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Dragon's Lair (1983 video game)

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Dragon's Lair
Promotional poster
Developer(s)Advanced Microcomputer Systems
Director(s)Don Bluth
Designer(s)Don Bluth
  • Michael Knauer
  • Vince Lee
Writer(s)Rick Dyer
Composer(s)Chris Stone
SeriesDragon's Lair
Genre(s)Interactive film
Mode(s)Single-player, multiplayer[b]
Arcade systemZ80 processor on a proprietary motherboard[11]

Dragon's Lair is an interactive film LaserDisc video game developed by Advanced Microcomputer Systems and published by Cinematronics in 1983, as the first game in the Dragon's Lair series.[12] In the game, the protagonist Dirk the Daring is a knight attempting to rescue Princess Daphne from the evil dragon Singe who has locked the princess in the foul wizard Mordroc's castle. It featured animation by ex-Disney animator Don Bluth.

Most other games of the era represented the character as a sprite, which consisted of a series of pixels displayed in succession. Due to hardware limitations of the era, artists were greatly restricted in the detail they could achieve using that technique; the resolution, framerate and number of frames were severely constrained. Dragon's Lair overcame those limitations by tapping into the vast storage potential of the LaserDisc but imposed other limitations on the actual gameplay.

The success of the game sparked numerous home ports, sequels and related games. In the 21st century it has been repackaged in a number of formats as a retro or historic game.


Arcade version screenshot

The game is "on rails", meaning the narrative is predetermined and the player has very limited influence on its progression.[13] The game consists almost entirely of animated cutscenes. The player does not control the character's actions directly, but controls his reflexes, with actions determined by selecting a direction or pressing a button in order to clear each quick time event, with different full motion video segments showing the outcomes. The game consists of a sequence of challenges played in a random order. Some scenes are played more than once before reaching the end, some of which are flipped or mirrored such that the opposite actions (e.g. left instead of right) are required.


The attract mode of the game displays various short vignettes of gameplay accompanied by the following narration: "Dragon's Lair: The fantasy adventure where you become a valiant knight, on a quest to rescue the fair princess from the clutches of an evil dragon. You control the actions of a daring adventurer, finding his way through the castle of a dark wizard, who has enchanted it with treacherous monsters and obstacles. In the mysterious caverns below the castle, your odyssey continues against the awesome forces that oppose your efforts to reach the Dragon's Lair. Lead on, adventurer. Your quest awaits!" Comedic aspects of the game include bizarre-looking creatures and humorous death scenes, and the portrayal of the player character as a clumsy, easily scared and reluctant hero.


Dragon's Lair began as a concept by Rick Dyer, president of Advanced Microcomputer Systems (which later became RDI Video Systems). A team of game designers created the characters and locations, then choreographed Dirk's movements as he encountered the monsters and obstacles in the castle. The art department at AMS created storyboards for each episode as a guide for the final animation. Dyer was inspired by the text game Adventure. This game gave rise to an invention he dubbed "The Fantasy Machine". This device went through many incarnations from a rudimentary computer using paper tape (with illustrations and text) to a system that manipulated a videodisc containing mostly still images and narration. The game it played was a graphic adventure, The Secrets of the Lost Woods.[14] The game's concept as an interactive movie LaserDisc game was inspired by Sega's Astron Belt, which Dyer saw at the 1982 AMOA show.[15]

Attempts to market The Fantasy Machine had repeatedly failed. Allegedly, an Ideal Toy Company representative walked out in the middle of one presentation. Dyer's inspiration allegedly came during his viewing of The Secret of NIMH, whereby he realized he needed quality animation and an action script to bring excitement to his game. He elected to take a reserved but unscripted location from The Secrets of the Lost Woods known as The Dragon's Lair.

