Dragunov sniper rifle
Russian-made SVD (top) and SVDS (shortened variant with folding stock) rifles featuring modern synthetic furniture
|Type||Designated marksman rifle|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See Users|
|Action||Gas-operated, rotating bolt|
|Rate of fire||Semi-automatic|
|Effective firing range||800 m (875 yd)|
|Feed system||10-round detachable box magazine|
|Sights||PSO-1 telescopic sight, 1PN51/1PN58 night vision sights and iron sights with an adjustable rear notch sight|
The Dragunov sniper rifle (formal Russian: Сна́йперская Винто́вка систе́мы Драгуно́ва образца́ 1963 года, Snáyperskaya Vintóvka sistém'y Dragunóva obraz'tsá 1963 goda (SVD-63), officially "Sniper Rifle, System of Dragunov, Model of the Year 1963") (GRAU index 6V1 (ГРАУ Индекс 6В1)) is a semi-automatic designated marksman rifle chambered in 7.62×54mmR and developed in the Soviet Union.
The Dragunov was designed as a squad support weapon since, according to Soviet and Soviet-derived military doctrines, long-range engagement ability was lost to ordinary troops when submachine guns and assault rifles (which are optimized for close-range and medium-range, rapid-fire combat) were adopted.
It was developed in 1957–1963 and selected as the winner of a contest that included three competing groups of designers, led by Sergei Simonov, Aleksandr Konstantinov and Yevgeny Dragunov. Extensive field testing of the rifles conducted in a wide range of environmental conditions resulted in Dragunov's proposal being accepted into service in July 1963. An initial pre-production batch consisting of 200 rifles was assembled for evaluation purposes, and from 1964 serial production was carried out by Izhmash, later called Kalashnikov Concern.
Since then, the Dragunov has become the standard squad support weapon of several countries, including those of the former Warsaw Pact. China produced an unlicensed copy of the SVD through reverse-engineered samples captured during the Sino-Vietnamese War as the Type 79 and 85. Iran also produced a clone, the Nakhjir 3, which was a direct copy of the Chinese Type 79.
The Dragunov is a semi-automatic, gas-operated rifle with a short-stroke gas-piston system. The barrel breech is locked through a rotating bolt (left rotation) and uses three locking lugs to engage corresponding locking recesses in the barrel extension. The rifle has a manual, two-position gas regulator. A gas regulator meters the portion of the combustion gases fed into the action in order to cycle the weapon and sets the recoil velocity of the gas-piston system. The gas regulator can be set with the help of the rim of a cartridge. The normal position #1 leaves a gas escape port opened in the form of a hole that lets some combustion gas escape during cycling. Position #2 closes the gas escape port and directs extra combustion gas to the piston increasing the recoil velocity of the gas-piston system and felt recoil. It is used for when the rifle does not reliably cycle due to carbon fouling build-up in the gas port, when shooting in extreme cold or high altitude or using low-powered ammunition.
After discharging the last cartridge from the magazine, the bolt carrier and bolt are held back on a bolt catch that is released by pulling the cocking handle to the rear. The rifle has a hammer-type striking mechanism and a manual lever safety selector. The firing pin is a "free-floating" type and, as a result, some soft-primered ammunition had the reputation of causing a "slam fire" event. Thus, military-grade ammunition with primers confirmed to be properly seated is recommended for the Dragunov and its variants. This appears to have solved the "slam fire" issue. The rifle's receiver is machined to provide additional accuracy and torsional strength. The Dragunov's receiver bears a number of similarities to the AK action, such as the large dust cover, iron sights and lever safety selector, but these similarities are primarily cosmetic in nature, because the Dragunov uses a short-stroke action as opposed to the long-stroke operating mechanism of the AK. These cosmetic similarities can lead to mis-categorization of the Dragunov as an AK variant.
The barrel profile is relatively thin to save weight. Its bore is chrome-lined for increased corrosion resistance, and features four right-hand grooves. In the 1960s, the twist rate was 320 mm (1:12.6 in). During the 1970s, the twist rate was increased to 240 mm (1:9.4 in), which reduced the accuracy of fire with sniper cartridges by 19%. This adaptation was carried out in order to facilitate the use of tracer and armor-piercing incendiary ammunition, since these bullet types required a faster twist rate for adequate stabilization. The front part of the barrel features the front sight assembly and a bayonet lug. The muzzle is equipped with a permanently affixed long-slotted flash hider.
The rifle is fed from a detachable curved box magazine with a 10-round capacity and the cartridges are double-stacked in a staggered zigzag pattern.
