Driving Van Trailer

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British Rail DVT
DVT 82205.jpg
London North Eastern Railway Mark 4 DVT 82205 at Peterborough in April 2019
In service1989 – present
ManufacturerMark 3: British Rail Engineering Limited
Mark 4: Metro-Cammell
Family name
Constructed1988 - 1990
Number built
  • Mark 3: 52
  • Mark 4: 32
Number in service
  • Mark 3: 14
  • Mark 4: 23
Number preserved
  • Mark 3: 6
  • Mark 4: 0
Number scrapped
  • Mark 3: 20
  • Mark 4: 1
Fleet numbers
  • 82101–82152
  • 82200–82231
Operator(s)
Specifications
Car length18.83 m (61 ft 9 in)
Width2.71 m (8 ft 11 in)
Height3.88 m (12 ft 9 in)
Maximum speed125 mph (201 km/h) (Mark 3)
140 mph (225 km/h) (Mark 4)
Weight43.7 t (43.0 long tons; 48.2 short tons)
Braking system(s)Air
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

A Driving Van Trailer (DVT) is a purpose-built control car railway vehicle that allows the driver to operate with a locomotive in push-pull formation from the opposite end of a train. Trains operating with a DVT consequently do not need the locomotive to be moved around to the other end of the train at terminal stations. Unlike many other control cars, DVTs resemble locomotives (specifically Class 91) and thus when the train is operating in push mode, it does not appear to be travelling backwards. The vehicles do not have any passenger accommodation due to health and safety rules in place at the time of building that prohibited passengers in the leading carriages of trains that run faster than 100 miles per hour (160 km/h).[citation needed] Historically, it was believed that a train would be unstable at high speeds unless pulled from the front but extensive testing, and the experience of high speed trains with central power cars such as the British Rail APT and the Eurostar, have altered this view.

Development[edit]

The DVT concept is similar to the Mark 2 DBSO but unlike its predecessor, which was rebuilt from existing stock, it was a new build vehicle manufactured specifically for this purpose. The first design of DVT was designed to match Mark 2 and Mark 3 coaches. The second design has a narrower profile, similar to Mark 4 coaches, which would enable it to be converted to tilting operation if required in the future.

On the original Mark 3 DVTs, which operated on the West Coast Main Line, they used the RCH jumpers to carry the signals therefore allowing the same cables to be used for lighting and the public address system, as well as driver-guard signalling. The Class 86 and Class 87 locomotives had to be retrofitted with RCH cables, replacing the older in-class only multiple working jumpers.[1]

On the InterCity 225 sets operating on the East Coast Main Line, the Mark 4 DVTs and locomotives operate in push-pull formation utilising a time-division multiplexer to send control signals along specially screened cables which run the length of the train. The locomotives usually face away from London, only being changed occasionally in rare circumstances.

When a train is operated by a DVT, the control signals are encoded and multiplexed onto the cables by the TDM equipment in the DVT. At the locomotive, these signals are demultiplexed by the TDM equipment, and the signals are used to control the locomotive. The air braking system is operated directly from whichever cab the driver is driving from. If the TDM fails and cannot be reconfigured, the train may still operate, but if the DVT is leading, it will be necessary to uncouple the locomotive and attach it to the front of the train.

In addition to the driver's cab, some DVTs have luggage and cycle storage space and a guard's office. One DVT was fitted with a traction gel applicator.[2] A number of Mark 3 DVTs have been fitted with generators to provide power to on-train equipment. One has been fitted with traction equipment, becoming the experimental Class 19 locomotive.

Mark 3 DVT[edit]

InterCity West Coast[edit]

82132 of NXEA in debranded "One" livery departing Stratford on the GEML, 2/08
The driver's desk of a Mk3 DVT.

British Rail Engineering Limited's Derby Litchurch Lane Works built 52 Mark 3 DVTs to operate with Mark 2 and Mark 3 sets in push-pull mode with 86, 87 and 90 class locomotives on InterCity West Coast Main Line services from London Euston to Wolverhampton, Manchester, Liverpool and Glasgow allowing the retirement of the 81, 82, 83, 84 and 85 class locomotives. The standard practice was for the DVT to be marshaled at the southern end, adjacent to the first class carriages. The first was delivered in March 1989.[3]

They also operated between Wolverhampton and Shrewsbury, and between Crewe and Holyhead hauled by Class 47 diesel locomotives. Because these locomotives were not fitted with push-pull equipment, the 47s always operated leading.

