Radio drama (or audio drama, audio play, radio play, radio theater) is a dramatized, purely acoustic performance, broadcast on radio or published on audio media, such as tape or CD. With no visual component, radio drama depends on dialogue, music and sound effects to help the listener imagine the characters and story: “It is auditory in the physical dimension but equally powerful as a visual force in the psychological dimension.”
Radio drama achieved widespread popularity within a decade of its initial development in the 1920s. By the 1940s, it was a leading international popular entertainment. With the advent of television in the 1950s, however, radio drama lost some of its popularity, and in some countries has never regained large audiences. However, recordings of OTR (old-time radio) survive today in the audio archives of collectors and museums, as well as several online sites such as Internet Archive.
As of 2011, radio drama has a minimal presence on terrestrial radio in the United States. Much of American radio drama is restricted to rebroadcasts or podcasts of programs from previous decades. However, other nations still have thriving traditions of radio drama. In the United Kingdom, for example, the BBC produces and broadcasts hundreds of new radio plays each year on Radio 3, Radio 4, and Radio 4 Extra. Like the USA, Australia ABC has abandoned broadcasting drama but New Zealand RNZ continues to promote and broadcast a variety of drama on its airways. Podcasting has also offered the means of creating new radio dramas, in addition to the distribution of vintage programs.
The terms "audio drama" or "audio theatre" are sometimes used synonymously with "radio drama" with one possible distinction: audio drama or audio theatre may not necessarily be intended specifically for broadcast on radio. Audio drama, whether newly produced or OTR classics, can be found on CDs, cassette tapes, podcasts, webcasts and conventional broadcast radio.
Thanks to advances in digital recording and Internet distribution, radio drama was experiencing a revival in 2010.
- 1 History
- 2 Radio drama around the world
- 3 See also
- 4 Footnotes
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
The Roman playwright “Seneca has been claimed as a forerunner of radio drama because his plays were performed by readers as sound plays, not by actors as stage plays; but in this respect Seneca had no significant successors until 20th-century technology made possible the widespread dissemination of sound plays.”
1880–1930: Early years
Radio drama traces its roots back to the 1880s: “In 1881 French engineer Clement Ader had filed a patent for ‘improvements of Telephone Equipment in Theatres’” (Théâtrophone). English-language radio drama seems to have started in the United States. A Rural Line on Education, a brief sketch specifically written for radio, aired on Pittsburgh's KDKA in 1921, according to historian Bill Jaker. Newspaper accounts of the era report on a number of other drama experiments by America's commercial radio stations: KYW broadcast a season of complete operas from Chicago starting in November 1921. In February 1922, entire Broadway musical comedies with the original casts aired from WJZ's Newark studios. Actors Grace George and Herbert Hayes performed an entire play from a San Francisco station in the summer of 1922.
An important turning point in radio drama came when Schenectady, New York's WGY, after a successful tryout on August 3, 1922, began weekly studio broadcasts of full-length stage plays in September 1922, using music, sound effects and a regular troupe of actors, The WGY Players. Aware of this series, the director of Cincinnati's WLW began regularly broadcasting one-acts (as well as excerpts from longer works) in November. The success of these projects led to imitators at other stations. By the spring of 1923, original dramatic pieces written specially for radio were airing on stations in Cincinnati (When Love Wakens by WLW's Fred Smith), Philadelphia (The Secret Wave by Clyde A. Criswell) and Los Angeles (At Home over KHJ). That same year, WLW (in May) and WGY (in September) sponsored scripting contests, inviting listeners to create original plays to be performed by those stations' dramatic troupes.
Listings in The New York Times and other sources for May 1923 reveal at least 20 dramatic offerings were scheduled (including one-acts, excerpts from longer dramas, complete three- and four-act plays, operettas and a Molière adaptation), either as in-studio productions or by remote broadcast from local theaters and opera houses. An early British drama broadcast was of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream on 2LO on 25 July 1923
Serious study of American radio drama of the 1920s and early 1930s is, at best, very limited. Unsung pioneers of the art include: WLW's Fred Smith; Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll (who popularized the dramatic serial); The Eveready Hour creative team (which began with one-act plays but was soon experimenting with hour-long combinations of drama and music on its weekly variety program); the various acting troupes at stations like WLW, WGY, KGO and a number of others, frequently run by women like Helen Schuster Martin and Wilda Wilson Church; early network continuity writers like Henry Fisk Carlton, William Ford Manley and Don Clark; producers and directors like Clarence Menser and Gerald Stopp; and a long list of others who were credited at the time with any number of innovations but who are largely forgotten or undiscussed today. Elizabeth McLeod's 2005 book on Gosden and Correll's early work is a major exception, as is Richard J. Hand's 2006 study of horror radio, which examines some programs from the late 1920s and early 1930s.
