Driving licence in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Driving licence in the United Kingdom
Ukfulldrivinglicence.png
Example of a driving licence in the United Kingdom (pre-2015 redesign)
Issued by  United Kingdom
Type of document Driving licence
Purpose Authorisation

In the United Kingdom, a driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate motor vehicles on highways and other public roads. It is administered in England, Scotland and Wales by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) and in Northern Ireland by the Driver & Vehicle Agency (DVA). A driving licence is required in England, Scotland, and Wales for any person driving a vehicle on any highway or other "road", as defined in s.192 Road Traffic Act 1988,[1] irrespective of the ownership of the land over which the road passes. Similar requirements apply in Northern Ireland under the Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Order 1981. As long as Great Britain and Northern Ireland remains within the European Union, the driving licence in the United Kingdom is a European driving licence.

As UK nationals do not normally have identity cards, a photographic driving licence can serve many of the purposes of an identity card in non-driving contexts, such as proof of identity (e.g. when opening a bank account) or of age (e.g. when buying age-restricted goods such as alcohol).

Some confusion surrounds the British spelling of licence, which is derived from the Latin licentia, and the associated variations thereof. Licence is the only acceptable spelling of the document (noun), but verbal forms of the word are spelled with an "s". Licensed is used for the state of holding a licence, licensing is the correct form for the process of issuing or obtaining a licence, and licensee for a person holding a licence[2] (although 'driving licence holder' is the term generally used in this context).[3] In the American orthography, all variants are of the c and subsequent s form.

Regulations[edit]

Provisional licences and learner drivers[edit]

Applications for a provisional driving licence can be made in the UK from the age of 15 years and 9 months. Once a United Kingdom driving test has been passed, the driving licence is valid for driving a moped or light quad bike from age 16, and a car from age 17, or 16 for those who receive, or have applied for, the higher or enhanced rate of the mobility component of PIP or DLA.[4][5] A driving test consists of three sections: theory, hazard perception and a supervised driving examination. Until this test has been passed, a driver may hold only a provisional licence[6] and is subject to certain conditions.

The conditions attached to provisional licences for a particular category of vehicle are:[7]

L plate
L plate
D plate (Wales)
D plate (Wales)
Learner driver plates in the UK.
  • L-plates or (in Wales only) D-plates (Welsh: Dysgwr) must be conspicuously displayed on the front and rear of the vehicle.
  • Learner drivers of a particular category and transmission type of vehicle must be accompanied by somebody aged 21 or above who has held a full driving licence for that category and transmission type for at least three years, except in the case of solo motorcycles and vehicles of certain categories designed solely for one person.
  • No trailer may be towed, except when driving a tractor or where a full licence gives provisional entitlement to drive a car with trailer, large goods vehicle with trailer or passenger carrying vehicle with trailer.
  • Motorcycle riders must not carry any pillion passengers.
  • Coach or bus drivers must not carry any passenger except a person giving or receiving instruction.
  • Motorways must not be used by holders of car and motorcycle provisional licences,[8] excluding category B (car) licence holders who are learner drivers for the purposes of the trailer category BE.
R plate that must be displayed by restricted drivers in Northern Ireland.

In Northern Ireland, learner drivers are limited to a speed of 45 mph (72 km/h), and drivers who have passed their test within the previous year must display R plates (restricted) and are also limited to a speed of 45 mph (72 km/h) until the expiry of the restricted period. R plates are similar in style to L plates, with a thick-set dark orange R displayed on a white background.[9]

After passing a driving test, the provisional licence may be surrendered within two years in exchange for a full UK licence[6] for the relevant kind of vehicle. Full car licences allow use of mopeds and motorcycles provided a CBT (Compulsory Basic Training) course is completed (the requirement to have a CBT in Northern Ireland was introduced on 21 February 2011).[10]

It is illegal in England and Wales for a qualified driver to display L-plates or D-plates.