As part of the privatisation of British Rail, all 52 were sold to Porterbrook in 1994 and were operated by InterCity West Coast franchise holder Virgin Trains West Coast from 1997 until the Mark 2 and Mark 3 sets were replaced by Class 390s between 2003 and 2005.[4] In 2002, Mark 3 DVTs operated beyond the West Coast Main Line on a summer Saturday service from Manchester to Paignton with a Class 47 hauled Mark 3 set that was hired to Virgin CrossCountry.

Greater Anglia[edit]

Mark 3 DVTs were introduced along with Mark 3 and Class 90s to the Greater Anglia franchise by National Express East Anglia operating on the Great Eastern Main Line from London Liverpool Street to Norwich in 2004. They also were hauled by Class 47s fron Norwich to Great Yarmouth on summer Saturday services. It was proposed that kitchens be fitted to the DVTs, but this did not proceed.[5] All passed with the franchise to Abellio Greater Anglia in 2012 and remained in service until replaced by Class 745s in 2019.[6] The standard practice was for the DVT to be marshaled at the eastern end, adjacent to the economy class carriages.

Silverlink[edit]

From September 2004 until July 2005, Silverlink operated two DVTs in conjunction with Mark 3 and EWS Class 90s on peak hour London Euston to Northampton.[7][8]

DB Cargo UK[edit]

EWS purchased DVT 82146 to operate as part of its DB Cargo Company Train that was launched in December 2004.[9][10][11]

Hull Trains[edit]

In January 2008, DVT 82115 was hired to Hull Trains to operate services on the East Coast Main Line from London King's Cross to Doncaster with a set of Cargo-D Mark 3s while it was short of rolling stock.[12][13]

Wrexham & Shropshire[edit]

Wrexham & Shropshire started operating push-pull services with DVTs in October 2008 between London Marylebone and Wrexham General with Mark 3s and Class 67 diesel locomotives following the start of the service in April 2008 with Class 67s operating in top and tail formation. The DVTs required modification to work with the Class 67, involving adding a notched power controller as is used in the locomotive and a 27 wire jumper cable as used on the locomotives which is known as the AAR Multiple Working system. They were renumbered 82301 to 82305.[14][15]

With the reduction in service levels from December 2010, a Mark 3 set was hired to Chiltern Railways to operate a Birmingham Moor Street to London Marylebone peak-hour service.[16][17] The standard practice was for the DVT to be marshaled at the southern end.

Chiltern Railways[edit]

After Wrexham & Shropshire ceased in January 2011, its fleet of five DVTs were transferred to fellow DB Regio UK company Chiltern Railways and started operating on London Marylebone to Birmingham Snow Hill services with Mark 3s.[18] They were modified to work with the power doors that were fitted to the Mark 3 coaches and to have a generator fitted to enable Electric Train Supply and compressed air to be provided to the coaches when the locomotive is not running, such as when in a terminus station and when stabled.[19][20] Initially operated with Class 67s, since December 2014 they have operated with Class 68s.[21] Some peak services were extended to Kidderminster. A sixth DVT (82309) was leased to operate with a Mark 3 set on a peak hour service from London Marylebone to Banbury. The standard practice is for the DVT to be marshaled at the southern end.

Network Rail[edit]

In early 2013, several DVTs, including 82111, 82115, 82129 and 82145 were acquired by Network Rail and modified to work with diesel locomotives for use on test trains. Part of the modification work includes the integration of a diesel generator to provide power for on-board systems.[22]

Wales & Borders[edit]

In March 2012, three DVTs (82306-82308) were introduced along with Mark 3s and Class 67s on Arriva Trains Wales' Premier Service from Holyhead to Cardiff.[23][24] They also operate on services from Crewe and Manchester to Holyhead and Llandudno.[25] All passed with the Wales & Borders franchise to Transport for Wales Rail in October 2018 and are scheduled to be replaced in 2020.