The game was animated by veteran Disney animator and The Secret of NIMH director Don Bluth and his studio. The game had a development budget of US$3 million[16] and took seven months to complete. Since the studio could not afford to hire any models, the animators used photos from Playboy magazines for inspiration for the character Princess Daphne.[17] The animators also used their own voices for all the characters instead of hiring voice actors in order to keep costs down, although it does feature one professional voice actor, Michael Rye, as the narrator in the attract sequence (he is also the narrator for Space Ace and Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp). The voice of Princess Daphne was portrayed by Vera Lanpher,[18] who was head of the clean-up department at the time.[19] Dirk the Daring's voice was provided by film editor Dan Molina, who later went on to perform the bubbling sound effects for another animated character, Fish Out of Water, from 2005's Disney film Chicken Little, which he also edited. The music and many sound effects were scored and performed by Chris Stone at EFX Systems in Burbank. Bryan Rusenko and Glen Berkovitz were the recording engineers. The 43 second "Attract Loop" was recorded in a straight 18-hour session. Featured instruments, all keyboards, were the E-mu Emulator and Memorymoog.

The original LaserDisc players shipped with the game (Pioneer LD-V1000 or PR-7820) often failed. Although the players were of good quality, the game imposed unusually high strain: LaserDisc players were designed primarily for playing movies, in which the laser assembly would gradually move across the disc as the data was read linearly. However, Dragon's Lair required seeking different animation sequences on the disc every few seconds—indeed, less than a second in some cases—as dictated by gameplay. The high amount of seeking, coupled with the length of time the unit was required to operate, could result in failure of the LaserDisc player after a relatively short time. This was compounded by the game's popularity. As a result, the LaserDisc player often had to be repaired or replaced. The life of the original player's gas laser was about 650 hours; although later models had solid state lasers with an estimated life of 50,000 hours, the spindle motor typically failed long before that. It is rare to find a Dragon's Lair game intact with the original player, and conversion kits have been developed so the units can use more modern players.[original research?]

The original USA 1983 game used a single side NTSC LaserDisc player manufactured by Pioneer; the other side of the disc was metal backed to prevent bending. This made the disc heavier than a typical laser disc, which accelerated the failure of the spindle bearings of the player motor.[original research?]

The European versions of the game were manufactured by Atari[20] under license and used single side PAL discs manufactured by Philips (not metal backed).

A prototype made its debut at Chicago's Amusement Operators Expo (AOE) in March 1983.[21] The complete laserdisc and ROM sets of this preview demo version have not survived to this day. The European arcade version of Dragon's Lair was licensed to Atari Ireland (as was Space Ace later). The cabinet design was therefore different from the Cinematronics version. The main differences were that the LED digital scoring panel was replaced with an on-screen scoring display appearing after each level. The Atari branding was present in various places on the machine (marquee, coin slots, control panel and speaker grill area), and the machines featured the cone LED player start button used extensively on Atari machines. Although licensing for this region was exclusive to Atari, a number of Cinematronics machines were also available from suppliers mostly via a gray import. The original Fantasy Machine was later released as a prototype video game console known as Halcyon. Dirk the Daring also appeared in the 1993 Game Boy puzzle game, Franky, Joe & Dirk: On the Tiles, along with Franky from Dr. Franken and Joe from Joe & Mac.

Home versions[edit]

Dragon's Lair led to the creation of numerous video game ports for home systems. Since some original sequences did not fit in the ports for those systems, they were re-released only in a virtual sequel called Escape from Singe's Castle:

  • A nonlinear arcade interpretation of Dragon's Lair and Escape from Singe's Castle with elements of platform and puzzle was made by Software Projects for 8-bit machines in 1986.
  • A side-scrolling cinematic platformer adaptation of the game was also made for the Nintendo Entertainment System, titled Dragon's Lair.
  • The Game Boy version (entitled Dragon's Lair: The Legend) in particular has almost nothing to do with the source game aside from Dirk as the protagonist, Mordroc as the villain, and saving Princess Daphne as the objective. In fact, the game is a port of a five-year-old ZX Spectrum game, Roller Coaster, the result being a platform game where Dirk has to negotiate a series of thinly-disguised fairground rides. The later Game Boy Color version of the same name, however, is a relatively faithful rendition of the original game.
  • Another platformer adaptation of the game was also made for the Super NES, also titled Dragon's Lair.
  • The Dragon's Lair Deluxe Pack was released for home computers containing all the FMVs for all three games. Though it contains all the video including some scenes cut from the North American version of the game, the gameplay was reported as lackluster.
  • ReadySoft ported and released Dragon's Lair for the Macintosh computers on CD-ROM in 1994. A Sega CD version was also released.
  • DAPHNE, an emulator for LaserDisc-based games, can emulate the original 1983 version. DAPHNE requires the ROM files plus the original LaserDisc to run. Alternatively, an MPEG-2 video stream and Ogg Vorbis audio stream can be substituted for the LaserDisc. These streams can be generated from the original LaserDisc or from Digital Leisure's 2002 DVD.

