is critical to weight loss.[2] There is no good evidence of the diet's effectiveness in achieving durable weight loss[3] and it may increase the risk of heart disease.[4]

Effectiveness and risks[edit]

There is weak evidence that the Atkins diet is more effective than behavioral counseling for weight loss at 6-12 months.[3] The Atkins diet led to 0.1% to 2.9% more weight loss at one year compared to control groups which received behavioural counselling for weight loss.[3] As with other commercial weight loss programs, the effect size is smaller over longer periods.[3][5] Low-carb dieters' initial advantage in weight loss is likely a result of increased water loss, and that after the initial period, low-carbohydrate diets produce similar fat loss to other diets with similar caloric intake.[6]

The diet may increase the risk of heart disease.[4][7]

There is some evidence that adults with epilepsy may experience seizure reduction derived from therapeutic ketogenic diets, and that a less strict regimen, such as a modified Atkins diet, is similarly effective.[8]

Description[edit]

The Atkins diet is a kind of low-carbohydrate fad diet.[1][9]

Net carbohydrates can be calculated from a food source by subtracting fiber and sugar alcohols from total carbohydrates. Sugar alcohols contain about two calories per gram, although the American Diabetes Association recommends that diabetics not count alcohol as carbohydrates.[10] Fructose (for example, as found in many industrial sweeteners) has four calories per gram but has a very low glycemic index[11] and does not cause insulin production, probably because β cells have low levels of GLUT5.[12][13] Leptin, an appetite-regulating hormone, is not triggered following consumption of fructose. This may for some create an unsatisfying feeling after consumption which might promote binge behavior that culminates in an increased blood triglyceride level arising from fructose conversion by the liver.[14]

Preferred foods in all categories are whole, unprocessed foods with a low glycemic index, although restrictions for low glycemic carbohydrates (black rice, vegetables, etc.) are the same as those for high glycemic carbohydrates (sugar, white bread). Atkins Nutritionals, the company formed to market foods that work with the diet, recommends that no more than 20% of calories eaten while on the diet come from saturated fat.[15]

Proposed mechanism[edit]

It was inspired by a low-carbohydrate approach published by Alfred W. Pennington, based on research Pennington did during World War II at DuPont.[16] The Atkins diet is promoted with questionable claims that carbohydrate restriction is the "key" to weight loss.[2]

In his early books such as Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, Atkins made the controversial argument that the low-carbohydrate diet produces a metabolic advantage because "burning fat takes more calories so you expend more calories".[17] He cited one study in which he estimated this advantage to be 950 Calories (4.0 MJ) per day. A review study published in Lancet[18] concluded that there was no such metabolic advantage and dieters were simply eating fewer calories. Astrup stated, "The monotony and simplicity of the diet could inhibit appetite and food intake." David L. Katz has characterized Atkins' claim as nonsense.[2]

Society and culture[edit]

Commercialization[edit]

Atkins Nutritionals was founded in 1989 by Atkins to promote the sale of Atkins-branded products. Following his death, waning popularity of the diet and a reduction in demand for Atkins products, Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on July 31, 2005 citing losses of $340 million.[19] It was subsequently purchased by North Castle Partners in 2007 and switched its emphasis to low-carb snacks.[20] In 2010, the company was acquired by Roark Capital Group.[21]

Use[edit]

The Atkins Nutritional Approach gained widespread popularity in 2003 and 2004. At the height of its popularity one in eleven North American adults claimed to be on a low-carb diet such as Atkins.[22] This large following was blamed for large declines in the sales of carbohydrate-heavy foods like pasta and rice: sales were down 8.2 and 4.6 percent, respectively, in 2003. The diet's success was even blamed for a decline in Krispy Kreme sales.[23] Trying to capitalize on the "low-carb craze," many companies released special product lines that were low in carbohydrates.

In 2003, Atkins died from a fatal head injury due to a fall on ice,[24] and while he had a history of heart disease, Mrs. Atkins was quoted as stating that the circumstances of his death from an epidural hematoma had nothing to do with his diet or history of viral cardiomyopathy.[24][25]

Around that time, the percentage of adults on the diet declined to two percent and sales of Atkins brand products fell steeply in the second half of 2004.[26]

Cost[edit]