Another notable early radio drama, one of the first specially written for the medium in the UK, was A Comedy of Danger by Richard Hughes, broadcast by the BBC on January 15, 1924, about a group of people trapped in a Welsh coal mine. One of the earliest and most influential French radio plays was the prize-winning "Marémoto" ("Seaquake"), by Gabriel Germinet and Pierre Cusy, which presents a realistic account of a sinking ship before revealing that the characters are actually actors rehearsing for a broadcast. Translated and broadcast in Germany and England by 1925, the play was originally scheduled by Radio-Paris to air on October 23, 1924, but was instead banned from French radio until 1937 because the government feared that the dramatic SOS messages would be mistaken for genuine distress signals.
Radio drama (as distinguished from theatre plays boiled down to kilocycle size) began at midnight, in the middle thirties, on one of the upper floors of Chicago's Merchandise Mart. The pappy was a rotund writer by the name of Wyllis Cooper.
Though the series is often remembered solely for its gruesome stories and sound effects, Cooper's scripts for Lights Out were well-written and offered innovations seldom heard in early radio dramas, including multiple first person narrators, stream of consciousness monologues and scripts that contrasted a duplicitious character's internal monologue and his spoken words.
The question of who was the first to write stream-of-consciousness drama for radio is a difficult one to answer. By 1930, Tyrone Guthrie had written plays for the BBC like Matrimonial News (which consists entirely of the thoughts of a shopgirl awaiting a blind date) and The Flowers Are Not for You to Pick (which takes place inside the mind of a drowning man). After they were published in 1931, Guthrie's plays aired on the American networks. Around the same time, Guthrie himself also worked for the Canadian National Railway radio network, producing plays written by Merrill Denison that used similar techniques. A 1940 article in Variety credited a 1932 NBC play, Drink Deep by Don Johnson, as the first stream-of-consciousness play written for American radio. The climax of Lawrence Holcomb's 1931 NBC play Skyscraper also uses a variation of the technique (so that the listener can hear the final thoughts and relived memories of a man falling to his death from the title building).
There were probably earlier examples of stream-of-consciousness drama on the radio. For example, in December 1924, actor Paul Robeson, then appearing in a revival of Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones, performed a scene from the play over New York's WGBS to critical acclaim. Some of the many storytellers and monologists on early 1920s American radio might be able to claim even earlier dates.
1930–1960s: Widespread popularity
Perhaps America's most famous radio drama broadcast is Orson Welles' The War of the Worlds, a 1938 version of the H. G. Wells novel, which convinced large numbers of listeners that an actual invasion from Mars was taking place. By the late 1930s, radio drama was widely popular in the United States (and also in other parts of the world). There were dozens of programs in many different genres, from mysteries and thrillers, to soap operas and comedies. Among American playwrights, screenwriters and novelists who got their start in radio drama are Rod Serling and Irwin Shaw.
In Britain, however, during the 1930s BBC programming, tended to be more high brow, including the works of Shakespeare, Classical Greek drama, as well as the works of major modern playwrights, such as Checkov, Ibsen, Strindberg, and so forth. Novels and short stories were also frequently dramatised. In addition the plays of contemporary writers and original plays were produced, with, for example, a broadcast of T. S. Eliot's famous verse play Murder in the Cathedral in 1936. By 1930 the BBC was producing "twice as many plays as London's West End" and were producing over 400 plays a year by the mid-1940s.
Producers of radio drama soon became aware that adapting stage plays for radio did not always work, and that there was a need for plays that were specifically written for radio, and which recognized its potential as a distinct, and different medium, from the theatre. George Bernard Shaw's plays, for example, were seen as readily adaptable. However, In a lead article in the BBC literary journal The Listener, of 14 August 1929, which discussed the broadcasting of twelve great plays, it was suggested that while the theatrical literature of the past should not be neglected the future lay mainly with plays written specifically for the microphone.