The rifle features mechanically adjustable backup iron sights with a sliding tangent rear sight (the iron sight line can be adjusted from 100 to 1,200 m (109 to 1,312 yd) in 100 m (109 yd) increments). The iron sights can be used with or without the standard issue optical sight in place. This is possible because the scope mount does not block the area between the front and rear sights.
The Dragunov is issued with a quick-detachable PSO-1 optical sight. The PSO-1 sight (at a total length of 375 mm with a lens cover and sun shade, 4 × magnification and 6° field of view) mounts to a proprietary side mount Warsaw Pact rail that does not block the view of the iron sight line. The PSO-1 sight includes a variety of features, such as a bullet drop compensation (BDC) elevation adjustment knob and an illuminated rangefinder grid that can be used up to 1,000 m (1,094 yd), a reticle that enables target acquisition in low light conditions as well as an infrared charging screen that is used as a passive detection system. The current version of the sight is the PSO-1M2. This telescopic sight is different from the original PSO-1 only in that it lacks the now obsolete Infra-Red detector. The PSO-1 sight enables area targets to be engaged at ranges upwards of 1,300 m (1,422 yd); effective ranges in combat situations have been stated at between 600 to 1,300 m (656 to 1,422 yd), depending on the nature of the target (point or area target) quality of ammunition and skill of the shooter.
Several military issue alternative telescopic sights with varying levels of magnification and reticles are available for the Dragunov. Rifles designated SVDN come equipped with a night sight, such as the NSP-3, NSPU, PGN-1, NSPUM or the Polish passive PCS-5. Rifles designated SVDN-1 can use the passive night sight NSPU-3 (1PN51) and rifles designated SVDN2 can use the passive night sight NSPUM (1PN58).
The Dragunov has a vented, two-piece wooden handguard/gas tube cover and a skeletonized wooden thumbhole stock equipped with a detachable cheek rest; the latter is removed when using iron sights. Newer production models feature synthetic furniture made of a black polymer – the handguard and gas tube cover are more or less identical in appearance, while the thumbhole stock is of a different shape.
The barrel is semi free-floated, since it is connected by a spring-loaded mechanism to the handguard/gas tube cover so the handguard can move with the barrel during firing.
For precision shooting, specifically designed sniper cartridges are used, developed by V. M. Sabelnikov, P. P. Sazonov and V. M. Dvorianinov. The proprietary 7N1 load has a steel jacketed projectile with an air pocket, a steel core and a lead knocker in the base for maximum terminal effect. The 7N1 was replaced in 1999 by the 7N14 round. The 7N14 is a new load developed for the SVD. It consists of a 151 grain projectile that travels at the same 830 m/s, but it has a sharp hardened steel core projectile. The rifle can also fire standard 7.62×54mmR ammunition with either conventional, tracer or armor-piercing incendiary rounds.
The Russian military has established accuracy standards that the SVD and its corresponding sniper grade ammunition have to meet. Manufacturers must perform firing tests to check if the rifles and sniper grade ammunition fulfill these standards. To comply to the standards, the SVD rifle with 7N1 sniper cartridges may not produce more than 1.24 MOA extreme vertical spread with 240 mm twist rate barrels and no more than 1.04 MOA extreme vertical spread with 320 mm twist rate barrels. When using standard grade 57-N-323S cartridges, the accuracy of the SVD is reduced to 2.21 MOA extreme vertical spread. The extreme vertical spreads for the SVD are established by shooting 5-shot groups at 300 m range. The accuracy requirements demanded of the SVD with sniper grade ammunition are similar to the American M24 Sniper Weapon System with M118SB cartridges (1.18 MOA extreme vertical spread) and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System with M118LR ammunition (1.27 MOA extreme vertical spread).
A number of accessories are provided with the rifle, including a blade-type bayonet (AKM clipped point or the AK-74 spear point bayonet), four spare magazines, a leather or nylon sling, magazine pouch, cleaning kit and an accessory/maintenance kit for the telescopic sight. Also included is a cold weather battery case with a "shirt clip", with a permanently attached cord [approximately 24" long] ending with another battery case cap that has an extension to press against the internal contact in lieu of the battery to complete the circuit. Placing the external battery case into the shooters' clothing close to the body keeps it from freezing; using the clip ensures it remains in place. The clamp-style bipod attaches to machined-out reliefs near the front of the receiver, it literally grabs the two cut out areas and securely mounts with a large round sized head on the clamp bolt able to tightly attach the bipod. The legs are individually adjustable [as opposed to fixed length found on many rifles and LMG's] and can be folded and stowed in a forward position negating the need to remove the bipod before placing the rifle into the canvas carrying case. The two legs are held close together with a "J" shaped clamp attached to one leg and swung over the other leg. Original Soviet/Russian SVD bipods fetch a very high price when they rarely appear on the market.