Newly qualified drivers[edit]

There are no restrictions on newly qualified drivers in England, Wales or Scotland, but if a newly qualified driver receives six penalty points within two years of passing, the licence is automatically cancelled and the driver must pass the full test again.[11] These six points remain on the new licence until their designated expiry time.[12]

Towing restrictions[edit]

The rules on what a driver can tow are different depending on when they passed their driving test. If they passed their car driving test on or after 1 January 1997, they may drive a car or van up to 3,500 kg maximum authorised mass (MAM) towing a trailer of up to 750 kg MAM, and they may tow a trailer over 750 kg MAM as long as the combined MAM of the trailer and towing vehicle is no more than 3,500 kg MAM when loaded. They must pass the car and trailer driving test to tow anything heavier. If a driver passed their car test before 1 January 1997, they are usually allowed to drive a vehicle and trailer combination up to 8,250 kg MAM. They are also allowed to drive a minibus with a trailer over 750 kg MAM.[13]

Other regulations[edit]

Motor car licences issued in the United Kingdom distinguish between automatic and manual transmission vehicles, depending on whether or not a driving test was passed in a vehicle with manual transmission (unless a vehicle test was taken in the UK before such distinction was made). While a manual transmission vehicle licence permits the holder to drive a vehicle of either kind, an automatic transmission vehicle licence is solely for vehicles with automatic transmission. The licence also shows whether a driver requires glasses or contact lenses to meet the legal driving requirements, if known.

Drivers who obtained rights to drive category D1 minibuses before 1997 (by passing a test for the obsolete class A) must not drive such vehicles for hire or reward, nor accept any form of payment in money, goods or kind from any passengers carried.

There is no maximum age for driving or holding a driving licence, but holders must renew their licences at age 70 and every three years thereafter, at which times they must self-certify their continued fitness to drive.[14]

Forklift trucks require a separate licence, issued by third-party training companies rather than the DVLA or DSA.[15]

The DVLA has included Welsh on driving licences issued in Wales for many years. But requests for Scots Gaelic (also an official language in the UK) to be included on licences issued to drivers resident in Scotland have so far been rejected.

The Union Flag has been included on UK licences since July 2015.[16]

History[edit]

Driver registration was introduced in 1903 with the Motor Car Act. Holders of the sulphur-yellow coloured document were entitled to "drive a motor car or motor cycle".[17] The wording was changed in 1930 after which holders were allowed to "drive or steer a motor car or to drive a motor cycle". Shortly afterwards, the document cover was changed to a dark red colour. Holders were for a period entitled to drive a vehicle of "any class or description".[17] Subsequent changes saw the document list precisely those vehicle types for which holders were licensed.

Competency tests were introduced by the Motor Vehicles Regulations 1935 applicable to all drivers who started driving after 1 April 1934 . Competency tests were suspended in 1939 for seven years due to the Second World War and in 1956 for one year due to the Suez Crisis. The only person in the United Kingdom who is not required to have a driving licence in order to drive is The Queen.[18] She also does not require number plates on any vehicles which are personally owned by herself or her closest family members.[19]

Until 1973, driving licences (and tax discs) were issued by local authorities and had to be renewed every three years. In 1971, the decision was taken to computerise the licensing system to enable it to be linked to the Police National Computer and to extend the life of the licence up to the driver's 70th birthday, extendable at intervals thereafter provided the driver can prove fitness.

Except for Northern Ireland, driving licences issued before July 1998 did not have photographs on them.[20] Anyone who holds a licence issued before this date may retain their photo-less licence until expiry (normally one's seventieth birthday) or until they change address, whichever comes sooner. The new plastic photocard driving licences have to be renewed every ten years, for a fee. Until 2015, the licence consisted of both the photocard and a paper counterpart which detailed the individual's driving entitlements and convictions ("endorsements"). The counterpart was abolished on 8 June 2015[21] and the information formerly recorded on it is now available online via the View Driving Licence service, except in Northern Ireland where the counterpart must be kept with the photocard.[22]

Licences issued to residents of England, Northern Ireland and Scotland appear only in English, while those issued to residents of Wales appear in both English and Welsh.