Initially the BBC resisted American-style 'soap opera', but eventually highly popular serials, like Dick Barton, Special Agent (1946–51), Mrs Dale's Diary (1948–69) and The Archers (1950- ), were produced. The Archers is still running (July 2014), and is the world's longest-running soap opera with a total of over 17,400 episodes. There had been some earlier serialized drama including, the six episode The Shadow of the Swastika (1939), Dorothy L. Sayers's The Man Born To Be King, in twelve episodes (1941), and Front Line Family (1941–48), which was broadcast to America as part of the effort to encourage the USA to enter the war. The show's storylines depicted the trials and tribulations of a British family, the Robinsons, living through the war. This featured plots about rationing, family members missing in action and the Blitz. After the war in 1946 it was moved to the BBC's Light Programme.
The BBC continued producing various kinds of drama, including docu-drama throughout World War II and amongst the writers they employed was the novelist James Hanley and poet Louis MacNeice, who in 1941 became an employee of the BBC. MacNeice's work for the BBC initially involved writing and producing radio programmes intended to build support for the USA, and later Russia through cultural programmes emphasising links between the countries rather than outright propaganda. By the end of the war MacNeice had written well over sixty scripts for the BBC, including Christopher Columbus (1942), which starred Laurence Olivier, The Dark Tower (1946), and a six-part radio adaptation of Goethe's Faust (1949).
Following World War II the BBC reorganized its radio provision, introducing two new channels to supplement the BBC Home Service (itself the result of the fusion in September 1939 of the pre-war National and regional Programmes). These were the BBC Light Programme (dating from 29 July 1945 and a direct successor to the wartime General Forces Programme) and the BBC Third Programme (launched on 29 September 1946).
The Light Programme, while principally devoted to light entertainment and music, carried a fair share of drama, both single plays (generally, as the name of the station indicated, of a lighter nature) and serials. The Third, destined to become one of the leading cultural and intellectual forces in post-war Britain, specialized in heavier drama (as well as the serious music, talks, and other features which made up its content): long-form productions of both classical and modern/experimental dramatic works sometimes occupied the major part of its output on any given evening. The Home Service, meanwhile, continued to broadcast more "middle-brow" drama (one-off plays and serializations) on a daily basis.
The high-water mark for BBC radio drama was the 1950s and 1960s, and during this period many major British playwrights either effectively began their careers with the BBC, or had works adapted for radio. Most of playwright Caryl Churchill's early experiences with professional drama production were as a radio playwright and, starting in 1962 with The Ants, there were nine productions with BBC radio drama up until 1973 when her stage work began to be recognised at the Royal Court Theatre. Joe Orton's dramatic debut in 1963 was the radio play The Ruffian on the Stair, which was broadcast on 31 August 1964.
Tom Stoppard's "first professional production was in the fifteen-minute Just Before Midnight programme on BBC Radio, which showcased new dramatists". John Mortimer made his radio debut as a dramatist in 1955, with his adaptation of his own novel Like Men Betrayed for the BBC Light Programme. However, he made his debut as an original playwright with The Dock Brief, starring Michael Hordern as a hapless barrister, first broadcast in 1957 on BBC Radio's Third Programme, later televised with the same cast, and subsequently presented in a double bill with What Shall We Tell Caroline? at the Lyric Hammersmith in April 1958, before transferring to the Garrick Theatre. Mortimer is most famous for Rumpole of the Bailey a British television series which starred Leo McKern as Horace Rumpole, an aging London barrister who defends any and all clients. It has been spun off into a series of short stories, novels, and radio programmes.
Giles Cooper was a pioneer in writing for radio, becoming prolific in both radio and television drama. His early successes included radio dramatisations of Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist, William Golding's Lord of the Flies and John Wyndham's classic science fiction novel Day of the Triffids. He was also successful in the theatre. The first of his radio plays to make his reputation was Mathry Beacon (1956), which is about a small detachment of men and women still guarding a Top Secret "missile deflector" somewhere in Wales, years after the war has ended. Bill Naughton's rado play Alfie Elkins and his Little Life (1962) was first broadcast on the BBC Third Programme on 7 January 1962. In it Alfie, "[w]ith sublime amorality... swaggers and philosophises his way through" life. The action spans about two decades, from the beginning of World War II to the late 1950s. In 1964, Bill Naughton turned it into a stage play which was put on at London's Mermaid Theatre. Later, he wrote the screenplay for a film version, "Alfie", which starred Michael Caine.