Fleet list[edit]

Key: In service Preserved Stored Scrapped Other use
Original Number New Number Name Operator / Owner Livery Status Notes Picture
82101 101 Squadron Direct Rail Services[26] Virgin Trains West Coast Stored Stored at Railway Technical Centre, Derby, no longer Network Rail registered Hugh llewelyn 82 101 (5567347227).jpg
82102 Scrapped Scrapped by Sims, Newport May 2020 British Rail Mk3 DVT 82102 at Stratford.jpg
82103 Scrapped Fitted with experimental rail adhesion system (shown in image), scrapped by Sims, Newport May 2020 82103 rail adhesion equipment.jpg
82104 82309 Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways Mainline In service Fitted with ETS Generator BR Mk3 DVT 82 309.jpg
82105 Scrapped Scrapped by Sims, Newport May 2020 Mk3 DVT 82105.jpg
82106 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham February 2019[27] DVT Birmingham.JPG
82107 Greater Anglia Stored Hugh llewelyn 82 107 (5568534384).jpg
82108 82308 Transport for Wales Arriva Trains Wales In service DVT 82308 at Cardiff Central railway station - geograph.org.uk - 3912210.jpg
82109 Scrapped 82109 - Shrewsbury (8959190070).jpg
82110 Virgin Trains West Coast Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham in 2019[27] Cab saved[28]
82111 Network Rail Network Rail yellow In service Modified for use on test trains[29]
82112 Greater Anglia Preserved Owned by the Mid-Norfolk Railway. Diss - Greater Anglia 82112.jpg
82113 19001 Blue Other use Converted to Class 19 experimental vehicle at Bo'ness & Kinneil Railway.[30]
82114 Northampton & Lamport Railway Greater Anglia Preserved Preserved at the Northampton & Lamport Railway, will be fitted with an ETS Generator[31] British Rail Mk3 DVT 82114 at Stratford.jpg
82115 Liverpool John Moores University BR Blue Stored Stored at Leicester DVT 82115.jpg
82116 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham after store at Long Marston
82117 82301 Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways Mainline In service Fitted with ETS Generator DVT 82301 (4429595274).jpg
82118 Britannia Crewe Heritage Centre Greater Anglia Preserved Donated for static display[32] Hugh llewelyn hugh llewelyn 82 118 (5605531385).jpg
82119 Scrapped Scrapped at MoD Caerwent, 2005, due to extensive corrosion Rail-dvt-amoswolfe.jpg
82120 Liverpool Chamber of Commerce Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham after store at Long Marston
82121 Carlisle Cathedral Colne Valley Railway Greater Anglia Preserved Preserved at Colne Valley Railway[33] Hugh llewelyn 82 121 (5627355213).jpg
82122 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham in 2019[27] DVT 82122.jpg
82123 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham in 2019[27]
82124 The Girls' Brigade Network Rail Network Rail yellow In service Modified for use on test trains[34] BR 82124.jpg
82125 Private Owner Virgin Trains West Coast Preserved Used as a hauled carriage since 2019 at the Mid Norfolk Railway[35] Class 33 and DVT at Worthing.jpg
82126 Wembley Traincare Depot Direct Rail Services[26] Virgin Trains West Coast silver Stored Stored at Railway Technical Centre, Derby, no longer Network Rail registered Hugh llewelyn 82 126 (5563848651).jpg
82127 - Abraham Darby Locomotive Services Limited[36] Greater Anglia Stored 82127 at Dereham.jpg
82128 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham December 2012 Train on the London to Norwich line - geograph.org.uk - 1352890.jpg
82129 Network Rail Network Rail yellow In service Modified for use on test trains[37]
82130 82304 Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways Mainline In service Fitted with ETS Generator Hugh llewelyn 82 304 (5624799638).jpg
82131 82307 Transport for Wales Arriva Trains Wales In service Arriva Trains Wales DVT at Cardiff Central by Jeremy Segrott.jpg.
82132 West Midlands Industry '96 Scrapped Scrapped by Sims, Newport May 2020 Hugh llewelyn 82 132 (5581912836).jpg
82133 Greater Anglia Stored
82134 82305 Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways Mainline In service Fitted with ETS Generator 82 305 Marylebone(8074752998).jpg
82135 82303 Spirit of Cumbria Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways Mainline In service Fitted with ETS Generator WSMR 82303 Dollis Hill.jpg
82136 Greater Anglia Preserved Owned by the Mid-Norfolk Railway Ipswich - Greater Anglia DVT 82136.JPG
82137 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham after store at Long Marston
82138 Virgin Trains West Coast Stored Stored at Long Marston, no longer Network Rail registered
82139 Locomotive Services Limited[36] Greater Anglia Stored Hugh llewelyn 82 139 (5568531278).jpg
82140 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham January 2015
82141 Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham after store at Long Marston
82142 Scrapped
82143 Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service Greater Anglia Other use Training vehicle for fire-fighters
82144 82306 Transport for Wales Arriva Trains Wales In service Arriva Mk 3 DVT 82306 at Cardiff Central.JPG
82145 Network Rail Network Rail yellow In service Modified for use on test trains[38] Network rail 82145.jpg
82146 DB Cargo UK DB Cargo UK silver In service 82146 & 67029 North Wingfield.jpg
82147 The Red Devils Scrapped
82148 International Spring Fair Scrapped Scrapped by CF Booth, Rotherham after store at Long Marston
82149 101 Squadron Fire Service College, Moreton-in-Marsh Virgin Trains West Coast Other use Training vehicle for fire-fighters at Fire Service College, Moreton-in-Marsh[39]
82150 Virgin Trains West Coast Stored Stored at Long Marston, no longer Network Rail registered
82151 82302 Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways Mainline In service Fitted with ETS Generator. Bicester - Chiltern 82302 rear of down train.JPG
82152 Scrapped Scrapped by Sims, Newport May 2020 82152 stored.jpg
  • ‡ – DVT has been denamed