Each licence holder in England, Scotland and Wales has a unique driver number, which is 16 characters long. The characters are constructed in the following way:[23]

  • 1–5: The first five characters of the surname (padded with 9s if fewer than 5 characters). For surnames beginning with "MAC", they are treated as "MC" for all.[24]
  • 6: The decade digit from the year of birth (e.g. for 1987 it would be 8)
  • 7–8: The month of birth in two digit format (7th character is incremented by 50 if driver is female i.e. 51–62 instead of 01–12)
  • 9–10: The date within the month of birth in two digit format (i.e. 01-31)
  • 11: The year digit from the year of birth (e.g. for 1987 it would be 7)
  • 12–13: The first two initials of the first names, padded with a 9 if no middle name
  • 14: Arbitrary digit – usually 9, but decremented to differentiate drivers with the first 13 characters in common
  • 15–16: Two computer check digits.
  • 17–18: Appended, two digits representing the licence issue, which increases by 1 for each licence issued.

Each Northern Ireland licence holder has a unique driver number which is 8 characters long. The characters are not constructed in any particular pattern.

Driving licence categories[edit]

Current categories[edit]

This is a list of the categories that might be found on a driving licence in the United Kingdom.[25]

Category Vehicle type Minimum age Notes[Notes 1]
AM Mopeds 16 2-wheeled or 3-wheeled vehicles with a maximum design speed of over 25 km/h (15.5 mph) but not more than 45 km/h (28 mph).

This category also includes light quadricycles with an unladen mass of not more than 350 kg (not including batteries if it is an electric vehicle) and a maximum design speed of over 25 km/h (15.5 mph) but not more than 45 km/h (28 mph).

P Mopeds 16 Motor vehicles with fewer than 4 wheels with a maximum design speed of over 45 km/h (28 mph) but not more than 50 km/h (31 mph). Its engine size must not be more than 50cc if powered by an internal combustion engine.
Q Mopeds 16 Motor vehicles with fewer than 4 wheels which, if propelled by an internal combustion engine, have a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50cc and, if not equipped with pedals by means of which the vehicle is capable of being propelled, have a maximum design speed not exceeding 25 km/h (15.5 mph).
A1 Motorcycles 17 Light motorbicycles with an engine size up to 125cc, a power output of up to 11 kW (14.75 hp), and a power to weight ratio not more than 0.1 kW/kg (136.2 hp/ton). This category also includes motor tricycles with power output up to 15 kW (20.1 hp).
A2 Motorcycles 19 Motorbicycles in category A1, as well as motorbicycles with a power output up to 35 kW (46.9 hp) and power to weight ratio not more than 0.2 kW/kg (272.5 hp/ton). The motorcycle must also not be derived from a vehicle of more than double its power.
A Motorcycles 24[Notes 2] Motorcycles in categories A1 and A2, as well as motorcycles with a power output more than 35 kW (46.9 hp) or a power to weight ratio more than 0.2 kW/kg (272.5 hp/ton) and motor tricycles with a power output more than 15 kW (20.1 hp).
B1 Light vehicles and quadricycles 17[Notes 3] Motor vehicles with 4 wheels up to 400 kg unladen, or 550 kg if they are designed for carrying goods.
B Cars 17[Notes 4] Full licence obtained before 1 January 1997:
  • A vehicle and trailer combination up to 8,250 kg maximum authorised mass (MAM).
  • A minibus with a trailer over 750 kg MAM.

Full licence obtained after 31 December 1996:

  • Vehicles up to 3,500 kg MAM with up to 8 passenger seats (with a trailer up to 750 kg). Also covers heavier trailers if the total MAM of the vehicle and trailer is not more than 3,500 kg.
  • Motor tricycles with a power output higher than 15 kW if driver is over 21 years old.
  • Physically disabled drivers with provisional category B entitlement will also have provisional entitlement to ride category A1 or A motor tricycles. Able-bodied drivers can no longer ride motor tricycles with a provisional category B licence.
B auto Cars 17[Notes 5] As Category B, but only automatic transmission.
BE Cars 17[Notes 6] A vehicle with a MAM of 3,500 kg with a trailer. The size of the trailer depends on the BE ‘valid from’ date shown on the licence. If the date is before 19 January 2013, vehicle can tow any size trailer. If the date is on or after 19 January 2013, vehicle can tow a trailer with a MAM of up to 3,500 kg.
C1 Medium-sized vehicles 18[Notes 7] Vehicles between 3,500 and 7,500 kg MAM (with a trailer up to 750 kg).
C1E Medium-sized vehicles 21[Notes 8] C1 category vehicles with a trailer over 750 kg. The combined MAM of both cannot exceed 12,000 kg.
C Large vehicles 21[Notes 9] Vehicles over 3,500 kg (with a trailer up to 750 kg MAM).
CE Large vehicles 21[Notes 9] Category C vehicles with a trailer over 750 kg.
D1 Minibuses 21[Notes 10] Vehicles with no more than 16 passenger seats, a maximum length of 8 metres, and a trailer up to 750 kg. See also Category B.
D1E Minibuses 21[Notes 10] D1 category vehicles with a trailer over 750 kg MAM. The combined MAM of both cannot exceed 12,000 kg.
D Buses 24[Notes 10] Any bus with more than 8 passenger seats (with a trailer up to 750 kg MAM).
DE Buses 24[Notes 10] D category vehicles with a trailer over 750 kg.
f Agricultural tractor 16 Maximum weight with trailer = 24 390 kg. Age 16 for tractors less than 2.45m wide. It must only pull trailers less than 2.45 m (96 in) wide with two wheels, or four close-coupled.
G Road roller 21[Notes 11] N/A
H Tracked vehicles 21[Notes 12]

N/A

k Mowing machine or pedestrian-controlled vehicle 16 N/A
l Electrically-propelled vehicle 17 Category now deprecated – tests no longer available (since 2001) for this category. Vehicles now fit into category B1 or B.
M Trolley vehicles N/A
n Exempt from duty N/A Category now deprecated – tests no longer available (since 2001) for this category. Vehicles now fit into category B1 or B.
Notes 
  1. ^ MAM = Maximum authorised mass
  2. ^ Age 24 or 2 years from date of A2 test pass.
  3. ^ At age 16, a licence may be issued if the licensee is in receipt of the higher rate of disability living allowance. However, if the rate is withdrawn, the normal minimum age for driving a car (17 years) applies.
  4. ^ At age 16, a licence may be issued if the licensee is in receipt of the higher rate of disability living allowance. However if the rate is withdrawn, the normal minimum age for driving a car (17 years) applies.
  5. ^ At age 16, a licence may be issued if the licensee is in receipt of the higher rate of disability living allowance. However, if the rate is withdrawn, the normal minimum age for driving a car (17 years) applies.
  6. ^ If the driver has passed their category B or B automatic test before 1 January 1997, their licence will already show C1, C1E (8.25 tonnes), D1, D1E (not for hire or reward) as entitlement flowing from the category B.
  7. ^ Age 17 if the driver is a member of the armed services
  8. ^ Age 17 if the driver is a member of the armed services; Age 18 if they got their driving licence before 10 September 2009 and the weight of the vehicle and trailer together is under 7,500 kg; Age 18 under certain other circumstances
  9. ^ a b Age 17 if the driver is a member of the armed services; Age 18 under certain other circumstances
  10. ^ a b c d Age 17 if the driver is a member of the armed services; Age 18 having passed a passenger carrying vehicle (PCV) test before 10 September 2008 and driving under a authorised operator's licence (O-licence), or minibus permit, or community bus permit and under certain conditions; Age 18 under certain other circumstances; Age 20 after passing a PCV driving test and Driver Certificate of Professional Competence (DCPC) initial qualification
  11. ^ Age 17 for small road-rollers with metal or hard rollers. They must not be steam powered, weigh more than 11.69 tonnes or be made for carrying loads
  12. ^ Age 17 if the Maximum Authorised Mass of the tracked vehicle doesn't exceed 3,500 kg

Obsolete goods classes[edit]

Although the category system was changed over 20 years ago (1 January 1997), the freight industry and driver recruitment agencies [26] still predominently use the obsolete class numbers for the entitlement of HGV drivers.