In the early 1990s, a compact variant of the SVD designed for airborne infantry was introduced, known as the SVDS (Russian: снайперская винтовка Драгунова складная, short for Snayperskaya Vintovka Dragunova Skladnaya, "Dragunov Sniper Rifle with folding stock"), which features a tubular metal stock that folds to the right side of the receiver (equipped with a synthetic shoulder pad and a fixed cheek riser) and a synthetic pistol grip. The barrel was also given a heavier profile, the receiver housing was strengthened, the gas cylinder block was improved and a ported, shorter conical flash suppressor was adopted.
The SVDS also comes in a night-capable variant designated SVDSN.
In 1994, the Russian TsKIB SOO company (currently, a division of the KBP Instrument Design Bureau) developed the SVU sniper rifle (short for Snayperskaya Vintovka Ukorochennaya, "Sniper Rifle, Shortened") offered to special units of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).
The SVU, compared to the SVD, has a considerably shorter overall length because of the bullpup layout and shortened barrel that also received a triple-baffle muzzle brake with an approx. 40% recoil reduction effectiveness. The rifle was equipped with folding iron sights (rear aperture sight in a rotating drum) and the PSO-1 telescopic sight.
A variant of the SVU, designed with a selective-fire capability and using 20-round magazines, is called the SVU-A (A – Avtomaticheskaya).
An improved 7.62×54mmR version designated as SVDM entered service in June 2018. It is based on the SVDS, featuring a thicker and heavier 550 mm (21.7 in) long barrel, improved ergonomics, an adjustable side-folding shoulder stock, and an integrated length of Picatinny rail pinned to the redesigned top cover. This allows mounting various sighting optics. The variable power 1P88-4 (1П88-4) telescopic sight is used as the standard day optic. The SVDM rifle can be used with a detachable bipod, and with a quick-detachable suppressor. The iron sight line features a simplified rear sight element and a new front sight element located above the gas block. The SVDM has a length of 1,135 mm (44.7 in) (975 mm (38.4 in) with the stock folded) and weighs 5.3 kg (12 lb).
In 1998, Poland adopted a modernized variant of the SVD designated the SWD-M, which uses a heavy barrel, bipod (mounted to the forearm) and LD-6 (6×42) telescopic sight.
Another variant of the SVD is the Iraqi Al-Kadesih. The 7.62×54mmR Al-Kadesih rifle is not to be confused with the Iraqi 7.62×39mm Tabuk sniper rifle. The Al-Kadesih, while cosmetically similar to the SVD, is essentially a hybrid of the SVD and Romanian PSL rifles and has some key differences with the SVD that prevent parts interchangeability between the two rifles. The Al-Kadesih has a unique pressed-metal receiver which is longer than that of the SVD, although the overall length of the rifle is similar to that of the SVD. It is fitted for the Soviet-era PSO-1 optical sight. Further, the barrel is pinned, rather than screwed, to the receiver, although it is of the same length as that of the SVD. The fore-end has four longitudinal slots on each side instead of six short slots. Another readily visible distinguishing feature of the Al-Kadesih is that the magazine has an ornamental relief pattern showing a stylised palm tree.
The Dragunov also served as the basis for several hunting rifles. In 1962, the state armory in Izhevsk developed the Medved (Bear) rifle, initially chambered first in the 9×53mm cartridge and later in the 7.62×51mm NATO round for export. In the early 1970s, Izhevsk introduced the Tigr (Tiger) hunting rifle with a fixed thumbhole stock without a cheekpiece. They were originally produced individually, but, since 1992, they have been made serially in batches. Today, they are available with shortened (520 mm) and full length (620 mm) barrel, different stocks (including SVDS style folding stock) and chambered in 7.62×54mmR, .308 Winchester, .30-06 Springfield or 9.3×64mm Brenneke.
The Dragunov is an original rifle design for several reasons. First, it was not meant for highly trained and specialized sniper teams, but rather for designated marksmen. After the introduction of the SVD, the Soviet Army deployed designated marksmen at the basic motorized infantry rifle platoon level. Those designated marksmen were often chosen from personnel who did well in terms of rifle marksmanship while members of DOSAAF. Such marksmen were estimated to have a 50% probability of hitting a standing, man-sized target at 800 m (875 yd), and an 80% probability of hitting a standing, man-sized target at 500 m (547 yd). For distances not exceeding 200 m (219 yd) the probability was estimated to be well above 90%. To attain this level of accuracy the sniper could not engage more than two such targets per minute.