Various home computer adaptations of Dragon's Lair were released during the 1980s and 1990s, but because of (at the time) high memory consumption due to the detailed animation of the games, not all scenes from the original game were included. Reviewers of the home computer versions differed widely in their appraisal of the game, with one Amiga magazine awarding 92% due to the unprecedented audio-visual quality,[22] while another magazine gave the same version a score of only 32%, on account of the "wooden" gameplay.[23] This led to Escape from Singe's Castle, a pseudo-sequel where Daphne is kidnapped at the moment of Dirk's victory by a shapeshifter, forcing him to venture even further into the castle to save her again. The game was made up of unused scenes from the LaserDisc version, though some portions (such as the lizard king and mud men) were shortened. The 8-bit versions were created by Software Projects, while ReadySoft handled the 16-bit versions. These used video compression and new storage techniques but came on multiple 5+14-inch and 3+12-inch floppy disks.

In late 2002, to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the original arcade release, Digital Leisure produced a special edition DVD box set containing Dragon's Lair, Space Ace and Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp. All the scenes from the original arcade releases were included and optionally the player could select new scenes that were animated in 1983, but not included in any previous Dragon's Lair release. The games were also updated to include higher quality video, authentic scene order and a new difficulty selection to make it more challenging. Digital Leisure worked with a small independent game developer, Derek Sweet, to release a CD-ROM 4-disc box set for Windows-based PCs.

In late 2006, Digital Leisure released Dragon's Lair HD, which features an all-new high-definition transfer from the original negatives (as opposed to just sourcing the LaserDisc). The original mono soundtrack has also been remastered into Dolby Digital 5.1 sound (on PCs that can support it). On April 9, 2007, a Blu-ray version of Dragon's Lair was released. This uses the same HD transfer as the aforementioned PC release but went through a 6-month process to clean and remaster the image. Dragon's Lair Blu-ray is the first title to fully utilize BD-J technology.[24] In 2013, Dragon's Lair was released on Steam via Steam Greenlight. This iteration of Dragon's Lair features 720p remastered video, remastered game footage, and bonus content.

The home conversions received mixed reviews. The Commodore 64/128 version of the game was reviewed in 1988 in Dragon #133 by Hartley, Patricia, and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column. The reviewers gave the game 3 out of 5 stars.[25]

GameFan reviewed the Sega CD version, scoring it 297 out of 400.[26] GamePro reviewed the Sega CD version in 1994. They commented that the controls require such precise timing that the game can be very frustrating, and criticized the lack of replay value and grainy video quality, but were positive in their assessment of the game, asserting that "Time Gal, Road Avenger, and Sewer Shark are all coy imitators of the best LaserDisc arcade game there ever was... Dragon's Lair!"[27] In 1994, Electronic Gaming Monthly gave the Sega CD version a 6.2 out of 10, criticizing that "pinpoint accuracy" was required to complete the game, making it too frustrating.[28]

Electronic Gaming Monthly gave the 3DO version a 7 out of 10, praising the superior graphics and short load times.[29] They gave the CD-i version a 7.5 out of 10, with all four of their reviewers agreeing it to be the best home version of the game to date.[30] Next Generation reviewed the CD-i version of the game, rating it two stars out of five. Though they concurred that it was an arcade-perfect conversion, they concluded that "People who like the stand-up version or enjoyed any of Don Bluth's other titles [...] will be in heaven, otherwise it's probably best avoided."[31]

  • In July 2010, the iOS version was released by Electronic Arts on Apple's App Store. The game's graphics have been cleaned up for the iPhone screen.[32]
  • In early 2019, HarmlessLion released Dragon's Lair under a license from Digital Leisure for the TI-99/4A home computer. It was released as a 128MB cartridge playable on the stock console.[33]
  • In March 2022, Brutal Deluxe, in celebrating their 30th anniversary, ported Dragon's Lair to the Apple IIGS computer, using resources from ReadySoft's Amiga, Atari ST and PC DOS versions from decades earlier.[34][35]


