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Droitwich Spa, St. Andrews
|Area||8.366 km2 (3.230 sq mi)|
|Population||25,027 (2021 Census)|
|• Density||2,992/km2 (7,750/sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|• London||125 miles (201 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Fire||Hereford and Worcester|
Droitwich Spa (often abbreviated to Droitwich //) is an historic spa town in the Wychavon district in northern Worcestershire, England, on the River Salwarpe. It is located approximately 22 miles (35 km) south-west of Birmingham and 7 miles (11 km) north-east of Worcester.
The town was called Salinae in Roman times, then later called Wyche, derived from the Anglo-Saxon Hwicce kingdom, referred to as "Saltwich" according to Anglo-Saxon charters, with the Droit (meaning "right" in French) added when the town was given its charter on 1 August 1215 by King John. The "Spa" was added in the 19th century when John Corbett developed the town's spa facilities. The River Salwarpe running through Droitwich is likely derived from sal meaning "salt" and weorp which means "to throw up" - i.e. "the river which throws up salt" - which overflows from the salt brines.
The town is situated on massive deposits of salt, and salt has been extracted there since ancient times. The natural Droitwich brine contains 2+1⁄2 pounds per imperial gallon (0.25 kg/L) of salt; ten times stronger than sea water and rivaled only by the Dead Sea.
During the Roman era the settlement was known as Salinae and was located at the crossroads of several Roman roads. Railway construction in 1847 revealed Roman mosaic pavements. In the ninth century Historia Brittonum, a text that discusses various landscape folklore across Britain, the hot spring of Droitwich Spa appears to be described in a passage that suggests that the spa was still built up at that time: "The third marvel is a hot pool, which is in the country of the Hwicce [near Worcester] and is surrounded by a wall made of bricks and stone. Men go into it to bathe at all times, and the temperature changes for each of them as they wish: if one man wants a cold bath, it will be cold, and if another wants a hot bath, it will be hot."
Droitwich remained a fairly small town until the 1960s, when the population was still barely 7,000, but since then it has grown considerably from overspill from Birmingham with many housing estates being developed in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2014, new housing consent was granted to large developments at Copcut (750 houses) and Yew Tree Hill (765 houses) with a number of other in-fill developments
In July 2007, Droitwich was hit heavily by the UK-wide flooding caused by some of the heaviest rainfall in many years. The flooding was pictured in UK-wide news, having flooded the majority of the heavily subsided high street. Many shops in the high street remained closed almost a year later. The flooding crossed from the stream and canal in Vines Park, crossed Roman Way, and spilled across to the High Street some 110 yards from the source stream.
Following specialist inspections at Droitwich Spa Brine Baths on 12 December 2008, the facility was closed to allow further building investigations to take place and to avoid any potential hazard to the public or staff.
Salt and brine
Rock salt and brine was extracted by the Romans and this continued through to the Middle Ages. A salt tax was levied by the king until it was abolished in 1825. A local family named Wintour owned up to 25 salt evaporating pans in the area by the 1600s.
Brine rose naturally to the surface at three sites along the River Salwarpe within Vines Park in the centre of Droitwich. Unusually the brine was fully saturated with sodium chloride, and was extremely valuable because it was economic to boil, and the yield of salt was high. Because of its value the brine was divided into shares, one share comprising 6,912 imperial gallons (31,420 l) which produced eight long tons (8.1 t) of salt annually in the set boiling period. When it rained, particularly in the winter when brine was not being boiled, the rain water which is less dense than saltwater, settled on top of the brine and was readily removed.
Originally brine for boiling was extracted with buckets lowered into the pits which were naturally replenished. Upwich, the deepest of the three pits at 30 feet (9.1 m), supplied most of the brine, while the pit at Netherwich was only 18 feet (5.5 m) deep. The Middlewich pit, located between the two, was adversely affected by brine extraction at the other two pits and fell into disuse. Steynor in the 17th century discovered the pit and set up business for himself, but eventually due to the lack of brine he failed to compete with the town monopoly.
The underground brine reservoirs were only 200 feet (61 m) deep and in 1725 boreholes were sunk to the base of the pits, accessing brine in almost unlimited quantities and independent of the natural brine flow, and the monopoly ceased. Pumps were used to draw brine, and production increased. As a result, parts of the town succumbed to subsidence.