Other notable radio dramatists included Henry Reed, Brendan Behan, Rhys Adrian, Alan Plater; Anthony Minghella, Alan Bleasdale and novelist Angela Carter. Novelist Susan Hill also wrote for BBC radio, from the early 1970s. Henry Reed was especially successful with the Hilda Tablet plays. Irish playwright Brendan Behan, author of The Quare Fellow (1954), was commissioned by the BBC to write a radio play The Big House (1956); prior to this he had written two plays Moving Outand A Garden Party for Irish radio.
Among the most famous works created for radio, are Dylan Thomas's Under Milk Wood (1954), Samuel Beckett's All That Fall (1957), Harold Pinter's A Slight Ache (1959) and Robert Bolt's A Man for All Seasons (1954). Samuel Beckett wrote a number of short radio plays in the 1950s and 1960s, and later for television. Beckett's radio play Embers was first broadcast on the BBC Third Programme on 24 June 1959, and won the RAI prize at the Prix Italia awards later that year.
Robert Bolt's writing career began with scripts for Children's Hour. A Man for All Seasons was subsequently produced on television in 1957. Then in 1960 there was a highly successful stage production in London's West End and on New York's Broadway from late 1961. In addition there have been two film versions: in 1966 starring Paul Scofield and 1988 for television starring Charlton Heston.
While Alan Ayckbourn did not write for radio many of his stage plays were subsequently adapted for radio. Other significant adaptations included, dramatised readings of poet David Jones's In Parenthesis in 1946, and The Anathemata in 1953, for the BBC Third Programme, and novelist Wyndham Lewis's The Human Age (1955). Among contemporary novels that were dramatised was Stan Barstow's A Kind of Loving (1960) in 1964; there had been a film in 1962.
In Australia, as in most other developed countries, from the early years of the medium almost every radio network and station featured drama, serials and soap operas as staples of their programming and during the so-called "Golden Years" of radio, these were hugely popular. Many Australian serials and soapies were copies of American originals (e.g. the popular soap Portia Faces Life or the adventure series "Superman", which featured future Australian TV star Leonard Teale in the title role), although these were typically locally produced and performed live to air, since the technology of the time did not permit high-quality pre-recording or duplication of programs for import or export.
In this period radio drama, serials and soap operas provided a fertile training ground and a steady source of employment for many actors, and this was particularly important because at this time the Australian theatre scene was in its infancy and opportunities were very limited. Many who trained in this medium (such as Peter Finch) subsequently became prominent both in Australia and overseas.
It has been noted that the producers of the popular 1960s Gerry Anderson TV series Thunderbirds were greatly impressed by the versatility of UK-based Australian actor Ray Barrett, who voiced many roles in Anderson's TV productions. Thanks to his early experience on Australian live radio (where he often played English and American roles), Barrett was considered better than his English counterparts at providing a convincing "transatlantic" accent, and he could perform a wide range of character voices; he also impressed the Anderson team with his ability to quickly and easily switch from one voice/accent to another without the sound engineers having to stop the recording.
The effect of the introduction of television there in the late 1950s had the devastating same effect as it did in the USA and many other markets, and by the early 1960s Australian commercial radio had totally abandoned radio drama and related programming (including soapies, variety and comedy) in favour of music-based formats (such as Top 40) or talkback, and the once-flourishing Australia radio production industry vanished within a few years. One of the few companies to survive was the Melbourne-based Crawford Productions, which was able to make the successful transition into TV production.
Despite the complete abandonment of drama and related programming by the commercial radio sector, the government-funded Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) maintained a long history of producing radio drama. One of its most famous and popular series was the daily 15-minute afternoon soap opera Blue Hills, which was written for its entire production history by dramatist Gwen Meredith. It featured many well-known Australian actresses and actors, ran continuously for 27 years, from 28 February 1949 to 30 September 1976, with a total of 5,795 episodes broadcast, and was at one time the world's longest-running radio serial. It was preceded by an earlier Meredith serial The Lawsons, which featured many of the same themes and characters and itself ran for 1299 episodes.