Mark 4 DVT[edit]

NXEC Mark 4 DVT on the East Coast Main Line
Inside of a London North Eastern Railway Mark 4 DVT.

As part of the electrification of the East Coast Main Line from London King's Cross to Leeds, Edinburgh and Glasgow, 32 Mark 4 DVTs were built by Metro-Cammell, Washwood Heath for inclusion in InterCity 225 sets.[40] The bodyshells were manufactured under sub-contract by Breda in Italy.[41] They operate with class 91 locomotives using the TDM system via UIC screened cables through the nine Mark 4 coaches of the rake. They have also operated with 89 and 90 class locomotives.

InterCity East Coast[edit]

All entered service with InterCity. As part of the privatisation of British Rail, all 32 were sold to Eversholt Rail Group in 1994 and were operated by successive InterCity East Coast franchise holders GNER, National Express East Coast, East Coast, Virgin Trains East Coast and LNER. In February 2001, 82221 was damaged in the Great Heck rail crash and subsequently scrapped. The standard practice is for the DVT to be marshaled at the southern end, adjacent to the first class carriages.

With the delivery of Class 801s, mass withdrawals commenced in May 2019.[42] Originally it was proposed that all the InterCity 225 sets be withdrawn by the end of 2020, but LNER decided to retain 10 sets until at least December 2021 to allow it to increase services.[43]

Grand Central[edit]

From 2021, Grand Central will begin using Mk4 coaches and DVTs on London Euston to Blackpool North services with Class 90 locomotives hauling six-carriage sets.[44][45][46]

Transport for Wales[edit]

Transport for Wales is scheduled to introduce three four-car Mark 4 sets with Mark 4 DVTs on the Premier Service from Holyhead to Cardiff in 2020.[47]

Grand Union[edit]

Grand Union has proposed using Class 91 locomotives with Mk4 coaches and DVTs on its services from London Paddington to Cardiff Central and from London Euston to Stirling.[48][49]

Fleet list[edit]

