Drammen

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Drammen kommune
Strømsø-Bragernes
Union brygge.jpg
Drammensentral.jpg
Børsen og Skutebrygga.jpg
Drammensbrua sett fra Kloptjernveien.JPG
Coat of arms of Drammen kommune
Official logo of Drammen kommune
Nickname(s): 
Elvebyen, The River City
Drammen within Viken
Drammen within Viken
Coordinates: 59°44′16″N 10°12′18″E / 59.73778°N 10.20500°E / 59.73778; 10.20500Coordinates: 59°44′16″N 10°12′18″E / 59.73778°N 10.20500°E / 59.73778; 10.20500
CountryNorway
CountyViken
DistrictBuskerud
Administrative centreDrammen
Government
 • Mayor (2019)Monica Myrvold Berg (Ap)
Area
 • Total137 km2 (53 sq mi)
 • Land135 km2 (52 sq mi)
Area rank366 in Norway
Population
 (30 September 2020)
 • Total101,738 Increase
 • Rank6 in Norway
 • Change (10 years)
9.7%
Demonym(s)Drammenser[1]
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-3005
Official language formBokmål[2]
Websitewww.drammen.kommune.no

Drammen is a city and municipality in Viken, Norway. The port and river city of Drammen is centrally located in the south-eastern and most populated part of Norway. Drammen municipality also includes smaller towns and villages such as Konnerud, Svelvik, Mjøndalen and Skoger.

Location[edit]

Drammen is located west of the Oslofjord and is situated approximately 44 km South-west of Oslo. There are more than 101 000 inhabitants in the municipality, but the city is the regional capital of an area with 82 000 inhabitants. Drammen and the surrounding communities are growing more than ever before. The city makes good use of the river and inland waterway called Drammensfjord, both for recreation, activities and housing.

Name and coat of arms[edit]

The Old Norse form of the city's name was Drafn, and this was originally the name of the inner part of Drammensfjord. The fjord is, however, probably named after the river Drammenselva (Norse Drǫfn), and this again is derived from drǫfn f 'wave'.[3] The coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 17 November 1960. The arms are blue with a gray/silver column on top of a foundation of rocks. A key and a Viking sword are crossed in the middle forming an x. It is based upon the old seal dating from 1723 for Bragernes, one of the central parts of Drammen. The motto for Bragernes (in Latin) was In Fide Et Justitia Fortitudo (English: in faith and justice is strength), and the items in the seal are referring to this: key = faith, sword = justice, column on rocks = strength.[4]

Governance[edit]

On January 1, 2020, the municipalities of Svelvik, Nedre Eiker and Drammen merged to form «The New Drammen Municipality». The new municipality, which is now called Drammen, is located in Viken County and is Norway's seventh largest with over 100,000 residents. The main seat of the Greater Municipality is located in the city of Drammen. Drammen city has 69.000 inhabitants, but serves as a regional centre for an area with a population of about 160.000. The city is the country's record champion in environment and urban development, 21 prices since 2003 with 16 national and 5 international.

Districts[edit]

After the merger of the municipalities Drammen, Nedre Eiker and Svelvik in 2020, the municipality was then divided into ten municipal regions:

[5]

Map of the urban area of Drammen
Map of Drammensfjorden

History[edit]

Rock carvings at Åskollen and Austad are 6000 to 7000 years old, and are the first signs of human activity in the area. The largest rock carving at Åskollen depicts a moose.

Drammen originally consisted of three small seaports: Bragernes (on the northern side of the Drammenselva river) and Strømsø and Tangen (both on the southern side of the river). For trade purposes, small seaports were placed under market towns. Despite their geographical proximity, Bragernes was placed under Christiania and Strømsø under Tønsberg. For this reason, cooperation between the adjacent seaport towns was almost impossible.

In 1662, a merger was proposed to unite Strømsø and Bragernes to form a market town with the name Frederiksstrøm. The proposal was rejected by Frederick III of Denmark. Bragernes received limited market town rights in 1715, and merged with Strømsø to gain status as a single city on 19 June 1811.[6]

Its geographical location made the city favorable for seafaring, shipbuilding, log driving, timber trade. During the 19th century, paper and pulp industries were developed. Large parts of the city were ruined in the great fire of 12–13 July 1866,[7] which led to the reconstruction of the city centre, including the characteristic town square and Bragernes church. The Drammen Line (Drammenbanen ) opened in 1872 providing rail service between Drammen and Oslo.[8][9]

In 1909, Drammen got the first trolleybus system in Scandinavia, the Drammen trolleybus. The lines ran until 1967. For many years the centre of Drammen suffered from heavy traffic. In 1970, Drammen Bridge with two lanes on European route E18 was built (expanded to four lanes in 2006) and in 1999 the opening of the Bragernes tunnel (Bragernestunnelen) diverted additional traffic away from the centre of the city.[10]

In recent years, the city centre has seen the introduction of new housing, shopping facilities, restaurants, cafes and bars, as well as a public pathway along the Drammenselva river.[11]

In 2011, Drammen observed its 200th anniversary with many citywide jubilee celebrations.[12] Drammen's district heating system was upgraded to use water-sourced heat pumps, drawing on local fjord water, to support population growth in the city.[13]

Geography[edit]

Drammen is one of the larger cities in Norway, and lies about 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the capital of Norway, Oslo. The city centre lies at the end of a valley, on both sides of the Drammenselva river, and where the river meets the Drammensfjord. The Holmen island in Drammen is also the main harbor for car and fruit import in Norway.