Dragon's Lair initially represented high hopes for the then-sagging arcade industry, fronting the new wave of immersive LaserDisc video games. A quote from Newsweek captures the level of excitement displayed over the game: "Dragon's Lair is this summer's hottest new toy: the first arcade game in the United States with a movie-quality image to go along with the action ... The game has been devouring kids' coins at top speed since it appeared early in July."[36] Arcade operators at its release reported long lines, even though the game was the first video arcade game to cost 50 cents.[37] Operators were also concerned, however, that players would figure out its unique predefined game play, leading them to "get the hang of it and stop playing it".[38] By July 1983, 1,000 machines had been distributed, and there were already a backlog of about 7,500.[38] Lifetime sales exceeded 16,000 cabinets.[39] By the end of 1983, Electronic Games and Electronic Fun were rating Dragon's Lair as the number one video arcade game in USA,[40] while the arcade industry gave it recognition for helping turn around its 1983 financial slump.[41] Dragon's Lair received recognition as the most influential game of 1983, to the point that regular computer graphics looked "rather elementary compared to top-quality animation".[42]

The game topped the monthly US RePlay charts for upright arcade cabinets from September 1983[43] through November 1983,[44][45] and topped the US Play Meter arcade charts for arcade locations (such as ShowBiz Pizza Place) from September 1983[46][47] through January 1984[48][49] and again in March 1984.[50] It was listed by Cash Box magazine as America's third highest-grossing arcade game of 1983, below Ms. Pac-Man and Pole Position.[51] By February 1984, Dragon's Lair was reported to have earned over $32 million ($98 million adjusted for inflation) for Cinematronics.[52] In Japan, Game Machine listed Dragon's Lair on their October 1, 1984 issue as being the eleventh most-successful upright/cockpit arcade unit of the month.[53]

One element of the game that was negatively received was the blackout time in between loading of scenes, which Dyer promised would be eliminated by the forthcoming Space Ace and planned Dragon's Lair sequel.[42] By the middle of 1984, however, after Space Ace and other similar games were released to little success, sentiment on Dragon's Lair's position in the industry had shifted and it was being cited as a failure due to its expensive cost for a game that would "lose popularity".[54] Arcade owners were also displeased with the mechanical unreliability of the LaserDisc drive.[55]

In 1995, Flux magazine rated the arcade version 47th on its Top 100 Video Games writing: "A somewhat frustrating movement-timing factor, but still fun to play and watch."[56] In 2001, GameSpy ranked Dragon's Lair as number 7 on the list of "Top 50 Arcade Games of All-Time".[57] It was one of only three video games (along with Pong and Pac-Man) put in storage at the Smithsonian Institution.[58]