In the 1960s and later, the ABC continued to produce many original Australian radio dramas, as well as works adapted from other media. In recent years original radio dramas and adapted works were commissioned from local dramatists and produced for the ABC's Radio National network program Airplay, which ran from the late 1990s until early 2013. In late 2012 ABC management imposed budget cuts and axed a number of long-running arts programs, thereby ending the national broadcaster's decades-long history of producing radio drama (as well as its equally long history of providing daily serialised book readings).
1960–2000: Decline in the United States
After the advent of television, radio drama never recovered its popularity in the United States. Most remaining CBS and NBC radio dramas were cancelled in 1960. The last network radio dramas to originate during American radio′s “Golden Age”, Suspense and Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar, ended on September 30, 1962.
There have been some efforts at radio drama since then. In the 1960s, Dick Orkin created the popular syndicated comic adventure series Chicken Man. ABC Radio aired a daily dramatic anthology program, Theater Five, in 1964-65. Inspired by The Goon Show, “the four or five crazy guys” of the Firesign Theatre built a large following with their satirical plays on recordings exploring the dramatic possibilities inherent in stereo. A brief resurgence of production beginning in the early 1970s yielded Rod Serling's The Zero Hour for Mutual, National Public Radio's Earplay, and veteran Himan Brown's CBS Radio Mystery Theater and General Mills Radio Adventure Theater, later followed by the Sears/Mutual Radio Theater, The National Radio Theater of Chicago, NPR Playhouse, a newly produced episode of the former 1950s series X Minus One, and works by a new generation of dramatists, notably Yuri Rasovsky, Thomas Lopez of ZBS and the dramatic sketches heard on humorist Garrison Keillor's A Prairie Home Companion. Thanks in large part to the National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities, public radio continued to air a smattering of audio drama until the mid-1980s. From 1986 to 2002, NPR's most consistent producer of radio drama was the idiosyncratic Joe Frank, working out of KCRW in Santa Monica. The Sci Fi Channel presented an audio drama series, Seeing Ear Theatre, on its website from 1997 to 2001. Also, the dramatic serial It's Your World aired twice daily on the nationally syndicated Tom Joyner Morning Show from 1994 to 2008, continuing online through 2010.
2000–present: Radio drama's "New Media" revival
Radio drama remains popular in much of the world, though most material is now available through internet download rather than heard over terrestrial or satellite radio . Stations producing radio drama often commission a large number of scripts. The relatively low cost of producing a radio play enables them to take chances with works by unknown writers. Radio can be a good training ground for beginning drama writers as the words written form a much greater part of the finished product; bad lines cannot be obscured with stage business.
The BBC's sole surviving radio soap is The Archers on BBC Radio 4: it is, with over 17,400 episodes to date, the world's longest-running such programme. Other radio soaps ("ongoing serials") produced by the BBC but no longer on air include:
- Mrs Dale's Diary (1948–69)
- Westway on the World Service (1997-2005)
- Silver Street (2004–10) on the Asian Network
On KDVS radio in Davis, California there are two radio theater shows, Evening Shadows, a horror/fantasy show paying tribute to classic old-time radio horror, and KDVS Radio Theater which commonly features dramas about social and political themes.
The audio drama format exists side-by-side with books presented on radio, read by actors or by the author. In Britain and other countries there is also a quite a bit of radio comedy (both stand-up and sitcom). Together, these programs provide entertainment where television is either not wanted or would be distracting (such as while driving or operating machinery). Selected Shorts, a long-running NPR program broadcast in front of a live audience at Symphony Space in New York, originated the driveway moment for over 300,000 people listeners each week during readings of contemporary and classic short stories by well-known professional actors.
The lack of visuals also enable fantastical settings and effects to be used in radio plays where the cost would be prohibitive for movies or television. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy was first produced as radio drama, and was not adapted for television until much later, when its popularity would ensure an appropriate return for the high cost of the futuristic setting.
On occasion television series can be revived as radio series. For example, a long-running but no longer popular television series can be continued as a radio series because the reduced production costs make it cost-effective with a much smaller audience. When an organization owns both television and radio channels, such as the BBC, the fact that no royalties have to be paid makes this even more attractive. Radio revivals can also use actors reprising their television roles even after decades as they still sound roughly the same. Series that have had this treatment include Doctor Who, Dad's Army, Thunderbirds[dubious ] and The Tomorrow People. In 2013 BBC Radio 4 released a radio adaptation of Neverwhere by Neil Gaiman, featuring a cast of well known television and film actors. Neil Gaiman has said he was excited about the radio drama adaptation as it allowed the work to be presented with a greater deal of special effects than was possible on television. In the United States, an adaptation of The Twilight Zone aired to modest success in the 2000s (decade) as a syndicated program.