The two systems are not exactly compatible, so the descriptions given are only a guideline.

Class 1: any goods vehicle over 7½ long tons (7,620 kg) with any trailer.

Class 2: any rigid goods vehicle over 7½ long tons.

Class 3: any rigid goods vehicle over 7½ long tons with no more than two axles.

Points and endorsements[edit]

The UK uses a cumulative points system for driving offences. Points are deducted for driving offences by law courts, and the licence is endorsed accordingly. A UK driving licence may be endorsed by the courts for various offences, not only for those committed while driving or in charge of a vehicle. These are usually recorded by changing the second digit of the endorsement code (usually to 2, 4, 6 or 9).[27] If the individual committing the offence does not hold a valid driver's licence the endorsements may be put by until a licence is held.

Most endorsements remain valid for four years; some (such as driving under the influence) are recorded on the licence for 11 years because more severe penalties apply to those convicted twice within 10 years of drink or drug driving offences.

Twelve points on the licence within three years makes the driver liable to disqualification under the "totting-up" procedure; however this is not automatic and must be decided on by a court of law.[28][29] Endorsements remain on the licence for four years, rather than three, to ensure that offences are not removed while still legally applicable.

Driving licence codes[edit]

Certain codes are included on driving licences to indicate restrictions on use. These codes are listed on the back of the card under the column headed "12. Codes" and are listed for each category that is licensed.

As long as the UK remains within the EU, those code are the same than those for EU, currently defined by DIRECTIVE 2006/126/EC.

The codes and their meanings are as follows:[30]

  • 01 – eyesight correction
  • 02 – hearing/communication aid
  • 10 – modified transmission
  • 15 – modified clutch
  • 20 – modified braking systems
  • 25 – modified accelerator systems
  • 30 – combined braking and accelerator systems
  • 35 – modified control layouts
  • 40 – modified steering
  • 42 – modified rear-view mirror(s)
  • 43 – modified driving seats
  • 44 – modifications to motorcycles
  • 44 (1) – single operated brake
  • 44 (2) – (adjusted) hand operated brake (front wheel)
  • 44 (3) – (adjusted) foot operated brake (back wheel)
  • 44 (4) – (adjusted) accelerator handle
  • 44 (5) – (adjusted) manual transmission and manual clutch
  • 44 (6) – (adjusted) rear-view mirror(s)
  • 44 (7) – (adjusted) commands (direction indicators, braking light, etc.)
  • 44 (8) – seat height allowing the driver, in sitting position, to have 2 feet on the road at the same time
  • 45 – motorcycles only with sidecar
  • 46 – tricycles only (for licences issued before 29 June 2014)
  • 70 – exchange of licence
  • 71 – duplicate of licence
  • 78 – restricted to vehicles with automatic transmission
  • 79 – restricted to vehicles in conformity with the specifications stated in brackets on the licence
  • 79.02 – restricted to category AM vehicles of the 3-wheel or light quadricycle type
  • 79.03 – restricted to tricycles
  • 96 – allowed to drive a vehicle and trailer where the trailer weighs at least 750 kg, and the combined weight of the vehicle and trailer is between 3,500 kg and 4,250 kg
  • 97 – not allowed to drive category C1 vehicles which are required to have a tachograph fitted
  • 101 – not for hire or reward (that is, not to make a profit)
  • 102 – drawbar trailers only
  • 103 – subject to certificate of competence
  • 105 – vehicle not more than 5.5 metres long
  • 106 – restricted to vehicles with automatic transmissions
  • 107 – not more than 8,250 kilogrammes
  • 108 – subject to minimum age requirements
  • 110 – limited to transporting persons with restricted mobility
  • 111 – limited to 16 passenger seats
  • 113 – limited to 16 passenger seats except for automatics
  • 114 – with any special controls required for safe driving
  • 115 – organ donor
  • 118 – start date is for earliest entitlement
  • 119 – weight limit(s) for vehicle do(es) not apply
  • 121 – restricted to conditions specified in the Secretary of State's notice
  • 122 – valid on successful completion: Basic Moped Training Course
  • 125 – tricycles only (for licences issued before 29 June 2014)

