Driver drowsiness detection

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Driver drowsiness detection is a car safety technology which helps prevent accidents caused by the driver getting drowsy. Various studies have suggested that around 20% of all road accidents are fatigue-related, up to 50% on certain roads.[1][2]

Some of the current systems learn driver patterns and can detect when a driver is becoming drowsy.


Various technologies can be used to try to detect driver drowsiness.[3]

Steering pattern monitoring[edit]

Primarily uses steering input from electric power steering system. Monitoring a driver this way only works as long as a driver actually steers a vehicle actively instead of using an automatic lane-keeping system.[1]

Vehicle position in lane monitoring[edit]

Uses a lane monitoring camera. Monitoring a driver this way only works as long as a driver actually steers a vehicle actively instead of using an automatic lane-keeping system.[4]

Driver eye/face monitoring[edit]

Uses computer vision to observe the driver's face, either using a built-in camera[5] or on mobile devices.[6][7]

Physiological measurement[edit]

Requires body sensors to measure parameters like brain activity, heart rate, skin conductance, muscle activity, head movements etc...


  • Audi: Rest recommendation system[8]
  • BMW: Active Driving Assistant with Attention Assistant analyses driving behaviour and, if necessary, advises the driver to rest. The advice to take a break is provided in the form of graphic symbols shown on the Control Display.[9]
  • Bosch: "Driver drowsiness detection"[10] takes input from the steering angle sensor, front-mounted lane assist camera, vehicle speed and turn signal stalk.
  • Citroën: AFIL/LDWS uses different technologies to monitor the vehicle position on the road. Some models use sensors mounted in front of the front wheels, monitoring the lane markings. Other models use a camera mounted in top center of the windscreen for the same purpose. Both systems alert the driver by vibrations in the driver's seat, on the left or right half of the seat cushion, respectively.[11] Introduced with the 2005 model C4, later followed by 2008 C5 and 2013 C4 Picasso.
  • DS:
    • AFIL/LDWS:[12] Lane Departure Warning System gives an audible reminder if you drift out of your lane.
    • DS DRIVER ATTENTION MONITORING[13] identifies any reduction in driver alertness. Using an infrared camera above the steering wheel, DS DRIVER ATTENTION MONITORING continuously monitors: the eyes for signs of tiredness (blinking); the face and head movements for signs of distraction; and the course steered by the car in its road lane (deviations or steering movements by the driver).
  • Ford: Driver Alert,[14] introduced with 2011 Ford Focus.
  • Honda: CRV introduced the Driver Attention Monitor in 2017.[15] It is also offered on the 2018 Accord[16]
  • Hyundai: Driver Attention Alert (DAA), debuted with the 2017 i30.
  • Jaguar Land Rover: Driver Condition Monitor and Driver Fatigue Alert, both evaluate driving technique for signs of driver fatigue. When the feature determines if the driver is fatigued, the message center displays the warning, TAKE A BREAK!, for 1 minute, accompanied by an audible chime. When driving continues for more than 15 minutes after the first warning, without taking a break, a further warning is given. The warning continues until the OK button on the steering wheel menu control is pressed.
  • Kia: Driver Attention Warning (DAW), debuted with the 2018 Stinger.
  • Mazda: Driver Attention Alert[17] Activates at speeds above 65 kilometres per hour (40 mph). Learns driving behavior through steering input and position of road during the beginning of the ride and compares the learned data during later stages of the ride. A difference above a certain threshold triggers an audible and visual cue. Debuted on 2015 Mazda CX-5.
  • Mercedes-Benz: Attention Assist[18] In 2009, Mercedes-Benz unveiled a system called Attention Assist which monitors the driver's fatigue level and drowsiness based on his/her driving inputs. It issues a visual and audible alarm to alert the driver if he or she is too drowsy to continue driving. It is linked to the car's navigation system, and using that data, it can tell the driver where coffee and fuel are available.[19]
  • Cadillac: GM 2018 Cadillac CT6 Super Cruise System, The Cadillac Super Cruise system uses FOVIO vision technology, developed by Seeing Machines, to enable a gumdrop-sized infrared camera on the steering wheel column to accurately determine the driver's attention state. This is accomplished through a precise measure of head orientation and eyelid movements under a full range of daytime and night-time driving conditions including the use of sunglasses.
  • Nissan: Driver Attention Alert (DAA),[20] debuted with the 2014 Qashqai, followed by 2016 Maxima.
  • Renault/Dacia: Tiredness Detection Warning (TDW), introduced with 2016 Megane.
  • Subaru: EyeSight Driver Assist
  • Škoda: iBuzz Fatigue Alert (available on most models since 2013 onwards)
  • Volkswagen: Fatigue detection system[21]
  • Volvo Cars: Driver Alert Control[22] In 2007, Volvo Cars launched the world's first Driver Drowsiness Detection system, Driver Alert Control. The system monitors the car's movements and assesses whether the vehicle is being driven in a controlled or uncontrolled way. If the system detects a high risk of the driver being drowsy, the driver is alerted via an audible signal. Also, a text message appears in the car's information display, alerting him or her with a coffee cup symbol to take a break. Additionally, the driver can continuously retrieve driving information from the car's trip computer. The starting-point is five bars. The less consistent the driving, the fewer bars remain.
  • Anti Sleep Pilot - Danish device that can be fitted to any vehicle, uses a combination of accelerometers and reaction tests.[23]
  • Vigo - Smart Bluetooth headset that detects signs of drowsiness through the eyes and head motion, and uses a combination of light, sound, and vibration to alert the user.[24]
  • COREforTech - Measuring physiological signs of drowsiness allows CORE for Tech ™ to get very early signs of fatigue and act accordingly[25]