Regular broadcasts of radio drama in English can be heard on the BBC's Radio 3, Radio 4 and Radio 4 Extra (formerly Radio 7), on Radio 1 from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and on RTÉ Radio 1 in Ireland. BBC Radio 4 in particular is noted for its radio drama, broadcasting hundreds of new, one-off plays per year in strands such as The Afternoon Play, in addition to serials and soap operas. Radio 4 Extra broadcast a variety of radio plays from the BBC`s vast archives and a few extended versions of Radio 4 programs. The British commercial station Oneword, though broadcasting mostly book readings, also transmitted a number of radio plays in installments until it closed in 2008.
In the United States, contemporary radio drama can be found on broadcasters including ACB radio, produced by the American Council of the Blind; on the Sirius XM Book Radio channel from Sirius XM Satellite Radio (previously Sonic Theater on XM); and occasionally in syndication, as with Jim French's production Imagination Theater. Several community radio stations carry weekly radio drama programs including KBOO, KFAI, WMPG and WFHB.
A growing number of religious radio stations air daily or weekly programs usually geared to younger audiences, such as Adventures in Odyssey (1,700+ syndicated stations), or Unshackled! (1,800 syndicated stations - the longest running radio drama of all time), which is geared to adults. The networks sometime sell transcripts of their shows on cassette tapes or CDs or make the shows available for listening or downloading over the Internet. Transcription recordings of many pre-television shows have been preserved. They are collected, re-recorded onto audio CDs and/or MP3 files and traded by hobbyists today as old-time radio programs. Meanwhile, veterans such as the late Yuri Rasovsky (The National Radio Theater of Chicago) and Thomas Lopez (ZBS Foundation) have gained new listeners on cassettes, CDs and downloads. In the mid-1980s, the nonprofit L.A. Theatre Works launched its radio series recorded before live audiences, which maintains a tenuous hold in public radio, while marketing its productions on compact discs. Carl Amari's nationally syndicated radio series "Hollywood 360" features 4 classic radio dramas during his 4-hour weekly broadcasts.
In addition to traditional radio broadcasters, modern radio drama (also known as audio theater, or audio drama), has experienced a revival, with a growing number of independent producers who are able to build an audience through internet distribution. While there are few academic programs in the United States that offer training in radio drama production, organizations such as the National Audio Theatre Festival teach the craft to new producers.
The digital age has also resulted in recording styles that differ from the studio recordings of radio drama's Golden Age. Not From Space (2003) on XM Satellite Radio was the first national radio play recorded exclusively through the Internet in which the voice actors were all in separate locations. Other producers use portable recording equipment to record actors on location rather than in studios.
Currently, podcasts are the most promising distribution format for independent radio drama producers. Podcasts provides a good alternative to mainstream television and radio because they have no restrictions regarding program length or content.
Radio drama around the world
[African Radio Drama Association in Nigeria|http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6721e/x6721e43.htm]
The first German radio drama was produced in 1923. Because of the external circumstances in postwar Germany in which most of the theaters were destroyed, radio drama boomed. Between 1945 and 1960 there were more than 500 radio plays every year. The German word for radio drama or audio play is 'Hörspiel'. Today Germany is the most important market for audio plays worldwide. In particular, audio plays on CD are very popular. The most popular audio play serial of Germany and of the world is "Die drei ???" (Three Investigators).
Audio dramas are popular in Japan. They began as radio dramas with the first radio broadcasts in 1925, and continue to be relevant as a medium in which storylines from TV series, comics, novels or video games are continued or expanded.
Before the advent of videocassette recorders, drama recordings were the only way to revisit an animated television series. Recordings often featured recapitulations of plotlines along with theme songs from anime series. This is still employed by current audio dramas; for example, the first Sailor Moon audio drama CD has the characters getting into a shiritori battle with Zoisite featuring the names of minor characters and place settings.
Katha Mitho Sarangiko A radio drama series.
- LC subject heading.
- Tim Crook: Radio drama. Theory and practice. London; New York: Routledge, 1999, p. 8.
