Drogheda

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Drogheda

Droichead Átha
2007 view of Drogheda from the south
2007 view of Drogheda from the south
Flag of Drogheda
Flag
Coat of arms of Drogheda
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
“God our strength, merchandise our glory.”
Drogheda is located in Ireland
Drogheda
Drogheda
Location in Ireland
Drogheda is located in Europe
Drogheda
Drogheda
Drogheda (Europe)
Coordinates: 53°42′50″N 6°21′00″W / 53.714°N 6.350°W / 53.714; -6.350Coordinates: 53°42′50″N 6°21′00″W / 53.714°N 6.350°W / 53.714; -6.350
CountryIreland
ProvinceLeinster
CountyCounty Louth and County Meath
Municipal districtDrogheda Borough District
Dáil ÉireannLouth
EU ParliamentMidlands–North-West
Founded911 AD
First Charter1194
County Status1412[1] (Abolished 1898)
Area
 • Total14.8 km2 (5.7 sq mi)
Highest elevation
24 m (79 ft)
Lowest elevation
1 m (3 ft)
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Total40,956
 • Rank6th
 • Density2,776.6/km2 (7,191/sq mi)
 • Greater area
83,000[3]
DemonymsDroghedean, Boynesider
Time zoneUTC±0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (IST)
Eircode routing key
A92
Telephone area code+353(0)41
Websitewww.louthcoco.ie Edit this at Wikidata
Map of Drogheda

Drogheda (/ˈdrɒhədə, ˈdrɔːdə/ DRAW-həd-ah; Irish: Droichead Átha [ˈd̪ˠɾˠɛhəd̪ˠ ˈaːhə], meaning "bridge at the ford") is one of the oldest towns in Ireland. It is located on the Dublin–Belfast corridor on the east coast of Ireland, mostly in County Louth but with the south fringes of the town in County Meath, 49 km or 30 miles north of Dublin. Drogheda has a population of approximately 41,000 inhabitants (2016), making it the eleventh largest settlement by population in all of Ireland. It is the last bridging point on the River Boyne before it enters the Irish Sea. The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Newgrange is located 8 km west of the town.

Drogheda, 1749

Drogheda was founded as two separately administered towns in two different territories: Drogheda-in-Meath (i.e. the Lordship and Liberty of Meath, from which a charter was granted in 1194) and Drogheda-in-Oriel (or 'Uriel', as County Louth was then known). The division came from the twelfth-century boundary between two Irish kingdoms, colonised by different Norman interests, just as the River Boyne continues to divide the town between the dioceses of Armagh and Meath. In 1412 these two towns were united, and Drogheda became a 'County Corporate', styled as 'the County of the Town of Drogheda'. Drogheda continued as a County Borough until the setting up of County Councils through the enactment of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, which saw all of Drogheda, including a large area south of the Boyne, become part of an extended County Louth. With the passing of the County of Louth and Borough of Drogheda (Boundaries) Provisional Order, 1976, County Louth again grew larger at the expense of County Meath. The boundary was further altered in 1994 by the Local Government (Boundaries) (Town Elections) Regulations 1994. The 2007–2013 Meath County Development Plan recognises the Meath environs of Drogheda as a primary growth centre on a par with Navan.

The town was selected to host Fleadh Cheoil na hÉireann for two years in 2018.[4]

History[edit]

Commemoration of Official Charter

Hinterland[edit]

The town is situated in an area which contains a number of archaeological monuments dating from the Neolithic period onwards, of which the large passage tombs of Newgrange, Knowth, and Dowth are probably the best known.[6] The density of archaeological sites of the prehistoric and early Christian periods uncovered in the course of ongoing developments, (including during construction of the Northern Motorway or 'Drogheda Bypass'), have shown that the hinterland of Drogheda has been a settled landscape for millennia.[7][8]

Town beginnings[edit]

St Mary Magdalene Friary.