In European Union, regulation (EU) 2019/2144 regulates the driver monitoring system.[26]

driver drowsiness and attention warning means a system that assesses the driver’s alertness through vehicle systems analysis and warns the driver if needed

— regulation (EU) 2019/2144

Driver drowsiness and attention warning and advanced driver distraction warning systems shall be designed in such a way that those systems do not continuously record nor retain any data other than what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they were collected or otherwise processed within the closed-loop system. Furthermore, those data shall not be accessible or made available to third parties at any time and shall be immediately deleted after processing. Those systems shall also be designed to avoid overlap and shall not prompt the driver separately and concurrently or in a confusing manner where one action triggers both systems.

— regulation (EU) 2019/2144

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "DRIVER FATIGUE AND ROAD ACCIDENTS A LITERATURE REVIEW and POSITION PAPER" (PDF). Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents. February 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-01. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  2. ^ "4.1.03. Driver Drowsiness Detection System for Cars". Retrieved 2015-11-05.
  3. ^ Sgambati, Frank, Driver Drowsiness Detection
  4. ^ Hupp, Stephen L. (October 1998). "Landmark Documents in American History. Version 2.0". Electronic Resources Review. 2 (10): 120–121. doi:10.1108/err.1998. ISSN 1364-5137.
  5. ^ Walger, D.J.; Breckon, T.P.; Gaszczak, A.; Popham, T. (November 2014). "A comparison of features for regression-based driver head pose estimation under varying illumination conditions" (PDF). 2014 International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding (IWCIM) (PDF). IEEE. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1109/IWCIM.2014.7008805. ISBN 978-1-4799-7971-4. S2CID 14928709. walger14headpose.
  6. ^ Wijnands, J.S.; Thompson, J.; Nice, K.A.; Aschwanden, G.D.P.A.; Stevenson, M. (2019). "Real-time monitoring of driver drowsiness on mobile platforms using 3D neural networks". Neural Computing and Applications. 32 (13): 9731–9743. arXiv:1910.06540. Bibcode:2019arXiv191006540W. doi:10.1007/s00521-019-04506-0. S2CID 204459652.
  7. ^ Hossain, M. Y.; George, F. P. (2018). "IOT Based Real-Time Drowsy Driving Detection System for the Prevention of Road Accidents". 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Informatics and Biomedical Sciences (ICIIBMS). Vol. 3. pp. 190–195. doi:10.1109/ICIIBMS.2018.8550026. ISBN 978-1-5386-7516-8. S2CID 54442702.
  8. ^ Archived 2014-12-30 at the Wayback Machine Driver assistance systems
  9. ^ "BMW model upgrade measures taking effect from the summer of 2013". BMW. 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
  10. ^ "Driver drowsiness detection". Robert Bosch GmbH. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
  11. ^ "AFIL/LDWS (country dependent)".
  12. ^ "AFIL/LDWS (country dependent)".
  13. ^ DS Official (2017-03-07), DS DRIVER ATTENTION MONITORING, archived from the original on 2021-12-20, retrieved 2017-03-08
  14. ^ "DRIVER ALERT". Archived from the original on 2011-05-13.
  15. ^ "Driver Attention Monitor | 2017 Honda CR-V | Honda Owners Site". Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  16. ^ "2018 Honda Accord Press Kit- Safety and Driver Assistive". Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  17. ^ "Driver Attention Alert - Mazda i-ACTIVSENSE".
  18. ^ "ATTENTION ASSIST: Drowsiness-detection system warns drivers to prevent them falling asleep momentarily". Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  19. ^ Mercedes-Benz's autonomous driving features dominate the industry -- and will for years
  20. ^ "2016 Nissan Maxima "4-Door Sports Car" makes global debut at New York International Auto Show". Nissan Online Newsroom. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  21. ^ "Fatigue Detection". Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  22. ^ "Volvo Cars introduces new systems for alerting tired and distracted drivers". Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  23. ^ Coxworth, Ben (3 January 2011). "Anti Sleep Pilot detects drowsy drivers". Gizmag.
  24. ^ "Bluetooth Headset Vigo Knows When You Are Tired Before You Do". 17 January 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  25. ^ "COREforTech news".
  26. ^ "EUR-Lex - 32019R2144 - EN - EUR-Lex".