- Compare the entry to Hörspiel e.g. in: dict.cc – Deutsch-Englisch-Wörterbuch
- Wall Street Journal; Newman, Barry (2010-02-25). "Return With Us to the Thrilling Days Of Yesteryear — Via the Internet". Wall Street Journal.
- Martin Banham: The Cambridge guide to theatre. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 896.
- Tim Crook: Radio drama. Theory and practice. London; New York: Routledge, 1999, p. 15.
- Historian Alan Beck reports in The Invisible Play: B.B.C. Radio Drama 1922-1928 that "The first English experiment in radio drama" took place October 17, 1922, in Great Britain. But U.S. stations were broadcasting drama prior to this. See following.
- Bill Jaker, March 27, 1998, email post to the OTR Digest
- "OPERA CARRIES 1,500 MILES BY RADIO PHONES," November 12, 1921 Chicago Tribune; "Radi-Opera" November 17, 1921 Chicago Tribune
- "TWO PLAYS BY WIRELESS," February 4, 1922, New York Times; "MILLION TO HEAR MUSICAL COMEDY," February 12, 1922 Los Angeles Times; "YOU CAN HEAR ENTIRE SHOW BY RADIO PHONE," February 19, 1922 Mansfield (OH) News.
- July 1922 wire service story which appeared in the July 19, 1922 Lima (OH) News (under headline: "ACTING BY RADIO IS A WEIRD SENSATION") and the July 23, 1922 Charleston (SC) Daily Mail (under headline: "PRESENTING A PLAY OVER THE WIRELESS IN NEWEST WRINKLE")
- New York Times and Hartford (CT) Courant radio listings, August 3, 1922; New York Times radio listings, September 11, 19, and 25, 1922; "Will Give Dramatic Productions By Radio" September 2, 1922 The (Fort Wayne, IN) News-Sentinel; LOCAL RADIO FANS TO HEAR "OFFICER 666" November 3, 1922 Fayetteville (AK) Democrat; "MADAME X" FROM WGY THURSDAY NIGHT, November 21, 1922 Fayetteville (AK) Democrat.
- Lawrence Lichty, "Radio Drama: The Early Years" in Lawrence Lichty and Malachi Topping (eds): American Broadcasting (New York, Hastings House, 1975).
- April 2, 1923 Hamilton (OH) Evening Journal radio listing; Lichty, ibid.
- "WRITING RADIO PLAYS IS LATEST," May 27, 1923 Oakland (CA) Tribune.
- April 22, 1923 Los Angeles Times radio listings; "KHJ TRAVELS IN PRETENSE LAND," April 23, 1923 Los Angeles Times.
- "Contest for Prize Radio Drama Opens September 1," August 19, 1923 Washington Post; "G. E. COMPANY HAS PRIZE FOR RADIO DRAMA," September 7, 1923 Waukesha (WI) Daily Freeman; Lichty, ibid.
- Compare The New York Times – Archive 1851-1980
- SHAKESPEARE - British Drama Website
- Elizabeth McLeod, The Original Amos 'n Andy: Freeman Gosden, Charles Correll, and the 1928-1943 Radio Serial. McFarland & Co, 2005.
- Richard J. Hand, Terror on the Air!: Horror Radio in America, 1931-1952 McFarland, 2006.
- Richard Hughes, 'A Comedy of Danger' in Beck, ibid
- "Maremoto, a radio play (1924)," Réseaux, 1994, Volume 2, Numéro 2 p. 251 - 265
- Theatre Arts (July 1951):"Windy Kilocycles" by Arch Oboler
- Koch, Howard, The Panic Broadcast: The Whole Story of Orson Welles' Legendary Radio Show Invasion From Mars, Avon Books, 1971.
- See reviews in The Listener
- "The Poetic Quality", Grace Wyndham Goldie. The Listener (London, England), Wednesday, January 8, 1936; pg. 78; Issue 365.
- British Library
- See, for example, "A Listener's Commentary", R. D. Charques. The Listener (London, England), Wednesday, October 23, 1929; pg. 553; Issue 41.
- The Archers airs 15,000th episode, BBC News, 2006-11-07
-  "British Radio Drama - A Cultural Case History" by Tim Crook.
- Linnea Gibbs, James Hanley: A Bibliography. (Vancouver: William Hoffer, 1980), p.165.