Despite local tradition linking Millmount to Amergin Glúingel, in his 1978 study of the history and archaeology of the town John Bradley stated that "neither the documentary nor the archaeological evidence indicates that there was any settlement at the town prior to the coming of the Normans".[9] The results of a number of often large-scale excavations carried out within the area of the medieval town appear to confirm this statement.[10]

One of the earliest structures in the town is the motte-and-bailey castle, now known as Millmount Fort, which overlooks the town from a bluff on the south bank of the Boyne and which was probably erected by the Norman Lord of Meath, Hugh de Lacy sometime before 1186. The wall on the east side of Rosemary Lane, a back-lane which runs from St. Laurence Street towards the Augustinian Church is the oldest stone structure in Drogheda.[11] It was completed in 1234 as the west wall of the first castle guarding access to the northern crossing point of the Boyne. The earliest known town charter is that granted to Drogheda-in-Meath by Walter de Lacy in 1194.[12] In the 1600s, the name of the town was also spelled "Tredagh" in keeping with the common pronunciation, as documented by Gerard Boate in his work Irelands' Natural History. In c. 1655 it was spelled "Droghedagh" on a map by William Farriland.[13]

Drogheda was an important walled town in the English Pale in the medieval period. It frequently hosted meetings of the Irish Parliament at that time. According to R.J. Mitchell in John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, in a spill-over from the War of the Roses the Earl of Desmond and his two youngest sons (still children) were executed there on Valentine's Day 1468 on orders of the Earl of Worcester, the Lord Deputy of Ireland. It later came to light (for example in Robert Fabyan's The New Chronicles of England and France), that Elizabeth Woodville, the queen consort, was implicated in the orders given.[14] The parliament was moved to the town in 1494 and passed Poynings' Law, the most significant legislation in Irish history, a year later. This effectively subordinated the Irish Parliament's legislative powers to the King and his English Council.

Later events[edit]

St. Laurence's Gate

The town was besieged twice during the Irish Confederate Wars.

On the second occasion an assault was made on the town from the south, the tall walls breached, and the town was taken by Oliver Cromwell on 11 September 1649,[15] as part of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and it was the site of a massacre of the Royalist defenders. In his own words after the siege of Drogheda, "When they submitted, their officers were knocked on the head, and every tenth man of the soldiers killed and the rest shipped to Barbados."[16]

The Earldom of Drogheda was created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1661.

The Battle of the Boyne, 1690, occurred some 6 km (3.7 mi) west of the town, on the banks of the River Boyne, at Oldbridge.

In 1790, Drogheda Harbour Commissioners were established. They remained in place until 1997 when the Drogheda Port Company a commercial enterprise replaced them.

In 1825, the Drogheda Steam Packet Company was formed in the town, providing shipping services to Liverpool.

In 1837, the population of Drogheda area was 17,365 people, of whom 15,138 lived in the town.[17]

Town arms[edit]

Drogheda's coat of arms features St. Laurence's Gate with three lions, and a ship emerging from either side of the barbican. The town's motto Deus praesidium, mercatura decus translates as "God our strength, merchandise our glory".

The star and crescent emblem in the crest of the coat of arms is mentioned as part of the mayor's seal by D'Alton (1844).[18] In 2010, Irish president Mary McAleese, in a speech delivered during an official visit to Turkey, stated that the star and crescent had been added in the aftermath of the Great Famine as gratitude for food supplies donated by the Ottoman Sultan, which had arrived at Drogheda by ship. Irish press quickly pointed out the story was a myth, with a local historian calling it 'nothing short of sheer nonsense'.[19][20] However, later evidence, including a letter displayed at the office of the European Commission, confirms that Turkey came to the aid of the Irish during the Famine.[21][22]

20th century[edit]

St Oliver Plunkett's Head

In 1921, the preserved severed head of Saint Oliver Plunkett, who was executed in London in 1681, was put on display in St. Peter's (Catholic) Church, where it remains today. The church is located on West Street, which is the main street in the town.

In 1979, Pope John Paul II visited Drogheda as part of his five-stop tour of Ireland. He arrived less than a month after the IRA assassination of Lord Mountbatten, Queen Elizabeth's cousin, in Mullaghmore. On 29 September 1979, he arrived in Dublin, where he gave his first mass. He then addressed 300,000 people in Drogheda, where he appealed "on his knees" to paramilitaries to end the violence in Ireland:[23][24][25]

"Now I wish to speak to all men and women engaged in violence. I appeal to you, in language of passionate pleading. On my knees I beg you to turn away from the paths of violence and to return to the ways of peace. You may claim to seek justice. I too believe in justice and seek justice. But violence only delays the day of justice. Violence destroys the work of justice. Further violence in Ireland will only drag down to ruin the land you claim to love and the values you claim to cherish."[26]