Once the rifle had been produced in sufficient numbers every platoon of Warsaw Pact troops included at least one Dragunov rifle marksman. In the German Democratic Republic arsenals alone, there were almost 2,000 Dragunov rifles. In Warsaw Pact troop formations, the Dragunov marksmen were widespread among the regular units. To fulfill this role, the SVD is relatively light for a sniper rifle, but well balanced, making it easier to use in a dynamic battle. It is also semi-automatic, a trait it shares with the German Heckler & Koch PSG1 and US M21, so as to allow rapid fire and quicker engagement of multiple targets. As with all precision-oriented rifles, the user has to take care not to overheat the barrel and limit the use of rapid fire. In order to effectively fire armor-piercing incendiary ammunition, its accuracy potential was slightly downgraded by shortening the twist rate, another uncommon priority for a pure sniper rifle. It has a relatively light barrel profile; its precision is good, but not exceptional. Like an infantry rifle, there are mounts on the barrel to fix a bayonet. The standard AKM bayonet can even be used to cut electrified barbed wire. Lastly, the rifle was meant to be a relatively cheap mass-produced firearm.
These features and unusual characteristics were driven by the tactical use doctrine of Dragunov armed marksmen, which was: from (just behind) the first line targeting high-value targets of opportunity and providing special long-distance disrupting and suppressive fire on the battlefield, even with sudden close encounters with enemy troops in mind. A relatively small number of marksmen could assist conventional troops by combating or harassing valuable targets and assets such as key enemy personnel like officers, non-commissioned officers and radio operators, exposed tank commanders, designated marksmen and snipers, machinegun teams, anti-tank warfare teams, etc.
- Afghanistan: used by the Afghan National Army and Taliban
- Bangladesh: Uses Chinese Type 85 copy. Used by all of the branches of military & police.
- Bolivia: Type 79 variant in use.
- Burundi: Burundian special forces 
- Central African Republic: SVD and Type 85
- Chechen separatists
- China: Norinco-made copy of the SVD, known as the Type 79. Equipped with a 4× magnification optical sight which is a copy of the PSO-1. The rifle has a slightly shorter butt. Also produced a modified Type 85 and several other commercial copies of the SVD. An upgraded variant called the CS/LR19 was also debuted. Export variants such as the "NSG-85" were also produced.
- Czech Republic
- Ethiopia: Used by Ethiopian Peacekeepers in Darfur.
- Finland: Known as the 7.62 TKIV Dragunov, which stands for tarkkuuskivääri (sniper rifle).
- India: Used by "Designated Marksmen". Being phased out in favour of newer systems.
- Iran: Locally produced as the Nakhjir 3 Sniper Rifle. A new upgraded version was unveiled during the Muhammad Rasulullah 4 exercises held on 12 December 2016.
- Iraq: Al Kadesiah, made based on SVD and PSL. Official Iraqi designation is either Al-Qadissiya or Al-Gadissiya. SVD and Kadesiah rifles has been used by both Saddam's and post-2003 Iraqi Army and by Iraqi insurgents. SVDs are also fielded by the Popular Mobilization Forces.
- Ivory Coast
- Islamic State: SVD and Type 79
- Kurdistan Workers' Party
- Lithuania
- Lord Resistance Army
- Niger - Including Type 85s
- North Korea
- Panamá: Used by National Border Service (SENAFRONT), National Aeronaval Service (SENAN) and Institutional Protection Service (SPI).
- Philippines: Type 85 Chinese variant. Also batches of SVD rifle donated by Russia.
- Poland: Polish SVD modernization; known as SWD-M- and updated with a heavier barrel, variable magnification scope and detachable bipod. It's planned to replace SVD with Grot's marksman variant.
- Russia: SVD-M and folding-stock SVDS.
- Senegal: Used by Air Force and Army
- Serbia Special forces, model SVDK.
- Turkey: Used by Gendarmerie General Command and Polis Özel Harekat.
- Venezuela: Over 1000 rifles purchased by the Army of Venezuela in 2007.
- Vietnam - Used by the Vietnamese Army since the Vietnam War.
- East Germany: Issued as the SWD.
- Czechoslovakia: Entered service with the Czechoslovak Army in the 1970's. 
- Soviet Union: Entered service with the Soviet Army in 1967.
- SVDK a variant of the SVD, chambered in 9.3×64mm Brenneke.
- VSS Vintorez, a suppressed sniper rifle also used in limited numbers in Russia, similar weapon.
- Puşca Semiautomată cu Lunetă (PSL), a Romanian designated marksman/sniper rifle that resembles the SVD, chambered in 7.62×54mmR.
- Zastava M76, a Yugoslavian designated marksman/sniper rifle that resembles the SVD, chambered in 7.92×57mm Mauser.
- Zastava M91, a Serbian designated marksman/sniper rifle that resembles the SVD, chambered in 7.62×54mmR.
- IMI Galatz, an Israeli designated marksman/sniper rifle that resembles the SVD, chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO.
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