Key: In service Stored Scrapped
Number Name Operator Livery Status Notes Image
82200 LNER LNER Stored Was involved in the Hatfield rail crash, stored at Harry Needle Railroad Company, Worksop[50] 82200 Doncaster (2) (8961332809).jpg
82201 LNER LNER In service Mk4DVT-82201-02.jpg
82202 LNER LNER In service Mk4DVT EC Glasgow.jpg
82203 LNER LNER Stored Hugh llewelyn 82 203 (5632048185).jpg
82204 LNER LNER In service
82205 LNER LNER/Flying Scotsman In service DVT 82205 in Flying Scotsman livery.jpg
82206 LNER LNER In service
82207 LNER LNER In service 82207 near Grantham.jpg
82208 LNER LNER In service 82208 at Sandy in East Coast livery with Virgin Branding.jpg
82209 LNER LNER In service 82 209 Kings Cross(8077575083).jpg
82210 LNER LNER In service Mk4 DVT 82210 OF EAST COAST TRAINS AT KINGS CROSS STATION LONDON SEP 2012 (8035140484).jpg
82211 LNER LNER In service Alexandra Palace - EC 82211.jpg
82212 LNER LNER In service DVT 82212 at Kings Cross.jpg
82213 LNER LNER In service King's Cross railway station MMB 26.jpg
82214 LNER LNER In service Hugh llewelyn 82 214 (5581776797).jpg
82215 LNER LNER In service
82216 LNER LNER Stored Stored at Harry Needle Railroad Company, Worksop
82217 Off to the Races LNER LNER Stored Stored at Harry Needle Railroad Company, Worksop Hugh llewelyn 82 217 (5561215405).jpg
82218 LNER LNER In service 82 218 Kings Cross(8077558890).jpg
82219 Duke of Edinburgh LNER LNER In service Mk4DVT-82219 at Kings Cross.jpg
82220 LNER LNER In service Mk4DVT-82220 at Kings Cross.jpg
82221 Scrapped Scrapped after colliding with a coal train in the Great Heck rail crash on 28 February 2001[51]
82222 LNER LNER Stored Stored at Harry Needle Railroad Company, Worksop 82222 at York Railway Station (27445822664).jpg
82223 LNER LNER In service
82224 LNER LNER In service Peterborough - LNER 82224 (Virgin livery).JPG
82225 LNER LNER In service
82226 Transport for Wales Transport for Wales Stored Stored at Cardiff Canton 43367 and 82226 (17205097211).jpg
82227 Grand Central Grand Central Stored Stored 82219 and 82227 at London Kings Cross.jpg
82228 LNER LNER In service DVTs 82230 & 82228 , Cromwell Moor.jpg
82229 LNER LNER Stored Stored at Harry Needle Railroad Company, Worksop Hugh llewelyn 82 229 (5564856670).jpg
82230 LNER LNER In service Newark North Gate - VTEC 82230 passing up train.JPG
82231 LNER LNER Stored Stored at Harry Needle Railroad Company, Worksop Harringay railway station MMB 26.jpg
  • ‡ – DVT has been denamed

Mark 5 DVT[edit]

The Mark 5 DVT was to be part of British Rail's ill-fated InterCity 250 project on the West Coast Main Line. This would have resembled the Class 93 locomotive, but contain a driving cab, seating for standard class passengers and a small guard compartment.

Mark 5A DT[edit]

A TransPennine Express Mark 5A DT at Crewe.

The new Mark 5A coaches are built with a control car, which is classified as a Driving Trailer (DT) rather than a Driving Van Trailer.[52][53] They were tested at the Velim test track in the Czech Republic with the intention to enter service with TransPennine Express, operating with the Driving Trailer at one end and a Class 68 locomotive powering the other end.[54] The first set entered service on 24 August 2019 on the Liverpool Lime Street to Scarborough route, under the brand name Nova 3.[55]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