21st century[edit]

derelict building in the Westgate area of Drogheda town

Two decades into the 21st century some of the historic core of Drogheda town has suffered urban decline. Some of the buildings have been derelict for some years and are in danger of collapse.[27] There was a 2006 traffic plan for pedestrianisation of West Street. It was rejected at a vote of the elected councillors. They had come under pressure from traders in the area concerned about a potential further decline in customer footfall. But the issue has come up for debate again.[28] When asked, Drogheda residents point out that a combination of expensive car-parking and high commercial rates had a push-pull effect on the town's centre. Shops were forced to close and at the same time shoppers brought their business to retail parks such as the Boyne Shopping Centre on Bolton Street.[29] A substantial root-and-branch approach to renewal of the locality was proposed in “Westgate Vision: A Townscape Recovery Guide”. The Westgate area of Drogheda is to be subject to a 10-year regeneration by Louth County Council.[30]

Demographics[edit]

Drogheda has a hinterland of 70,000+ within a 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) radius covering County Louth and County Meath.[citation needed] According to the 2016 census, there were 40,956 people living in Drogheda town at that time.[31]

As of the 2011 census, non-Irish nationals accounted for 16.1% of the population, compared with a national average of 12%. Polish nationals (1,127) were the largest group, followed by Lithuanian nationals (1,044 people).[32] As of the 2016 census, 17.4% of the population were non-Irish nationals, with 676 people from the UK, 1,324 Polish nationals, 1,014 Lithuanians, 1,798 people from elsewhere in the EU, and 1,400 with other (non-EU) nationalities.[31]

Arts and entertainment[edit]

Music[edit]

Drogheda has hosted the national traditional music festival, Fleadh Cheoil na hÉireann, in 2018 and again in 2019.[33]

Drogheda is home to two brass bands: Drogheda Brass Band and Lourdes Brass Band. Both bands have been National Brass Band Champions of Ireland and Northern Ireland.[citation needed] The town is known nationally for its choral tradition which goes back many years.

Drogheda hosted the international summer Samba festival in which Samba bands from around the world came to the town for three days of drumming and parades.[34]

The composer and member of Aosdána, Michael Holohan, has lived in Drogheda since 1983. His compositions have been performed and broadcast both at home and internationally. Career highlights in Drogheda include Cromwell 1994, 'Drogheda 800' (RTECO, Lourdes Church); The Mass of Fire 1995, 'Augustinian 700' (RTÉ TV live broadcast); No Sanctuary 1997 with Nobel Laureate and poet Seamus Heaney (Augustinian Church); Remembrance Sunday Service and Drogheda Unification 600 (RTE TV live broadcast, St Peter's Church of Ireland) and two major concerts with The Boyne Valley Chamber Orchestra at Fleadh Cheoil na hÉireann in 2018 and 2019.

Visual Arts[edit]

October 2006 saw the opening of The Highlanes Gallery, the town's first dedicated Municipal Art Gallery. Its location is the former Franciscan Church and Friary on St.Laurence Street. The gallery houses Drogheda's important municipal art collection, which dates from the 17th century, as well as visiting exhibitions in a venue which meets key international museum and gallery standards.[citation needed] Drogheda's most famous visual artist was the abstract expressionist painter Nano Reid (1900–1981). There are many highly regarded visual artists working in Drogheda at the present time. Too many to list they include; Richard Moore, Raphael Hynes, Mary Mc Donnell, Vivienne Byrne, John Moloney, Maureen Finn, Jackie Hudson Lalor, Patrick Dillon, Nuala Early, Roger Hudson and Ronan Halpin.

Places of interest[edit]

Millmount Monument

Drogheda is an ancient town that has a growing tourism industry.[35] It has a UNESCO World Heritage site, Newgrange, located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the west of the town centre. Other tourist sites in the area include:

View of Drogheda from Millmount

Industry and economy[edit]

Drogheda has a growing industrial base[citation needed] with several international companies based in the town. Local employers include the Boyne Valley Group (food producers),[citation needed] Coca-Cola International Services, State Street International Services, Natures Best (a food processor employing 300 people),[citation needed], Yapstone Inc,[37][38] the Drogheda Port Company (the oldest indigenous employer since 1790),[citation needed] Glanbia, Flogas, and CRH plc.[citation needed]