In the mid-19th century, Droitwich became famous as a spa town. Unlike other places, the medicinal benefits were not derived from drinking the spa water, which is almost saturated brine, but from the muscular relief derived from swimming and floating in such a dense, concentrated salt solution, at the town's brine baths (first opened in 1830). The spa water at Droitwich is the warmest in the United Kingdom outside Bath, but it does not meet the most common definition of a hot spring as the water is below standard human body temperature.
The original Brine Baths have long since closed, but a new brine bath (part of the Droitwich Spa private hospital) opened to the public for relaxation and hydrotherapy but this too was closed in December 2008 due to a dispute between the operator and Wychavon District Council over health and safety inspections.
The salt industry was industrialised and developed in the 19th century by John Corbett who built the nearby Chateau Impney for his Franco-Irish wife in the French 'château' style. He was responsible for the redevelopment of Droitwich as a Spa.
Asylums, workhouses and the town hall
Droitwich's first workhouse was set up on Holloway in 1688 and the last finally abolished in the 1920s.
Droitwich Lunatic Asylum was established in 1791. Records at the Worcestershire County Record Office show its presence in 1837 to 1838. An advert in the Transactions of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association (the forerunner of the British Medical Association) in 1844, records that Martin Ricketts, of Droitwich, was the Surgeon and Sir Charles Hastings from the Worcester Infirmary was the Physician.
Industry and commerce
In 1714 the first Turnpike in Worcestershire was opened to Worcester. A commemorative plaque was unveiled by Lt. Col. Patrick Holcroft the Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire in Victoria Square on 1 June 2014.
Collectively known as the Droitwich Canal, two canals met in the town centre. These are the Droitwich Barge Canal built by James Brindley in 1771 and the Droitwich Junction Canal built in 1854. The Junction canal linked Droitwich to the Worcester and Birmingham Canal. The canals were abandoned in 1939 but a restoration program saw them re-opened in 2011.
3 mi (5 km) north-east of Droitwich is the central longwave broadcasting facility for the UK, (Wychbold BBC transmitter), which is also used for transmissions in the medium wave range; see Droitwich transmitting station. The transmitting station was sited near Droitwich, which was close to UK centres of population when it was established in the 1930s. Considerable care was taken to avoid placing the masts above underground brine, due to the risk of subsidence; however, there are anecdotal reports that the huge block of underground salt was desirable by providing good grounding and increased signal strength.
Droitwich shopping is mainly focused in the traditional town centre around Victoria Square, leading to the St Andrew's Square shopping centre and down to the original High Street, with its local pubs and an eclectic mix of traditional shops. Farmers' markets are also held regularly in Victoria Square.
In the central St Andrew's Square shopping precinct are several chain stores. On 14 July 2005, Waitrose opened a new supermarket in the grounds of the old covered market, directly behind the heavily subsided High Street. In 2008, a new Aldi store opened on the small retail park by Roman Way while the new Parkridge Retail Park was opened in 2007 with two new stores, Carpetright, since closed, and Land of Leather. There was also a Horsatack Saddlery store on the same park, which was opened in 2009. The park already has DFS store. There is also a Spar on Oakland Avenue, a Tesco Express on Primsland plus a new Sainsbury's store and petrol station and Marks & Spencer's store and petrol station being constructed. In 2019 a Lidl supermarket opened opposite Aldi, increasing the competition in the area.
Until the late 1990s Droitwich Spa Lido was open as a public open-air salt-water swimming pool. Following its closure various schemes were proposed, with significant legal and commercial arguments as to the viability of re-building and reopening this facility.
During autumn of 2006, work started on renovating the lido and it was reopened on Monday 18 June 2007. The Lido Park remains a pleasant and popular space, with Droitwich Cricket Ground on its edge as well as a bandstand with regular performances.
The Norbury Theatre hosts regular shows year-round, including an annual pantomime, and also shows films. The Norbury has an active youth theatre for ages 12 to 18.