Year Platform Media Developer Publisher Notes
1983 Arcade LaserDisc Advanced Microcomputer Systems Cinematronics Original release
1984 Coleco Adam Cartridge Coleco
Coleco Adam 514" Floppy disk Coleco
1986 Amstrad CPC Cassette Software Projects
Amstrad CPC 514" Floppy disk Software Projects
ZX Spectrum Cassette Software Projects
Commodore 64 Cassette Software Projects
1987 ZX Spectrum Cartridge Software Projects Budget release
Amstrad CPC Cassette Software Projects Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
Amstrad CPC 514" Floppy disk Software Projects Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
ZX Spectrum Cassette Software Projects Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
Commodore 64 Cassette Software Projects Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
Commodore 64 514" Floppy disk Amazing Software Republished version includes both cassette versions on a single floppy disk
1989 Amiga 312" Floppy disk Visionary Design Technologies ReadySoft
DOS 514" Floppy disk Sullivan Bluth / Merit Software
DOS 312" Floppy disk Sullivan Bluth / Merit Software
1990 Atari ST 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft ReadySoft
Macintosh Plus/SE 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft
Amiga 312" Floppy disk Visionary Design Technologies ReadySoft Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
Nintendo Entertainment System Cartridge Motivetime CSG Imagesoft Platformer
unreleased Apple IIGS 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft ReadySoft Was to be released as Dragon's Lair (1990) and Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle (1991)
1991 Game Boy Cartridge Motivetime CSG Imagesoft Platformer, released as Dragon's Lair: The Legend
Atari ST 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft ReadySoft Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
DOS 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft ReadySoft
DOS 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft ReadySoft Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle (includes some non-original arcade levels)
DOS 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft ReadySoft Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
Macintosh 312" Floppy disk ReadySoft Released as Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle
1993 Super NES Cartridge Motivetime Data East Platformer, Published by Konami as Dragon's Magic in Japan
Sega CD CD-ROM Epicenter Interactive ReadySoft
DOS CD-ROM ReadySoft
3DO CD-ROM ReadySoft
unreleased Sega Genesis Cartridge Eden Entertainment Software Sega / Taito Was to be released as Dragon's Lair: The Adventure Continues.[59][60]
1994 Macintosh CD-ROM ReadySoft ReadySoft
CD-i CD-ROM ReadySoft
1995 Atari Jaguar CD CD-ROM ReadySoft ReadySoft
1997 Windows 95 CD-ROM Digital Leisure Released as Deluxe Pack (also contained Space Ace and Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp)
Windows DVD Digital Leisure [61]
1998 Home DVD players DVD Digital Leisure
Windows 98 DVD Digital Leisure
2000 Game Boy Color Cartridge Digital Eclipse Capcom
2001 Windows XP CD-ROM Digital Leisure Arcade authentic
2002 Home DVD players DVD Digital Leisure Released as 20th Anniversary Pack
Macintosh DVD Digital Leisure
GameCube GameCube Optical Disc Dragonstone Ubisoft Remake as Dragon's Lair 3D
Xbox DVD Dragonstone Ubisoft Remake as Dragon's Lair 3D
Windows CD-ROM Dragonstone Ubisoft Remake as Dragon's Lair 3D
2003 Windows XP CD-ROM Digital Leisure Released as 20th Anniversary Pack
2004 PlayStation 2 DVD Dragonstone THQ Released as Dragon's Lair 3D - Special Edition
GameCube GameCube Optical Disc Dragonstone THQ Released as Dragon's Lair 3D - Special Edition
2005 Mobile Phone Download MMJ Games Starwave
2006 Windows XP DVD Digital Leisure High Definition WMV
2007 Home Blu-ray players BD-R Infinite HD Digital Leisure
PlayStation 3 BD-R Infinite HD Digital Leisure
Home HD DVD players HD DVD Infinite HD Digital Leisure
Xbox 360 HD DVD Digital Leisure
Windows DVD Digital Leisure 20th Anniversary Pack released on 1 DVD instead of 4 disks
2009 iPhone Download Digital Leisure Electronic Arts
Nintendo DSi (DSiWare) Download Code Mystics Digital Leisure
2010 Wii Wii Optical Disc Digital Leisure Destineer Released as Dragon's Lair Trilogy (includes Dragon's Lair, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp, and Space Ace)
iPad App Store Digital Leisure Dragon's Lair LLC
Nintendo DS DS Game Card Code Mystics Destineer
PlayStation Network Download Digital Leisure Digital Leisure
2011 PSP Download Digital Leisure Digital Leisure
Android Download Digital Leisure Digital Leisure
Nintendo 3DS Download Digital Leisure Digital Leisure
2012 Xbox Live Arcade Download Digital Leisure Microsoft Studios Kinect-enabled version with Xbox 360 controller[62]
2013 Windows Download (Steam) Digital Leisure Digital Leisure
macOS Download (Steam) Digital Leisure Digital Leisure
2017 Linux Download (Steam) Digital Leisure Digital Leisure
PlayStation 4 Download (PSN) Digital Leisure Digital Leisure Released as Dragon's Lair Trilogy (includes Dragon's Lair, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp, and Space Ace)
2019 Nintendo Switch Download (eShop) Digital Leisure Digital Leisure Released as Dragon's Lair Trilogy (includes Dragon's Lair, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp, and Space Ace)
TI-99/4A Cartridge HarmlessLion HarmlessLion Limited run of cartridges produced under a license from Digital Leisure
Xbox One Download (Xbox Store) Digital Leisure Digital Leisure Released as Dragon's Lair Trilogy (includes Dragon's Lair, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp, and Space Ace)
2022 Apple IIGS Download Brutal Deluxe Brutal Deluxe Released as Dragon's Lair, Dragon's Lair: Escape from Singe's Castle, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp

Cultural references[edit]

Dragon's Lair appears in the Stranger Things episode "Chapter One: MADMAX" (2017).[63]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Some sources erroneously list the release day as June 23,[5] July 1,[6][7] or late July.[8]
  2. ^ Up to 2 players with alternating turns.