- [Poets.org: 
- Tim Crook, "International radio drama"
- "John Mortimer Radio Plays": [http://www.filmreference.com/film/69/John-Mortimer.html John Mortimer Biography (1923-2009)
- The Listener (London, England), Thursday, September 1, 1955; pg. 349; Issue 1383.
- DIVERSITY WEBSITE
- "Critic on the Hearth", J. C. Trewin. The Listener (London, England), Thursday, June 28, 1956; pg. 903; Issue 1422.
- Bill Naughton radio drama - DIVERSITY WEBSITE
- The Columbia encyclopedia of modern drama, by Gabrielle H. Cody; "Brendan Behan" - RTÉ Archives 
- J. C. Trewin, "Critic on the Hearth." Listener [London, England] 5 Aug. 1954: 224.
- Prix Italia "PAST EDITIONS — WINNERS 1949 - 2007"
- British Radio Drama--A Cultural Case History by Tim Crook
- A Man for All Seasons (1966) - IMDb ; A Man for All Seasons (TV 1988) - IMDb 
- "Critic on the Hearth", Philip Hope-Wallace. The Listener (London, England), Thursday, November 28, 1946; pg. 767; Issue 933; "Critic on the Hearth", Martin Armstrong. The Listener (London, England), Thursday, May 14, 1953; pg. 815; Issue 1263.
- "The Human Age"", Wyndham Lewis. The Listener (London, England), Thursday, June 2, 1955; pg. 976
- "A Kind of Loving - The Literature of Stan Barstow":; A Kind of Loving (1962) - IMDb 
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- Armin Paul Frank, Das englische und amerikanische Hörspiel. München: Fink, 1981.
- Walter K. Kingson and Rome Cowgill, Radio Drama Acting and Production: A Handbook. New York: Rinehart, 1950.
- Karl Ladle,: Hörspielforschung. Schnittpunkt zwischen Literatur, Medien und Ästhetik. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, 2001.
- Sherman Paxton Lawton, Radio Drama. Boston: Expression Company, 1938.
- Peter Lewis (ed.), Radio Drama. London; New York: Longman, 1981.
- Dermot Rattigan, Theatre of Sound: Radio and the Dramatic Imagination. 2nd edition. Carysfort Press, 2003.
- Neil Verma, Theater of the Mind: Imagination, Aesthetics, and American Radio Drama. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
|Look up radio drama in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Radio dramas.|
- Audio-Drama.com An encyclopedia of audio drama websites
- The Audio Drama Directory A directory of modern works of audio drama
- The Well-tempered Audio Dramatist Treatise on writing, producing, performing and directing audio plays in the 21st century.
- Necrology of Old Radio Personalities (archived at the Wayback Machine)
- The BBC Story - The Written Archives: 
- Radio Plays & Radio Drama webpage (England): 
- British Radio Drama- A Cultural Case History by Tim Crook: 
On-line audio drama
- ABC Radio Airplay Free streaming and downloading capability
- ACB radio Old-time radio from the American Council of the Blind.
- Adventures In Odyssey Christian radio drama/comedy series.
- American Radio Theatre
- Atlanta Radio Theatre Company
- Audiostorium Radio drama and story-telling from New Zealand
- BBC Radio Drama Free streaming and downloading capability
- Codename Cygnus interactive radio drama series
- Colonial Radio Theatre
- Cornucopia Radio UK Based Radio Storytellers
- Dark Adventure Radio Theatre
- Drama online - Radio Drama section
- The Drama Pod
- Escape Velocity Science fiction radio series
- FFFBI Radio Dramas
- Final Rune productions
- Fruits Basket radio drama series
- Girl Genius radio drama series
- Grace Gibson Productions
- Harry Strange radio drama series
- Icebox Radio Theatre
- Jonathan Park radio drama series
- RTÉ Radio 1 Drama On One Irish radio drama
- RTÉ Radio 1 Drama On One Irish radio drama
- Shoestring Radio Theatre
- Serial (podcast) Series published by WBEZ Chicago Public Media and Ira Glass
- Studio@620 WMNF Radio Theatre Project
- Theatre of the Mind at the National Film and Sound Archive.
- The Twilight Zone
- Tex Murphy radio drama series
- Unshackled! Christian radio drama series
- Wireless Theatre Wireless Theatre, online UK radio drama wireless theatre company
- Wireless Theatre Kids online UK children's radio drama
- ZBS Foundation