On the outskirts of the town is the famous Chateau Impney, built in the style of a traditional French chateau, which is now a hotel, restaurant and conference centre. In Droitwich, the Raven Hotel is a wattle and daub hotel that holds a central position within the town.
The Droitwich Spa pyramid of schools works on a three tier system, with one high school: (Droitwich Spa High School); two middle schools (Witton Middle School and Westacre Middle School); and nine first schools (Chawson, Cutnall Green, Hindlip, Ombersley, St. Peter's, St. Joseph's (a Primary School feeding into Blessed Edward Oldcorne Catholic College, Worcester), Tibberton, Westlands—originally Boycott Farm First School—and Wychbold First Schools). There is also the private Dodderhill School (formerly named Whitford Hall and Dodderhill), an independent school for girls from 3 to 16 years (with some boys present in the nursery school). During 2019 the school merged with Royal Grammar School (RGS) Worcester, under the name RGS Dodderhill.
Droitwich children are also educated at schools outside the town including Worcester's Royal Grammar School and the King's School, Hawford Lodge, the Grange, Bromsgrove School with others typically travelling to Birmingham, Kidderminster, Hagley and Stourbridge by rail.
Places of worship
There are six churches in Droitwich including the Anglican church of St Andrew's, a Norman building where St Richard was probably baptised. The church tower was demolished in the 1920s after becoming dangerous due to land subsidence. St. Augustine's at Dodderhill, completed in 1220 and rebuilt in the 18th century on a hill, was the site of a former Roman fort and a later Anglo-Saxon church. St Peter's, built on the site of a former Saxon church, has parts, including the chancel, that date from Norman times, and has a memorial to Edward Winslow, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, who was born in the parish.
St Nicholas was built in Victorian times near the railway station; and the Roman Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart and St Catherine of Alexandria, on a building styled on the Roman basilica churches of Ravenna in Italy, has the feature of the interior walls being covered almost entirely of mosaic and marble designed by Gabriel Pippet. There are also a number of other chapels including Methodist, Baptist and a vibrant Salvation Army hall. In 2019 the tired 1970s Emmanuel Church building at Chawson was demolished and was replaced with a new modern hall.
Droitwich leisure centre at Briar Mill has gym facilities, sports halls, a swimming pool and squash courts. There are also outside football and astroturf pitches with floodlighting. The centre also runs a squash league.
Droitwich Spa Football Club was formed in 1985 and currently plays in the West Midlands (Regional) League 1st Division. Their home ground is also at Briar Mill, but due to ground grading regulations the club now plays its home games at Stourport Swifts, until the planned development of their former home at Briar Mill is complete. The club also has a junior section of Under 16, Under 18 & Under 21 sides.
The Droitwich Rugby Football Club has been playing rugby union since 1972. Droitwich Archery Society, based at the Droitwich Rugby Football Ground, is a target archery club that was formed in 1967, and is affiliated to The Grand National Archery Society. Other local sports include boxing, judo, Tae Kwon Do, Karate, Ju Jitsu and tennis.
Vines Park Bowling Club is a green bowling club situated by the canal in Vines Park. Bowling also available in the Lido Park Droitwich Spa Pool League is headquartered at the Fox and Goose pub on Westlands.
Droitwich Spa also has a cricket club in which they support four Saturday teams and two on a Sunday.
This article's list of alumni may not follow Wikipedia's verifiability policy. (September 2019)
- Ginny Lemon, drag queen best known for their appearance on the second series of Rupauls Drag Race (UK)
- John Bickerton, European Tour golfer
- John Corbett, "Salt King"
- Ashley Giles, England cricketer, lives in Droitwich and in 2005 was made an honorary citizen of the town
- Charlie Green, singer known for his appearance on Britain's Got Talent in 2008; now touring with Jimmy Osmond
- Cyril Harrison, professional cricketer, made 17 first-class cricket appearances for the Worcestershire County Cricket Club in 1934 and 1935
- John Heminges, born in Droitwich in about 1566, actor in William Shakespeare's company
- Dean Holdsworth, former professional footballer for Wimbledon
- Rik Mayall, actor and writer in The Comic Strip, The Young Ones, Bottom and other TV programmes; lived in Droitwich as a child
- Matt Neal, Touring Car champion, lives in Droitwich
- Graham Oakey, professional footballer for Coventry City in the 1970s, born in Droitwich in 1954
- Thomas Rainsborough, prominent figure in the English Civil War; leading spokesman for the Levellers in the Putney Debates; became MP for Droitwich in 1647
- St Richard, Bishop of Chichester, born in Droitwich in 1197
- Edward Winslow, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, born in the town in 1595
Droitwich Spa is twinned with:
- "Droitwich". City population. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
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- Jones, Daniel (11 July 2003). An English Pronouncing Dictionary. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415233392 – via Google Books.