  1. ^ "Arcade Action: Laser Games". Computer and Video Games. No. 26 (December 1983). 16 November 1983. pp. 86–7.
  2. ^ Bluth, Don; Goldman, Gary (2017-06-19). "Today is the 34th Anniversary of Dragon's Lair!". Dragon's Lair Club. Traditional Animation. Archived from the original on 2017-06-22. Retrieved 2018-09-02. ... after its debut on the 19th of June 1983.
  3. ^ "Dragon's Lair". Steam. Valve. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  4. ^ "Dragon's Lair Trilogy". GOG.com. CD Projekt. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  5. ^ "The Big Video Game Anniversaries of 2018". Den of Geek!. New York City: Dennis Publishing. 2018-03-05. Archived from the original on 2020-03-29. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  6. ^ Dragon's Lair (arcade flyer). The Arcade Flyer Archive. Starcom. 1983. p. 1. Retrieved 2018-09-02.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  7. ^ Arnold, Jay (1983-08-19). "Industry Has High Hopes For New Video Games". The Titusville Herald. NewspaperARCHIVE. Retrieved 2014-10-07. ... when it was introduced last month.
  8. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (1983-08-02). "Hollywood Playing Harder at the Video Game". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-10-07. "Dragon's Lair," a coin- operated laser-disk video game with stereophonic sound and real animation, reached arcades two weeks ago...
  9. ^ a b Akagi, Masumi (13 October 2006). "アルゼ(ユニバーサル) Universal". アーケードTVゲームリスト国内•海外編(1971-2005) [Arcade TV Game List: Domestic • Overseas Edition (1971-2005)] (in Japanese). Japan: Amusement News Agency. p. 15. ISBN 978-4990251215. 84/07 ドラゴンズレア (Cinematronics) LD
  10. ^ Dragon's Lair / Space Ace (arcade flyer). The Arcade Flyer Archive. Universal. 1984. p. 2. Retrieved 2018-09-02.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  11. ^ "Dragon's Lair - The International Arcade Museum". International Arcade Museum. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
  12. ^ "Dragon's Lair". The International Arcade Museum. Retrieved 5 Oct 2013.
  13. ^ VicSage (2016-09-10). "32 Years Later I Get To Read This Dragon's Lair Storybook!". The Retroist. Archived from the original on 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2018-09-04. While it certainly has plenty of Players who seem to rail against the game...well...being a game on rails
  14. ^ Interview with Rick Dyer from Animation World Network
  15. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P. (2008). The Video Game Explosion: A History from PONG to Playstation and Beyond. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 128. ISBN 9780313338687.
  16. ^ Arnold, Jay (August 21, 1983). "Video Game Executives Begin To Create More Exciting Arcade Games". The Daily Advertiser. p. 125. Retrieved December 5, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  17. ^ "Dragon's Lair movie?" Archived 2010-01-13 at the Wayback Machine from Suite101
  18. ^ Vera Pacheco Filmography at IMDb
  19. ^ Behind the Scenes from DonBluth.com
  20. ^ Dragon's Lair (arcade flyer). The Arcade Flyer Archive. Atari Ireland. 1983. p. 2.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  21. ^ Adlum, Eddie (November 1985). "The Replay Years: Reflections from Eddie Adlum". RePlay. Vol. 11, no. 2. pp. 134-175 (168-70).
  22. ^ "Dragon's Lair review from ST Amiga Format 9 (Mar 1989) - Amiga Magazine Rack". Amr.abime.net. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  23. ^ "Dragon's Lair review from CU Commodore User Amiga-64 (Mar 1989) - Amiga Magazine Rack". Amr.abime.net. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  24. ^ Nelson, Carl (2007-04-04). "Dragon's Lair – The first full Blu-Ray Java title reviewed". Hardcoreware.net. Archived from the original on 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  25. ^ Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia; Lesser, Kirk (May 1988). "The Role of Computers". Dragon (133): 46–52.