Drogheda also has a history of brewing and distilling, with companies Jameson Whiskey, Coca-Cola, Guinness, Jack Daniel's all having previously produced (or are still producing) their products in or near the town. These include the Boann distillery and brewery, Slane Whiskey (a Jack Daniel's-owned company), Listoke House, Dan Kellys (cider), and Jack Codys (craft beers and stouts).[citation needed] The town formerly distilled Prestons whiskey, a Jameson Whiskey brand; Carines Beer, founded locally and sold to Guinness; and Coca-Cola concentrate, which has since moved to Ballina, County Mayo.[citation needed]

Transport, communications and amenities[edit]

De lacey Bridge
M1 traffic crossing Boyne River Bridge.
Railway bridge over Boyne

Road links and infrastructure[edit]

Drogheda is located close to the M1 (E1 Euro Route 1) (main DublinBelfast motorway). The Boyne River Bridge carries traffic from the M1, across the River Boyne, 3 km west of the town. It was opened on 9 June 2003 and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Ireland. The town's postcode, or eircode, is A92.

Railway[edit]

Drogheda acquired rail links to Dublin in 1844, Navan in 1850 and Belfast in 1852. Passenger services between Drogheda and Navan were ended in 1958, however the line remains open for freight (Tara Mines/Platin Cement) traffic. In 1966 Drogheda station was renamed "MacBride". Drogheda railway station opened on 25 May 1844.[39]

The station has direct trains on the Enterprise northbound to Dundalk, Newry, Portadown, Lisburn and Belfast Central, and southbound to Dublin Connolly.

A wide variety of Iarnród Éireann commuter services connect southbound to Balbriggan, Malahide, Howth Junction, Dublin Connolly, Tara Street, Dublin Pearse, Dún Laoghaire, Bray, Greystones, Wicklow, and Wexford.

Bus transport[edit]

Drogheda's bus station is located on Donore Road. It replaces an earlier facility on the Bull Ring.[citation needed] Past Bus Éireann routes included the 184 to Garristown and 185 to Bellewstown but these were discontinued a few years ago.[citation needed]

Politics and government[edit]

Scotch Hall Shopping Centre

Drogheda Borough Council is an elected local government body which is mandated under the Local Government Act 2001 to provide civic leadership and a forum for the democratic representation of the community. Responsibilities include amenity support, operation of the Litter Act, contribution to tourism development, event licensing, arts support, etc. The Borough Council executive comprises twelve elected Councillors, headed by the mayor. The mayor, elected in June 2019 for the period 2019–2020, was Paul Bell (Labour).[40]

For local elections to Louth County Council, the town forms part of two local electoral areas – Drogheda East (6) and Drogheda West (4) . This includes both the urban Drogheda area and surrounding rural areas.[citation needed]

For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the town is part of the Louth constituency which returns five TDs.[citation needed]

Media[edit]

The local newspapers are the Drogheda Independent and Drogheda Leader, known locally as The D.I. and The Leader. Both newspapers are published every Wednesday. The headquarters of The Drogheda Independent are on Shop Street and The Drogheda Leader's offices are on Laurence Street.

The local radio station is LMFM, broadcasting on 95.8 FM. The headquarters of LMFM are on Marley's Lane on the south side of the town.

Hospitals and health care[edit]

Drogheda is a regional centre for medical care. Its main hospital is Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, a public hospital located in the town. and is part of the Louth Meath Hospital Group. Facilities include a 24-hour emergency department for the populations of County Louth, County Meath and the North-East of Ireland. The hospital provides 340 beds, of which 30 are reserved for acute day cases.[41]

The Cottage Hospital on Scarlet Street is a former maternity hospital, which subsequently became a Geriatric Unit for a number of years and is now a long-stay residential unit.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

There are six secondary schools situated in Drogheda. St. Joseph's secondary school in Newfoundwell is an all-boys school, as is St. Marys Diocesan School on Beamore Rd. The Sacred Heart School,[42] situated in Sunnyside Drogheda, is an all-girls school. The Drogheda Grammar school, located on Mornington Road, St. Oliver's Community College,[43] on Rathmullen Road, and Ballymakenny College, on the Ballymakenny Road, are co-ed schools. Our Lady's College,[44] in Greenhills is an all-girls school. There is also Drogheda Institute for Further Education (DIFE), a third-level college situated in Moneymore.

