Draft:2002 McDonald's Bombings Makassar, Indonesia

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2002 McDonald’s Bombings Makassar, Indonesia[edit]

Makassar, Indonesia

The Makassar bombings occurred on the 5th of December 2002, where a bomb exploded within inner-city McDonald’s restaurant.[1] The McDonald’s restaurant was located in the Ratu Indah shopping mall.[2] These bomb actions were conducted by the Islamic group “Laskar Jundullah”, which caused death to 3 people, including the bomber himself, and injured 15 others[1]. The leader of the group, Agung Abdul Hamid, received a jail sentence of 18 years due to the planning and execution of both the bomb and the attack in Makassar.[3]

The History of Makassar[edit]

Geographical, Demographic and Cultural Aspects[edit]

Makassar, the capital city of South Sulawesi, is the largest city within Eastern Indonesia, with a geographical location of 5° and 7° S, and 119°20′ and 120°30′ E.[4] Located on the South-west cost of Sulawesi, Makassar has been centered around shipping and trading throughout its history.[3] This large shipping and trading port have continued to grow throughout the centuries, where today, this port is commonly used to ship goods and large containers all over Eastern Indonesia.[5] These actions largely count towards the drive in Makassar’s economy, however nowadays, the city’s economy is highly dependent on its service sector, accounting for approximately 70% of the city’s activity. This includes restaurants and hotel services (29.14%), transportation and communication (14.86%), trading (14.86%) and finance (10.58%).[3]

The city contains an area of 199.3 square kilometers and had a recorded 1.6 million population in 2013. This population mostly contains those of a Buginese and Makassarese culture, creating a multi-ethnic city. Due to this majority of population obtaining an Islamic background, the cultural life of the city is driven through prayer and religious festivals, where the ‘Great Mosque of Makassar’ is titled to be the main mosque of South Sulawesi Province. This mosque can contain up to 10,000 people, making it one of the largest mosques in Southeast Asia.[5]

Governance and Political Aspects[edit]

The city of Makassar is governed through a city Mayor, who has an election period of five years, who is assisted by a deputy-mayor. Mohammad Randhan Pomanto is the current mayor of Makassar, elected on the 4thof May 2004. The mayor has the responsibilities to overseas all 15 districts, as well as the 153 urban villages of the large city. The districts of Makassar include Biringkanaya, Bontoala, Sangkarang Islands, Makassar, Mamajang, Manggala, Mariso, Panakkukang, Rappocini, Tallo, Tamalanrea, Tamalate, Ujung Pandang, Land Edge and Wajo.[3]

Lifestyle and Cultural Aspects[edit]

The main source of income for those living in Makassar is rice farming, along with their skill in trading and as fishermen. However, due to the Islamic culture, the labour divisions have a strict gender basis, where men heavily engage in outside duties such as farming, fishing etc., whereas women are usually responsible for the household duties[3] (to be continued)

Laskar Jundullah Islamic Milita[edit]


           Laska Jundullah stemmed from the Islamic group Jamaah Islamiyah[6]

Jamaah Islamiyah[edit]

           Frequently abbreviated as JI, Jamaah Islamiyah is a Southeast Asian militant extremist Islamist rebel group.

Social/Religious Perspectives[edit]

Outcome and Impact of Bombing[edit]

Deaths and Injuries[edit]

The McDonald’s bombing, on the 5thof December 2002, occurred on the evening of Eid al-Fitr festival, marking the end of Ramadan – The fasting month for Muslims.[7] The event caused death to 3 people and injured 15 others. On this same day, the McDonald’s bombings in Makassar was only one of the two to occur, where another bombing took place at a car dealership, a few miles from the McDonald’s. It was reported that no one was injured at this event, however the two events are closely linked (to be continued)

Suspects and Sentencing[edit]