  26. ^ Halverson, Dave; Rickards, Kelly (K. Lee); Cockburn, Andrew (November 1993). "Viewpoint". Diehard GameFan. Vol. 1, no. 12. DieHard Gamers Club. pp. 21–3. ISSN 1092-7212.
  27. ^ Lawrence of Arcadia (April 1994). "ProReview: Dragon's Lair". GamePro. No. 67. IDG. p. 40.
  28. ^ "Dragon's Lair Review". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 55. Sendai Publishing. February 1994. p. 42.
  29. ^ "Dragon's Lair Review". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 57. Sendai Publishing. April 1994. p. 44.
  30. ^ "Review Crew: Dragon's Lair". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 61. Sendai Publishing. August 1994. p. 36.
  31. ^ "Finals". Next Generation. No. 2. Imagine Media. February 1995. p. 94.
  32. ^ iTunes
  33. ^ AtariAge Forums
  34. ^ "Brutal Deluxe Software - Dragon's Lair".
  35. ^ "Brutal Deluxe Software - Escape from Singe's Castle".
  36. ^ McGuigan, Cathleen; McAlevey, Peter (8 August 1983). "Mini-Movies Make the Scene". Newsweek. p. 79.
  37. ^ "Local Amusement Facilities Planning To Get Dragon's Lair". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. August 18, 1983.
  38. ^ a b Turner, Steve (August 5, 1983). "The lair of the new". The Ledger.[permanent dead link]
  39. ^ Kent, Steven (April 1998). "The Rise and Fall of Arcades (Part 2)". Next Generation. No. 40. Imagine Media. p. 34.
  40. ^ Clark, Doug (January 15, 1984). "Ace dragon slayer may make a killing as video-tips writer". The Spokesman-Review.[permanent dead link]
  41. ^ "Laser disc arcade games could become wave of the future". Gadsden Times. Feb 18, 1984. Retrieved 2013-03-11.
  42. ^ a b "Graphics are lure in Dragon's Lair". The Milwaukee Sentinel. Feb 1, 1984. Retrieved 2013-03-11.[dead link]
  43. ^ "RePlay: The Players' Choice". RePlay. September 1983.
  44. ^ "RePlay: The Players' Choice". RePlay. October 1983.
  45. ^ "RePlay: The Players' Choice". RePlay. November 1983.
  46. ^ "Top Arcade Games". Video Games. Vol. 2, no. 2. November 1983. p. 82.
  47. ^ "Play Meter's Equipment Poll: Top Videos". Play Meter. November 15, 1983.
  48. ^ "Top Arcade Games". Video Games. Vol. 2, no. 5. February 1984. p. 82.
  49. ^ "Top Arcade Games". Video Games. Vol. 2, no. 6. March 1984. p. 82.
  50. ^ "Top Arcade Games". Video Games. Vol. 2, no. 8. May 1984. p. 82.
  51. ^ "Cash Box Jukebox/Games Survey". Cash Box. Cash Box Pub. Co. October 29, 1983. p. 46.
  52. ^ "Video File". Los Angeles Times. February 21, 1984. p. 63. Retrieved March 8, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  53. ^ "Game Machine's Best Hit Games 25 - アップライト, コックピット型TVゲーム機 (Upright/Cockpit Videos)". Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 245. Amusement Press, Inc. 1 October 1984. p. 35.
  54. ^ "Video Games Fizzle Out". Jul 28, 1984. Retrieved 2013-03-11.
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  56. ^ "Top 100 Video Games". Flux (4). Harris Publications: 30. April 1995.
  57. ^ "GameSpy's Top 50 Arcade Games of All-Time". GameSpy. Retrieved 2013-03-11.
  58. ^ "History of Computing: Video games - Golden Age". Thocp.net. Archived from the original on 2009-11-27. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  59. ^ "CVG CES News USA (Turbocharged Gaming): All Quiet On The Sega Front? - Mega Drive". Computer and Video Games. No. 153. EMAP. August 1994. p. 16.
  60. ^ Nolan, Mark (September 15, 2011). "The Summer of Protos! MrMark and Beaglepuss Release Protos All Summer!". SegaAge. Bucket Head Media, LLC. Archived from the original on 2018-08-14. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
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