Use as proof of identity[edit]

Identity cards for UK nationals were introduced in 2009 on a voluntary basis, and the attempt to introduce a nationwide identity-card scheme in 2010 was reversed mid-course. Its in-progress database was halted and then destroyed.[citation needed] Only workers in certain high-security professions, such as airport workers, were required to have an identity card in 2009, and this remains the case today. Therefore, driving licences, particularly the photocard driving licence introduced in 1998, along with passports, are the most widely used ID documents in the United Kingdom. Most people do not carry their passports with them; this leaves driving licences as the only valid form of ID to be presented. In day-to-day life, most authorities do not arbitrarily ask for identification from individuals, although this may become a concern in instances of stop and search.[citation needed]

Non-professional drivers are not legally obliged to carry a driving licence while driving, but section 164 of the Road Traffic Act 1998[31] allows a police officer to require a driver to produce a driving licence within seven days at a police station chosen by the driver. The form which was once issued in such circumstances, the HO/RT 1, was known colloquially as "a producer", as exemplified in Smiley Culture's hit single "Police Officer".[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "s.192 Road Traffic Act 1988 – General Interpretation of Act". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  2. ^ https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/licence
  3. ^ as - for example - at "Statistical data set Driving licence holding and vehicle availability (NTS02)". Gov.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  4. ^ "Provisional Driving Licence". Young Car Driver. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Direct.gov Motoring". Direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  6. ^ a b "Road Traffic Act 1988 s.89". Statutelaw.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  7. ^ "Motor Vehicles (Driving Licences) Regulations 1999 reg. 16" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  8. ^ Motorways Traffic (England and Wales) Regulations 1982 reg. 11 ISBN 0-11-027163-7
  9. ^ "Motor vehicle documentation learner and restricted driver requirements". Nidirect.gov.uk. 4 October 2009. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  10. ^ "Statutory Rules of Northern Ireland DVA website" (PDF). doeni.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "Road Traffic (New Drivers) Act 1995, ss.1 to 4". Statutelaw.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-08-05. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  12. ^ "Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988, s.45(5)". Statutelaw.gov.uk. 1992-01-07. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  13. ^ "Towing with a car". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 6 February 2017.  UKOpenGovernmentLicence.svg This content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0. © Crown copyright.
  14. ^ "Renew your driving licence if you're 70 or over". Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  15. ^ "Forklift Training". Wanadrive.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  16. ^ "Union Flags now feature on British driving licences". gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-12. 
  17. ^ a b "Licensed to drive". Motor. 23 May 1970. p. 32. 
  18. ^ Mostrous, Alexi (20 December 2007). "81 facts about the Queen". The Times. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  19. ^ "1903 – 2003: 100 Years of Licensing and Registration in Britain". showplatesdirect.com. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  20. ^ "UK | Drivers face new photocard licence". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  21. ^ "Driving licence changes". Gov.uk. Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 
  22. ^ "The photocard driving licence explained". nidirect.gov.uk. 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2016-09-14. 
  23. ^ "DVLA INF45/1 "Your new Driving Licence" June 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  24. ^ "ID checking guidelines for DBS check applications". 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 
  25. ^ "Driving licence categories - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-15. 
  26. ^ http://www.freightpersonnel.co.uk/
  27. ^ https://www.gov.uk/penalty-points-endorsements/endorsement-codes-and-penalty-points
  28. ^ ""Endorsements, penalty points and disqualification", Direct.gov.uk". Gov.uk. 2013-07-19. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  29. ^ "New Driving Laws and What They Mean For Drivers". absolutereg.co.uk. 2015-08-06. 
  30. ^ https://www.gov.uk/driving-licence-codes (OGL 3.0)
  31. ^ "Road Traffic Act 1988". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  32. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/culture-obituaries/music-obituaries/8386589/Smiley-Culture.html

External links[edit]