Sport[edit]

The town's association football (soccer) team, Drogheda United FC, won the FAI Cup for the first time in 2005. The club also won the Setanta Cup in 2006, and the League of Ireland for the first time in 2007.

In rugby union, the local Boyne RFC team was formed in 1997 from the amalgamation of Delvin RFC and Drogheda RFC. As of 2010, the men's 1st XV team were playing in the Leinster J1 1st division. Drogheda is also home to a number of rugby-playing schools.[citation needed]

There are five Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in Drogheda: Newtown Blues GFC, Wolfe Tones GFC, O'Raghallaigh's GFC, Oliver Plunket's GFC, and St. Nicholas's GFC.[citation needed]

Town twinning[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Arts and media[edit]

Politics and diplomacy[edit]

Military[edit]

Business[edit]

  • John Jameson Founder of Jameson whiskey lived in Distillery House, Dyer Street.

Academia and science[edit]

Religion[edit]

  • Patrick Curtis Archbishop of Armagh, Spymaster for the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War. No 1 on Napoleon's most wanted list.
  • Thomas Lancaster, bishop, buried at St. Peter's Church

Sport[edit]

Other[edit]

Freedom of the Town[edit]

The following people have received the Freedom of the Town of Drogheda.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johnston, L. C. (1826). History of Drogheda: from the earliest period to the present time. Drogheda. p. 37.
  2. ^ a b "Population Density and Area Size 2016 by Towns". Central Statistics Office (Ireland). Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  3. ^ "Cromwell back at gates of Drogheda - demanding a city". Independent.ie. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Drogheda to host Fleadh Cheoil". Irish Independent. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  5. ^ See http://www.cso.ie/census and http://www.histpop.org for post 1821 figures, 1813 estimate from Mason's Statistical Survey. For a discussion on the accuracy of pre-famine census returns see J.J. Lee "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses", Irish Population, Economy and Society, eds. J.M. Goldstrom and L.A. Clarkson (1981) p.54, and also "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850" by Joel Mokyr and Cormac O Grada in The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Nov. 1984), pp. 473–488.
  6. ^ Stout, G. 2002 Newgrange and the Bend of the Boyne. Cork University Press.
  7. ^ Bennett, I. (ed) 1987–2004 Excavations : Summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland. Bray.
  8. ^ The Hidden Places of Ireland 190443410X David Gerrard - 2004 -"Two minutes from the centre of Drogheda. in the old townland of Mell."
  9. ^ Bradley, J. 1978 'The Topography and Layout of Medieval Drogheda', Co. Louth Archaeological and Historical Journal, 19, 2, 98–127.
  10. ^ Bennett op cit.
  11. ^ Archaeology No. 5257: The medieval walls of Drogheda
  12. ^ Bradley op cit 105
  13. ^ NLI. MS. 716, copy of map by Daniel O'Brien, c. 1780
  14. ^ Fabyan, Robert; Ellis, Henry (1811). The new chronicles of England and France, in two parts: by Robert Fabyan. Named by himself The concordance of histories. Reprinted from Pynson's edition of 1516. The first part collated with the editions of 1533, 1542, and 1559; and the second with a manuscript of the author's own time, as well as the subsequent editions: including the different continuations. To which are added a biographical and literary preface, and an index. Robarts - University of Toronto. London : Printed for F.C. & J. Rivington [etc.]
  15. ^ Antonia Fraser, Cromwell, our chief of men (London, 1973)
  16. ^ Cromwell letter to William Lenthall (1649)
  17. ^ "Entry for Drogheda in Lewis Topographical Dictionary of Ireland (1837)". Libraryireland.com. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  18. ^ John D'Alton, The History of Drogheda: With Its Environs, and an Introductory Memoir of the Dublin and Drogheda Railway (1844), p. 138.
  19. ^ Comyn, Alison (31 March 2010). "PRESIDENT SPARKS STAR AND CRESCENT DEBATE". Irish Independent.
  20. ^ Murray, Ken (25 March 2010). "President tells Turks an anecdote of myth not fact". The Irish Times. Retrieved 25 March 2010. "Liam Reilly, an administrator with the Old Drogheda Society based in the town's Millmount Museum, said last night the comments were incorrect. 'There are no records with the Drogheda Port Authority of this ever happening. Drogheda historians can trace the star and crescent back to 1210 when the British governor of Ireland, King John Lackland, granted the town its first charter,' he said"[unreliable source?] "Ottoman aid to the Irish to hit the big screen". TodaysZaman. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014."New evidence shows Turkey delivered food to Ireland during the famine". IrishCentral.com. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  21. ^ Murray, Ken (1 June 2010). "Role of Turkey during Famine clarified". The Irish Times.