From these explosion, suspects Agung Abdul Hamid (36 years) and Munir Ansori (28 years) were questioned at Yogyakarta Police Station. From the South Sulawesi Regional Political Anti-Terror team, the arrests of these two suspects were led by the Adjunct Commissioner of Police Triatmojo, in which they asked 50 questions to both the suspects.[8] Agung Hamid was arrested on 3rdOctober 2004 in Jalan Mangkubumi Yogyakarta, and Munir Ansori was arrested on the 27thof September 2004, in Jalan Mageland, Blunyah Tegarejo. Both of the suspects were flown, using the Bouraq commercial aircraft, to Makassar from Aadi Sucipto Airport.[9]

Prior to the arrest, Agung disguised himself as an onion trader moving from town to town, whilst Munir disguised as a used goods convenor at Klithikan, a Yogyakarta traditional market. During the interrogation of both suspects, Police were able to collect information about the attack, gaining confirmation in the admissions of Agung Hamid having a significant involvement in the 2002 McDonald’s Bombings in the Ratu Indah Shopping mall.[10] On the 15thof August 2005, several years after the bombings, Agung Hamid was trailed at the Makassar District Court, where the judges ruled him as guilty and was sentenced to life imprisonment.[11]

Agung Hamid was not the only individual involved in the bombings in Makassar. Anton Bin Labbase and Ilham Riady were charged with the overall planning of the McDonald’s bombings in Makassar, along with Agung. Ilham Riady received 8 years imprisonment for his involvement[12] (to be continued)

Other individual, Galazi Bin Abdul Somad, a Muslim Militant, was heavily involved in the Makassar bombings through the role of transporting the explosives to the actual bombers. He received a sentence of 18 years in jail due to these actions.[13]

Impact on Community[edit]

The Link Between Makassar and Bali bombings, 2002[edit]

National Police detectives have insentives that there is a strong link between the Makassar and Bali bombings, to which both of the attacks have been blamed on the Jamaah Islamiyah (JI) terror group.[1] There has been a strong suspicious that the main targets of both these attacked are targeted at American and Australian symbols – McDonald’s developing from the Western culture, and Bali being a strong Western tourist destination.[14]

Makassar Today/Future Events[edit]

The current Mayor of Makassar, Mohammad Randhan Pomanto, had a vision to improve the quality of the city through combining technology and local wisdom to provide solutions to issues within the city, consisting of previous fear and terror, unemployment, healthcare etc. Today, Makassar’s gross domestic regional product (GDRP) growth rate is above the national GDRP and is one of the top ten areas in Indonesia with the highest economic growth.[15]

  1. ^ a b c "Indonesian court jails McDonald's bombers". ABC News. 2003-10-16. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  2. ^ LaTourrette, Tom. "Reducing Terrorism Risk at Shopping Centers" (PDF). Homeland Security.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Makassar", Wikipedia, 2019-05-16, retrieved 2019-05-21
  4. ^ "Makassar | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  5. ^ a b Trade, corporateName= Department of Foreign Affairs and. "Australian Consulate-General in". makassar.consulate.gov.au. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  6. ^ "Jemaah Islamiyah in South East Asia: Damaged but Still Dangerous". Crisis Group. 2003-08-26. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  7. ^ "Three killed in McDonald's bomb blast". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2002-12-07. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  8. ^ "Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library". login.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  9. ^ "Abdul Hamid Akui Terlibat Bom Makassar". Tempo. 2004-10-05. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  10. ^ Cahyani, D. "Darmin Optimistis Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Kuartal II Lebih Tinggi".
  11. ^ Liputan6.com (2005-08-16). "Penjara Seumur Hidup untuk Agung Hamid". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  12. ^ "Makassar bombing suspect jailed eight years - Asean+ | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  13. ^ "Six McDonald's bombing suspects go on trial in Makassar | The Jakarta Post". web.archive.org. 2014-02-25. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  14. ^ "CNN.com - Police link Bali and McDonald's bombs - Dec. 12, 2002". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  15. ^ Lago, Cristina (2018-11-20). "Smart city profile: Makassar". CIO. Retrieved 2019-05-21.