Dromomania was a historical psychiatric diagnosis whose primary symptom was uncontrollable urge to walk or wander. Dromomania has also been referred to as travelling fugue. Non-clinically, the term has come to be used to describe a desire for frequent traveling or wanderlust.
The term dromomania is derived[when?] from combining the Greek dromos, meaning "running" with the root mania. The term has sometimes been clinical and pathologizing, and other times been descriptive of unusual enthusiasm without negative or medicalizing connotations, reflecting the diverse uses of the term mania itself.
In the 17th century, the term mania came to be used to describe any show of great enthusiasm for a specific activity or object. Later, it came to be used as a suffix for Greek words to refer to an irrational obsession, such as in the words hippomania, and nymphomania. At the same time emerged the French -manie, such as in bibliomanie, which was borrowed into English as bibliomania. The original sense of enthusiasm without the sense of irrationality continued, as can be seen in Coleridge's late (1772–1843) use of the term scribbleomania.[clarification needed]
19th and early 20th centuries
Dromomania was a historical psychiatric diagnosis whose primary symptom was an irresistible urge to aimlessly wander, travel, or walk. Dromomania has also been referred to as travelling fugue.
Some authors describe patients with this diagnosis as being "in an automatic state" as they traveled, experiencing partial amnesia of the events of their journeys. Other symptoms included a "loss of sense of personal identity, ... and impulses to homicide and suicide."
Dromomania was primarily described by French psychiatrists. The concept of dromomania was adapted in America into drapetomania, a mental disorder whose primary symptom was running away. This diagnosis was applied only to slaves.
Modern bioethicist Henk A. M. J. ten Have regards dromomania as equivalent to the DSM IV diagnosis of dissociative fugue and the historical diagnoses of Wandertrieb (German) and automatisme ambulatoire (French).
Many cases of dromomania have been described. The most famous case was that of Jean-Albert Dadas, a gas-fitter from Bordeaux, France. Dadas would suddenly set out on foot and reach cities as far away as Prague, Vienna or Moscow with no memory of his travels. A medical student, Philippe Tissié, wrote about Dadas in his doctoral dissertation in 1887.
Dromomania is one of a constellation of social constructs to describe contemporary nomadic lifestyles, along with bum, brodyaga, hobo, vagrant, divagate, itinerant, vagabond, transient, tramp, rogue, wanderer Within this constellation, dromomania is an extreme pathologizing term.
In the early 20th century, dromomania was classified as one of a number of criminal manias, which were understood to involve irresistible compulsions to act without any motivation and sometimes against the preferences of the actor. Other such criminal manias were kleptomania, pyromania, and dipsomania. The American Prison Association described all of these criminal manias as common among people with psychopathic personalities, who were also described as lacking in purpose and ambition.
Dromomania was sometimes equated with propensity to vagrancy. The construct has been involved in the regulation of homelessness. It associated with the belief that homeless travelers lose the capacity to live in homes and maintain stability.
Travel writer Richard Grant has suggested that dromomania as a disorder is defined by sedentary cultures which pathologize a desire for travel that is present as an instinct in humans from their history as nomadic hunter-gathers. Frequent travelers such as Francis Xavier have been suspected of having dromomania.
During the 20th century, this diagnosis fell into disuse. However, since 2000 articles have appeared describing dromomania as a potential consequence of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and delirium. There have been attempts to treat dromomania with antipsychotic medications.
More generally, the term is sometimes used to describe people who have a strong emotional or even physical need to be constantly traveling and experiencing new places, often at the expense of their normal family, work, and social lives.
In a 1977 book, cultural theorist Paul Virilio criticized modernity for acculturating people to become insanely addicted to pursuing the future and unable to stop, which he characterized as "dromomania". Virilio's analysis of contemporary culture has continued to be endorsed by other cultural theorists and regarded as even more accurate after the growth of finance capitalism and globalization.
- Anti-homelessness legislation
- Classification of mental disorders
- Dissociative fugue
- Gypsy (term)
- Hypermobility (travel)
- Mental disorder
- New Age travellers
- Have, Henk A.M.J. ten (2000-06-01). "Medicine's reality". Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. 3 (1): 1–2. doi:10.1023/A:1009981914707. ISSN 1572-8633. PMID 11080963. S2CID 151407735.
- Smith 2013, p. 9,20-23.
- Ellison 2003, p. 99.
- Lubran 1991, p. 57.
- Have 2000, pp. 1. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHave2000 (help)
- Medical dictionary, dromomania
- Spirer 1949, p. 2.
- Epitome 1902, p. 94.
- Warner 1932, p. 677.
- Epitome 1902, p. 93f.
- Carretto 2005, p. 384.
- Les aliénés voyageurs : essai médico-psychologique, Paris, O. Doin, 1887; réédité à L'Harmattan, 2005, introduction de Serge Nicolas, sous le titre Les aliénés voyageurs : Le cas Albert, Available at http://www2.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/livanc/?cote=TBOR1887x29&do=chapitre
- Crane 1997, p. 14f.
- Hojdestrand 2000, p. 68.
- Burt 1925, p. 585.
- Partridge 1930, pp. 63f.
- Kostyunina & Valeeva 2015.
- Crane 1997.
- Grant 2005, p. 16,202.
- Boxer 1981, p. 238.
- Song et al. 2017.
- Kanemura et al. 2000, pp. 27.
- Honda et al. 2018.
- Aminoalkylthiazole derivative 1996.
- Bissell & Fuller 2011, p. 2.
- Featherstone 2013, p. 73.
- Virilio 1977.
- Hegarty 2018, p. 102.