  22. ^ "Ireland remembers how 19th century aid from Ottoman sultan changed fate of thousands | Daily Sabah". Ireland remembers how 19th century aid from Ottoman sultan changed fate of thousands. 16 February 2020.
  23. ^ "Remembering Pope John Paul II's 1979 visit to Ireland (PHOTOS)". IrishCentral.com. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  24. ^ Doherty, Christine (6 January 2010). "Drogheda was safe place for Pope to visit". The Independent. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  25. ^ McGarry, Patsy (29 November 2016). "Pope's visit to Ireland will not draw the 1979 crowds of 2.7m". The Irish Times. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  26. ^ "29 September 1979: Mass in Drogheda - Dublin | John Paul II". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Vatican. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  27. ^ "Dangerous structure notice is served on two Narrow West Street properties". Drogheda Independent. 25 February 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  28. ^ "Councillors in favour of closing West Street to traffic". Drogheda Life. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  29. ^ [Planning 'neglect' has made Drogheda a town that has lost its 'heart' "Councillors in favour of closing West Street to traffic"] Check |url= value (help). TheJournal.ie. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  30. ^ Louth Forward Planning Office (June 2018). Westgate Vision: A Townscape Recovery Guide. Dundalk: Louth County Council.
  31. ^ a b "Sapmap Area - Settlements - Drogheda". Census 2016. Central Statistics Office. April 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  32. ^ "Area Profile For Town - Drogheda Legal Town and its environs" (PDF). Central Statistics Office. 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  33. ^ https://www.visitlouth.ie/whats-on/festivals/fleadh-cheoil-na-h%C3%A9ireann-drogheda-2019.html
  34. ^ Noel Cosgrave. "Drogheda Samba Festival". Droghedasamba.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  35. ^ Spearman, Andy. "Drogheda Life | Drogheda allocated funding to become a tourist 'Destination Town'". Drogheda Life | Best For Local News & Advertising. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  36. ^ "Augustinian Church, Drogheda". Tripadvisor.
  37. ^ "Contact Us - YapStone, Payment Service Provider". Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  38. ^ "YapStone Names Daniel Issen as Chief Technology Officer". www.businesswire.com. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  39. ^ "Drogheda station" (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 5 September 2007.
  40. ^ "Bell elected Mayor of Drogheda for fourth time". droghedalife.com. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  41. ^ "Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Drogheda - HSE.ie". www.hse.ie. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  42. ^ "Sacred Heart Secondary School - Principal's Welcome". www.sacredheart.ie. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  43. ^ "Home Page". www.socc.ie. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  44. ^ User, Super. "Home". www.ourladys.ie. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  45. ^ "Love story: Courtney Love - Independent.ie". Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  46. ^ "I've been tortured and scorned since the day I was born". Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  47. ^ "TK Whitaker recalls his childhood in Paradise - Independent.ie". Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  48. ^ Houterman, J.N. "Royal Navy (RN) Officers 1939-1945 - F". www.unithistories.com.
  49. ^ O'Rourke, Steve. "'Better than Senna' - Tommy Byrne was the greatest racing driver you've probably never heard of".
  50. ^ Clarke, Donald. "Crash and Burn review: Tommy Byrne - Far beyond driven". The Irish Times.
  51. ^ http://100objects.ie/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/15-Lesson-Plan_Post-Primary_Parnell-Silver-Casket-1.pdf
  52. ^ "When love came to town". www.irishidentity.com.
  53. ^ "Drogheda honour for John Hume". The Irish Times.
  54. ^ McGarry, Patsy. "Fr Iggy O'Donovan to be awarded Freedom of Drogheda". The Irish Times.
  55. ^ Ireland, Office of the President of. "Diary President Is Conferred With The Freedom Of Drogheda". president.ie.
  56. ^ McMahon, Aine. "Séamus Mallon awarded freedom of Drogheda despite Sinn Féin objections". The Irish Times.
  57. ^ "Geraldine to gain Freedom of Drogheda in January event". Drogheda Independent. 4 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]