DVTs have been involved in very few accidents.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Class History - AL6 / 86 AC Locomotive Group
  2. ^ "Leaf it out!". Right Track (6): 5–91. November 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  3. ^ MkIII DVTs emerge The Railway Magazine issue 1056 April 1989 page 211
  4. ^ After 31 years, 87s bow out on WCML passenger work Rail issue 516 22 June 2005 page 6
  5. ^ No Kitchen for One DVTs Rail issue 511 13 April 2005 page 25
  6. ^ Geater, Paul. "End of the line for traditional trains on Greater Anglia routes". East Anglian Daily Times. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  7. ^ Loco-hauled Cobblers to return from September The Railway Magazine issue 1240 August 2004 page 6
  8. ^ The end for loco-hauled Cobbler services Entrain issue 45 September 2005 page 15
  9. ^ EWS takes Porterbrook Mk 3 DVT for push-pull trains Rail issue 475 26 November 2003 page 7
  10. ^ EWS boss creates promotional train Rail Express issue 100 September 2004 page 8
  11. ^ EWS company train makes first run Rail issue 503 22 December 2004 page 7
  12. ^ Preserved 86 enters service with Hull Trains Rail issue 584 30 January 2008 page 11
  13. ^ Hull Trains replaces Class 86 with Class 180 The Railway Magazine issue 1286 June 2008 page 74
  14. ^ Wrexham & Shropshire DVTs enter traffic The Railway Magazine issue 84 December 2008 page 68
  15. ^ Wrexham & Shropshire DVTs enter traffic Today's Railways UK issue 84 December 2008 page 68
  16. ^ Chiltern commence Birmingham loco-hauled Rail Express 14 December 2010
  17. ^ Chiltern starts loco-hauled services The Railway Magazine issue 1318 February 2011 page 73
  18. ^ Chiltern Mainline start-up Modern Railways issue 756 September 2011 page 6
  19. ^ Chiltern DVTs get generators The Railway Magazine issue 1331 March 2012 page 78
  20. ^ Mk3 Vehicle Slam Door TSI-PRM Compliance Statement
  21. ^ Chiltern passenger debut for Class 68 Rail issue 764 24 December 2014 page 14
  22. ^ Mackin, Rich (2017). Departmental Locomotives, Units and Coaching Stock. Amberley Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 9781445671260.
  23. ^ Mk3 DVTs converted for Arriva Trains Wales Rail issue 687 11 January 2012 page 18
  24. ^ 67s start work on WAG Express Rail issue 693 4 April 2012 page 25
  25. ^ Locomotive-hauled traction in Wales Rail issue 761 12 November 2014 page 31
  26. ^ a b Pretendolino Mk 3s removed ahead of TPE move Rail issue 807 17 August 2016 page 31
  27. ^ a b c d Redundant Mk3s sent for scrapping Rail issue 873 27 February 2019 page 33
  28. ^ The Cab Yard, The South Wales Loco Cab Preservation Group
  29. ^ Mackin, Rich (15 October 2017). Departmental Locomotives, Units and Coaching Stock. Amberley Publishing Limited. p. 19. ISBN 1445671263.
  30. ^ Wilkinson, Sarah (19 November 2018). "Class 19 on trial". Rail Express. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  31. ^ Mark 3b Driving Van Trailer 82114 preserved at the Northampton & Lamport Railway Northampton & Lamport Railway
  32. ^ Two new exhibits to join the Heritage Centre
  33. ^ Train spotted in Halstead for first time in 50 plus years Essex County Standard 18 May 2020
  34. ^ 82124 Network Rail Driving Van Trailer (DVT)
  35. ^ Preserved DVT to be restored Rail issue 864 24 October 2018 page 30
  36. ^ a b LSL acquires Greater Anglia Mk3 stock Rail Express issue 286 March 2020 page 94
  37. ^ 82129 Network Rail Driving Van Trailer (DVT)
  38. ^ 82145 Network Rail Driving Van Trailer (DVT)
  39. ^ Image of 82149 at Fire Service College
  40. ^ Coach contracts shared The Railway Magazine issue 1031 March 1987 page 182
  41. ^ Italians to build BR high speed coaches Railway Gazette International December 1988 page 792
  42. ^ First LNER Mk4s taken to Worksop for storage Rail issue 880 5 June 2019 page 29
  43. ^ Ten IC225s to remain with LNER until December 2021 Rail issue 899 26 February 2020 page 30
  44. ^ 2020-02-20T16:48:00+00:00. "Grand Central prepares to launch London – Blackpool services". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  45. ^ Grand Central plans new Blackpool to London route from 2020 in major boost for the local economy Grand Central 24 June 2019
  46. ^ Grand Central announces temporary suspension of train services during COVID-19 restrictions Grand Central 3 April 2020
  47. ^ Welsh-bound Mk4s take to Eastleigh for use in five-car sets Rail issue 889 9 October 2019 page 32
  48. ^ [Application for Paddington-Cardiff open access trains Rail issue 877 24 April 2019 page 19
  49. ^ Stirling in latest Grand Union access bid Rail issue 888 25 September 2019 page 16
  50. ^ More LNER Mk4 stock stopped Rail Express issue 279 August 2019 page 94
  51. ^ The track obstruction by a road vehicle and subsequent train collisions at Great Heck 28 February 2001 (Report). Health and Safety Executive. February 2002. p. 15. ISBN 0-7176-2163-4.
  52. ^ "First TransPennine Express Mk 5As arrive in UK". www.railmagazine.com. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  53. ^ "CAF Mark 5A specification".
  54. ^ "First Trans-Pennine Express Mk 5A coaches head to Velim". International Railway Journal. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  55. ^ "TPE Nova 3 enters service | Modern Railways". Retrieved 2 January 2020.

External links[edit]

Media related to Driving Van Trailers of Britain at Wikimedia Commons