- "History of Droitwich Spa" at droitwichspa.com Accessed 31 May 2017
- "Can you help find 800-year-old Droitwich Town Charter? | Droitwich Standard". Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Can you help find 800-year-old Droitwich Town Charter?" at droitwichstandard.co.uk Accessed 31 May 2017
- Full text of "Worcestershire place names" at archive.org Accessed 31 May 2017
- "Near Worcester" is Richard Barber's identification. See Richard Barber, Myths and Legends of the British Isles, ed. and. trans. Richard Barber (New York: Barnes & Noble, 2000), p. 85.
- Higham argues that Droitwich is more likely to connect to the "fourth miraculum" of the Historia Brittonum; see Nicholas J. Higham, King Arthur: The Making of the Legend (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2018), pg. 291.
- "Droitwich Spa housing proposals - Google My Maps". Google My Maps.
- "Salt and the Domesday Salinae at Droitwich, AD 674–1690: A Quantitative Analysis", Droitwich Brine Springs and Archaeological Trust with Worcestershire Archaeological Society (1994)
- The workhouse: Droitwich, Worcestershire at workhouses.org.uk Accessed 2017-05-31
- Historic England. "Town Hall (1095978)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- "Exhibition at Droitwich Heritage Centre". Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- Hereford and Worcester > About Worcestershire >"Droitwich calling" (comment by Max Sinclair, ref. 'Mr Humphreys... station engineer'), 2005/10/21, at bbc.co.uk Accessed 2017-05-31
- Matthew Dresch: "NatWest branches to close in Malvern and Droitwich Spa causing concern among residents" 5 December 2016, at worcesternews.co.uk Accessed 2017-05-31
- St Andrew's, Droitwich Archived 29 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 February 2010
- Dodderhill Parish Survey Project. Archived 3 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 February 2010
- Droitwich Spa Parish, St Peter's Archived 28 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 8 February 2010
- Droitwich Spa Parish, St Nicholas Archived 29 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 February 2010
- Sacred Heart, Droitwich. Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 February 2010
- Ltd, Burnthebook (13 July 2021). "LSP Developments". LSP Developments.
- "ABOUT US". droitwichtennis.co.uk. Droiwich Spa, Worcestershire, England: Droitwich Tennis Club. 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
- "DROITWICH TOURNAMENT: Increased Entries for Annual Event. The seventh annual Droitwich Open lawn tennis tournament began in the Brine Baths Park on Saturday in ideal weather". Birmingham Daily Gazette. Birmingham, England: The British Newspaper Archive. 6 August 1934. p. 10.
- "LAWN TENNIS Droitwich event may be revived: Plans are being made at Droitwich to restart a neww week long Open hard court tennis tournament next year, which disappeared from the annual calendar during the war. The Application is being made to the National Lawn Tennis Association next week". Birmingham Daily Post. Warwickshire, England: The British Newspaper Archive. 4 October 1967. p. 19.
- "45 ans de jumelage : Histoire de cités Le jumelage à Voiron" [45 years of twinning: The history of Voiron's twin towns]. Voiron Hôtel de Ville [Voiron council] (in French). Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Droitwich Spa Voiron à l'heure anglaise" [Droitwich Spa, UK: Twin town of Voiron]. Voiron Hôtel de Ville [Voiron council] (in French). Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- St Peter's Church, Droitwich (www.amazon.co.uk) – ISBN 978-1-4680-2879-9
- Around Droitwich (Archive Photograph Series) – ISBN 0-7524-0747-3
- Droitwich in Old Photographs – ISBN 0-86299-421-7
- The Droitwich Discovery – ISBN 0-573-12146-X