An analysis conducted by Forbes magazine found that the sample menu from the Atkins Nutritional Approach is one of the top five in the expense category of ten plans Forbes analyzed. This was due to the inclusion of recipes with some high cost ingredients such as lobster tails which were put in the book to demonstrate the variety of foods which could be consumed on the diet. The analysis showed the median average of the ten diets was approximately 50% higher, and Atkins 80% higher, than the American national average. The Atkins Diet was less expensive than the Jenny Craig diet and more expensive than Weight Watchers.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gardiner S, Gilman SL (2008). Gilman SL, ed. Atkins, Robert, MD (1930-2003). Diets and Dieting: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-135-87068-3. 
  2. ^ a b c Katz DL (2003). "Pandemic obesity and the contagion of nutritional nonsense". Public Health Rev. 31 (1): 33–44. PMID 14656042. 
  3. ^ a b c d Gudzune, KA; Doshi, RS; Mehta, AK; Chaudhry, ZW; Jacobs, DK; Vakil, RM; Lee, CJ; Bleich, SN; Clark, JM (7 April 2015). "Efficacy of commercial weight-loss programs: an updated systematic review". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (7): 501–12. doi:10.7326/M14-2238. PMC 4446719Freely accessible. PMID 25844997. Atkins resulted in 0.1% to 2.9% greater weight loss at 12 months than counseling. 
  4. ^ a b Alters S, Schiff W (22 February 2012). Chapter 10: Body Weight and Its Management. Essential Concepts for Healthy Living (Sixth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-4496-3062-1. 
  5. ^ Harper A Poo; Astrup, A (2004). "Can we advise our obese patients to follow the Atkins diet?". Obesity Reviews (editorial). 5 (2): 93–94. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2004.00137.x. PMID 15086862. Despite the popularity and apparent success of the Atkins diet, documented scientific evidence in support of its use unfortunately lags behind. 
  6. ^ Freedman, Marjorie R; King, Janet; Kennedy, Eileen (2001). "Executive Summary". Obesity Research. 9: 1S–40S. doi:10.1038/oby.2001.113. PMID 11374180. 
  7. ^ "What Is the Atkins Diet? Read the Expert Review". www.webmd.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  8. ^ Freeman, JM; Kossoff, EH; Hartman, AL (March 2007). "The ketogenic diet: one decade later". Pediatrics. 119 (3): 535–43. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2447. PMID 17332207. 
  9. ^ Thalheimer J (2015). "Ketosis fad diet alert: skip low-carb diets; instead focus on nutrient-rich choices like whole grains, fruits and vegetables". Environmental Nutrition. 38 (9): 3. 
  10. ^ "Alcohol". Diabetes.org. Retrieved 15 May 2014. 
  11. ^ Kaye Foster-Powell, Susanna H. A. Holt, and Janette C. Brand-Miller (July 2002). "International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Ajcn.org. 76 (1): 5–56. doi:10.1093/ajcn/76.1.5. PMID 12081815. 
  12. ^ D. L. Curry (1989). "Effects of Mannose and Fructose on the Synthesis and Secretion of Insulin". Pancreas. 4 (1): 2–9. doi:10.1097/00006676-198902000-00002. PMID 2654926. 
  13. ^ Y. Sato; T. Ito; N. Udaka; et al. (December 1996). "Immunohistochemical Localization of Facilitated-Diffusion Glucose Transporters in Rat Pancreatic Islets". Tissue Cell. 28 (6): 637–643. doi:10.1016/S0040-8166(96)80067-X. PMID 9004533. 
  14. ^ Karen L. Teff, Sharon S. Elliott, Matthias Tschöp, Timothy J. Kieffer, Daniel Rader, Mark Heiman, Raymond R. Townsend, Nancy L. Keim, David D’Alessio, Peter J. Havel (June 2004). "Dietary Fructose Reduces Circulating Insulin and Leptin, Attenuates Postprandial Suppression of Ghrelin, and Increases Triglycerides in Women". Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 89 (6): 2963–2972. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031855. PMID 15181085. 
  15. ^ "Atkins diet boss: 'Eat less fat'". BBC News. BBC. January 19, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2007. 
  16. ^ Martin, Douglas (April 18, 2003). "Dr. Robert C. Atkins, Author of Controversial but Best-Selling Diet Books, Is Dead at 72". The New York Times. 
  17. ^ Atkins, Robert (2003-09-25). Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, Revised Edition. .Evans. ISBN 978-1-59077-002-3. 
  18. ^ Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Harper, Angela (2004). "Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: Hoax or an effective tool for weight loss?". The Lancet. 364 (9437): 897. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16986-9. 
  19. ^ Atkins Nutritionals files for bankruptcy – AP 1 August 2005.
  20. ^ "Atkins firm seeks financial help". BBC News. August 1, 2005.
  21. ^ Bills, Steve (20 March 2013). "Atkins delivers $118 mln dividend to Roark Capital". Reuters. 
  22. ^ Kaufman, Wendy (August 3, 2005). "Atkins Bankruptcy a Boon for Pasta Makers". NPR. 
  23. ^ Schooler, Larry (June 22, 2004). "Low-Carb Diets Trim Krispy Kreme's Profit Line". NPR. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 
  24. ^ a b "Statements on Atkins' death". USA Today. 2004-02-10. 
  25. ^ "Rival Diet Doc Leaks Atkins Death Report". The Smoking Gun. 2004-02-10. 
  26. ^ Howard, Theresa (1 August 2005). "Atkins Nutritionals files for bankruptcy protection". USA Today. Retrieved 11 November 2012. 
  27. ^ Costly Calories Forbes.com

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