As of 1 January 2007, the population of the urban area of Drammen is 93,006. Drammen is the sixth largest urban area of Norway and occupies territory in five municipalities: Drammen (with about 61% of the population), Nedre Eiker (23%), Øvre Eiker (8%), Lier (5%), and Røyken (3%).[14]

The Øvre Sund area, situated along Drammenselva, will be regulated by the municipality in order to restore this area's character. The buildings there are from the 18th and 19th century, and contribute, as well as the river and the brewery, to give the city a special identity.[15] In 2008 Drammen won the prestigious prize for the best city development in Europe.[16]

Climate[edit]

Drammen has a humid continental climate (Dfb). Located at a sheltered location at the head of a narrow fjord branch of innermost Oslofjord, Drammen is among the warmest cities in Scandinavia in summer. The warmest month on record was July 2018 with mean 22.3 °C (72.1 °F), average daily high 29.3 °C (84.7 °F) and 11 days with highs at or above 30 °C (86 °F). The all-time high 35 °C (95 °F) was recorded August 3, 1982, and is a tie with the national high for the month. The September record high is the national record. The all-time low −28 °C (−18 °F) was recorded in January 1987, which is the coldest month on record with mean −13.8 °C (7.2 °F) and average daily low −17.1 °C (1.2 °F). In more recent years, December 2010 was almost as cold. The average date for first overnight freeze (low below 0 °C (32 °F)) in autumn is 13 October (1981-2010 average).[17] The Drammen-Berskog weather station has been operating since 2004. An earlier weather station named Drammen-Marienlyst (3 m) operated from 1966 to 2003.

Climate data for Drammen 1991-2020 (8 m, avg high/low 2010–2019, extremes 1966-2020 includes earlier station)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.8
(56.8)
14.6
(58.3)
21.7
(71.1)
24.3
(75.7)
30.5
(86.9)
34
(93)
33.8
(92.8)
35
(95)
28.6
(83.5)
23.2
(73.8)
17.4
(63.3)
14.1
(57.4)
35
(95)
Average high °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
0.8
(33.4)
6.8
(44.2)
12.4
(54.3)
17.7
(63.9)
21.4
(70.5)
24.1
(75.4)
21.7
(71.1)
17.5
(63.5)
10.6
(51.1)
4.2
(39.6)
0.4
(32.7)
11.3
(52.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.3
(34.3)
6.1
(43.0)
11.2
(52.2)
15.3
(59.5)
18
(64)
16.4
(61.5)
11.9
(53.4)
5.8
(42.4)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.6
(27.3)
6.6
(43.9)
Average low °C (°F) −7.6
(18.3)
−6.1
(21.0)
−2.9
(26.8)
1.1
(34.0)
6.4
(43.5)
10.5
(50.9)
13.1
(55.6)
11.6
(52.9)
8.4
(47.1)
3.2
(37.8)
−1.1
(30.0)
−5.8
(21.6)
2.6
(36.6)
Record low °C (°F) −28
(−18)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−8.1
(17.4)
−3
(27)
1.4
(34.5)
5.2
(41.4)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
−9.2
(15.4)
−17.2
(1.0)
−24
(−11)
−28
(−18)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.4
(2.34)
45.7
(1.80)
43.2
(1.70)
46.4
(1.83)
64.9
(2.56)
73.3
(2.89)
72.4
(2.85)
89.3
(3.52)
78.1
(3.07)
89.1
(3.51)
82.7
(3.26)
64.1
(2.52)
808.6
(31.85)
Source 1: eklima.no (extremes) = eklima>[18]
Source 2: yr.no (mean, precipitaiton) [19]

Demographics[edit]

Percentage Immigrants and Norwegian-born with immigrant parents in Drammen is 28 per cent, of which 25 per cent are Norwegian-born with immigrant parents.

Minorities (1st and 2nd generation) by country of origin in 2021[20]
Ancestry Number
 Poland 3,419
 Turkey 2,689
 Iraq 1,662
 Afghanistan 1,425
 Pakistan 1,263
 Lithuania 1,194
 Somalia 1,101
 Kosovo 1,029
 India 959
 Iran 923
 Vietnam 908
 Bosnia & Herzegovina 824
 Syria 710
 Eritrea 706
 Sweden 663

Attractions[edit]

Aass Brewery
Øvre sund bridge
Drammens museum
Drammen Theater

Aass Brewery[edit]

Aass Brewery is the oldest surviving brewery in Norway, and has won acclaim for both its beer and its well-conserved building. Founded in 1834, the brewery's primary products are soft drinks, beer and aquavit.[21]

Bridges[edit]