- Redhead 2009, p. 5.
- US 5502202, "Aminoalkylthiazole derivative", issued 1996-03-26, assigned to Taisho Pharmaceutical Co Ltd
- Bissell, D.; Fuller, G. (2011). Stillness in a Mobile World. International library of sociology. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57262-0.
- Boxer, C. R. (1981). "Francis Xavier: his Life, his Times. By Georg Schurhammer". The Journal of Ecclesiastical History (Book review). Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 238–241. doi:10.1017/s0022046900032772. ISSN 0022-0469.
- Burt, Cyril (1925). The Young Delinquent. University Of London Press.
- Carretto, Giacomo E. (2005). "Pascarella, Nasreddin, Gli Asini E L'Esotismo" [Pascarella, Nasreddin, Donkeys, and Exoticism]. Oriente Moderno. Nuova serie. Istituto per l'Oriente C. A. Nallino. 24 (85): 377–387. doi:10.1163/22138617-0850203012. JSTOR 25818028.
- Crane, Maureen (1997). Pathways to later life homelessness (PDF) (PhD). University of Sheffield.
- Ellison, Harlan (2003). "Goodbye to all that". In Barr, M.S. (ed.). Envisioning the Future: Science Fiction and the Next Millennium. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 99ff. ISBN 978-0-8195-6652-2.
- "An Epitome Of Current Medical Literature". British Medical Journal. 1 (2163): 93–96. 14 June 1902. JSTOR 20272544.
- Featherstone, Mark (2013). "Dromomania, dromomaniacs". In Armitage, J. (ed.). Virilio Dictionary. Philosophical Dictionaries Series. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-4685-2.
- Grant, Richard (2005). American Nomads: Travels with Lost Conquistadors, Mountain Men, Cowboys, Indians, Hoboes, Truckers, and Bullriders. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4180-4.
- Hacking, Ian (1998). Mad Travelers: Reflections on the Reality of Transient Mental Illnesses. Page-Barbour Lectures for 1997. University Press of Virginia. ISBN 978-0-8139-1823-5.
- Have, Henk A. M. J. ten (2000). "Medicine's reality". Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. Springer Nature. 3 (1): 1–2. doi:10.1023/a:1009981914707. ISSN 1386-7423. PMID 11080963. S2CID 151407735.
- Hegarty, P. (2018). Peter Gabriel: Global Citizen. Reverb. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78914-023-1.
- Hojdestrand, Tova (2000). ""I Drink, but at Least I am Clean": Notions of Body and Soul among Homeless Russians". Anthropology of East Europe Review. 18 (2): 67–72.
- Honda, Shinsaku; Furukawa, Kenichiro; Nishiwaki, Noriyuki; Fujiya, Keiichi; Omori, Hayato; Kaji, Sanae; Makuuchi, Rie; Irino, Tomoyuki; Tanizawa, Yutaka; Bando, Etsuro; Kawamura, Taiichi; Terashima, Masanori (30 May 2018). "Risk Factors for Postoperative Delirium After Gastrectomy in Gastric Cancer Patients". World Journal of Surgery. Springer Nature. 42 (11): 3669–3675. doi:10.1007/s00268-018-4682-y. ISSN 0364-2313. PMID 29850948. S2CID 44121177.
- Kanemura, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Inafuku, Kae; Hosoda, Masataka; Minematsu, Akira; Sasaki, Hisato; Tanaka, Sachiko; Shirahama, Kunji; Ueda, Takehito; Kamoda, Chie; Miyamoto, Hidetaka; Maejima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Osamu (2000). "Analysis of Risk Factors for Falls in the Elderly with Dementia". Journal of Physical Therapy Science. Society of Physical Therapy Science. 12 (1): 27–31. doi:10.1589/jpts.12.27. ISSN 0915-5287.
- Kostyunina, Nadezhda Yu; Valeeva, Roza A. (29 March 2015). "Prevention and Correction of Juvenile Neglect". Review of European Studies. Canadian Center of Science and Education. 7 (5). doi:10.5539/res.v7n5p225. ISSN 1918-7181.
- Lubran, Alfred (1991). "Manias". Word Ways. Vol. 24 no. 1. p. 56–58.
- Partridge, G. E. (1930). "Current Conceptions Of Psychopathic Personality". American Journal of Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Publishing. 87 (1): 53–99. doi:10.1176/ajp.87.1.53. ISSN 0002-953X.
- Redhead, Steve (2009). "Mobile Accelerated Nonpostmodern Culture". Working Papers in Mobile Accelerated Nonpostmodern Culture (MANC). CiteSeerX 10.1.1.540.2125. Cite journal requires
- Smith, Richard (2013). The Possibility of Actual Happiness (PDF) (MFA in English). University of Washington.
- Song, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin; Lee, Arum; Kim, Soo Ah; Choi, Hye Ji (2017). "Cell Therapy Products in Alzheimer Disease". Journal of Menopausal Medicine. The Korean Society of Menopause (KAMJE). 23 (1): 1–4. doi:10.6118/jmm.2017.23.1.1. ISSN 2288-6478. PMC 5432461. PMID 28523253.
- Spirer, Jeff (1949). "Biochemistry as a defense". Miami Law Quarterly. 4 (1): 1–11.
- Virilio, Paul (1977). Vitesse et politique: Essai de dromologie [Speed and politics: Essays on dromology] (in French). Paris: Galilée. OCLC 807012228.
- Warner, George L. (1932). "A few representative case of pyromania". The Psychiatric Quarterly. Springer Nature. 6 (4): 675–690. doi:10.1007/bf01596568. ISSN 0033-2720. S2CID 143444268.