  • Øvre Sund Bridge (Øvre Sund bru) – crosses Drammenselva in the center of Drammen[22]
  • Drammen City Bridge (Drammensbrua bybro) – concrete bridge connecting the two centers of the town, built 1936
  • Drammen Bridge (Drammensbrua) – motorway box girder bridge on E18 that crosses Drammenselva, built 1971[23]
  • Ypsilon Bridge (Ypsilon bru) – cable-stayed pedestrian bridge over Drammenselva, built 2007
  • Holmen bridges (Holmenbruene) – two railway bridges on the Drammen Line[24]

Drammen Museum[edit]

The Drammen Museum of Art and Cultural History includes Marienlyst, a manor house from ca. 1770, museum building from 1930 with the museum's administration, permanent exhibitions and collections, and Lyche pavilion from 1990 with the gallery, temporary exhibitions and museum café, Halling yard, with 5 old buildings, the oldest from 1760s. The museum also includes the two largest preserved like farms in Drammen, Gulskogen Manor and Austad farm.[25]

Drammen Spiral[edit]

The Drammen Spiral is a road tunnel that allows access to the Skansen Ridge, 180 m (591 ft) above the town. It opened in 1961 on the site of a former quarry.[26]

Drammen Theater[edit]

Drammen Theater in Bragernes was built in 1869 and was designed by architect Emil Victor Langlet. The theater was the first modern theater in the country. It was designed in a complex Renaissance style with symmetrical facades and round arched windows. After Drammen Theater suffered total destruction by fire in December 1993, a new theater was rebuilt on the model of the original house. It was finished during February 1997.[27]

Drammensbadet[edit]

Drammensbadet is a public swimming and training facility located in Marienlyst, Drammen. It was one of the largest in Norway when it opened 1 September 2008. They have five indoor and four outdoor pools.[28]

Bragernes Torg (town square)[edit]

Bragernes Torg is the largest town square in Norway and one of the largest in the Nordics[29][circular reference]

Sport clubs[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

Public service & business[edit]

Betzy Kjelsberg, 1935
Thorbjørn Jagland, 2016

The Arts[edit]

Peter Nicolai Arbo, 1874
Katharina Nuttall, 2010

Sport[edit]

Ole Einar Bjoerndalen, 2007

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Drammen is twinned with:[37]

Gallery - Churches & Tunnels[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Navn på steder og personer: Innbyggjarnamn" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet.
  2. ^ "Forskrift om målvedtak i kommunar og fylkeskommunar" (in Norwegian). Lovdata.no.
  3. ^ Unger, Carl Rikard (1896). Sproglig-historiske studier (in Norwegian). Kristiania, Norge: H. Aschehoug & Co. p. 37. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  4. ^ "Kommunevåpen". Fotw.us. 5 July 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  5. ^ https://www.drammen.kommune.no/globalassets/om-kommunen/dokumenter/drammensguiden2020.pdf
  6. ^ Søbstad, Per Ivar. "Kort oversikt over Drammens historie". History of Drammen (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  7. ^ Tingle 1866.
  8. ^ Tor Wisting. "Drammenbanen". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  9. ^ Søbstad, Per Ivar. "Bybranner". History of Drammen (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 10 November 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  10. ^ "Drammen Bridge". structurae.net. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  11. ^ "Steder – Buskerud – Drammen". Historier.no. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  12. ^ "Drammen's 2011 bicentennial celebrations". Archived from the original on 31 July 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  13. ^ Richard Anderson (10 March 2015). "Heat pumps extract warmth from ice cold water". BBC. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  14. ^ Statistics Norway (1 January 2006). "Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality". Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ "About the preservation of the Øvre Sund area". Archived from the original on 24 June 2013.
  16. ^ "CEU ECTP – The 7th European Urban and Regional Planning Awards 2008". Ceu-ectp.eu. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  17. ^ "Første frostnatt". 25 September 2013.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ "Weather statistics for Berskog".
  20. ^ "09817: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by immigration category, country background and percentages of the population (M) 2010 - 2021-PX-Web SSB". SSB. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  21. ^ [2] Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Øvre Sund Bru". bridgeinfo.net. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  23. ^ Tor Wisting. "Drammenbanen". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  24. ^ Tor Wisting. "Drammenbanen". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  25. ^ "Velkommen || Drammens Museum". Drammens.museum.no. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  26. ^ Porter, Darin; Prince, Danforth (2005). Frommer's Norway. John Wiley & Sons. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-764-59810-4.
  27. ^ "Drammen Teater".
  28. ^ "Velkommen til Drammensbadet".
  29. ^ Bragernes torg
  30. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 18 March 2021
  31. ^ Oscar Thue (20 February 2017). "Kai Fjell". Norsk kunstnerleksikon. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  32. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 22 March 2021
  33. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 22 March 2021
  34. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 17 March 2021
  35. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 21 March 2021
  36. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 17 March 2021
  37. ^ "Drammen Byleksikon: Ørebro". byleksikon.drmk.no (in Norwegian). Drammen Kommune. Retrieved 26 March 2021.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]