Drug policy of India

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The major drug laws of India are the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (1985) and the Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (1985).

Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act[edit]

The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Bill, 1985 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 23 August 1985. It was passed by both the Houses of Parliament and it was assented by the President on 16 September 1985. It came into force on 14 November 1985 as THE NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES ACT, 1985 (shortened to NDPS Act). Under the NDPS Act, it is illegal for a person to produce/manufacture/cultivate, possess, sell, purchase, transport, store, and/or consume any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance.

Under one of the provisions of the act, the Narcotics Control Bureau was set up with effect from March 1986. The Act is designed to fulfill India's treaty obligations under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The Act has been amended three times - in 1988, 2001, and most recently in 2014.

The 2014 Amendment recognizes the need for pain relief as an important obligation of the government. It creates a class of medicines called Essential Narcotic Drugs (ENDs). Power for legislation on ENDs has been shifted from the state governments to the central governments so that the whole country now can have a uniform law covering these medicines which are needed for pain relief.[1][2][3]

Subsequently, NDPS rules which would be applicable to all states and union territories has been announced by the government of India in May 2015.[4] It also has included 6 drugs namely Morphine, Fentanyl, Methadone, Oxycodone, Codeine and Hydrocodone.[5] According to these rules, there is a single agency - the state drug controller - who can approve recognised medical institutions (RMI) for stocking and dispensing ENDs, without the need for any other licences. The RMIs are obliged to ensure proper documentation and to submit annual consumption statistics to the drug controller of the state.

The Act extends to the whole of India and it applies also to all Indian citizens outside India and to all persons on ships and aircraft registered in India.

A proposal to amend the NDPS Act via a Private Member's Bill was announced by Dr. Dharamvira Gandhi MP in November 2016. Dr. Gandhi's bill would legalise marijuana and opium.[6]

Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act[edit]

The Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act is a drug control law passed in 1966 to phamacognosy app & other relevant by the Parliament of India. It was established to enable the full implementation and enforcement of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act of 1985 by chaman chaudhary

Narcotics Control Bureau[edit]

The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) is the chief law enforcement and intelligence agency of India responsible for fighting drug trafficking and the abuse of illegal substances.[7][8] It was created on 17 March 1986 to enable the full implementation of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (1985) and fight its violation through the Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (1988).[8]

Controlled Substances[edit]

The following list mentions the names of all substances banned or controlled in India under the NDPS Act. The list uses the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) of the drugs but in some cases mentions drugs by their chemical name. Widely known drugs such as ganja, cocaine, heroin etc. are mentioned by those names.

Cultivation/production/manufacture, possession, sale, purchase, transport, storage, consumption or distribution of any of the following substances, except for medical and scientific purposes and as per the rules or orders and conditions of licences that may be issued, is illegal.[9]

  1. Acetorphine
  2. Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl
  3. Acetyldihydrocodeine
  4. Acetylmethadol
  5. Alfentanil
  6. Allobarbital
  7. Allylprodine
  8. Alpha-Methyl-4-methylthiophenethylamine
  9. Alphacetylmethadol
  10. Alphameprodine
  11. Alphamethadol
  12. Alpha-methylfentanyl
  13. Alpha-methylthiofentanyl
  14. Alphaprodine
  15. Alprazolam
  16. Amfepramone
  17. Aminorex
  18. Amobarbital
  19. Anileridine
  20. Benzethidine
  21. Benzyl morphine
  22. Betacetylmethadol
  23. Beta-hydroxyfentanyl
  24. Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl
  25. Betameprodine
  26. Betamethadol
  27. Betaprodine
  28. Bezitramide
  29. Cannabis and cannabis resin (includes Hashish and Charas)
  30. Clonitazene
  31. Coca derivatives
  32. Coca leaf
  33. Cocaine
  34. Codeine
  35. Codoxime
  36. Concentrate of poppy straw
  37. Desomorphine
  38. Dextromoramide
  39. Dextropropoxyphene
  40. Diampromide
  41. Diethylthiambutene
  42. Difenoxin
  43. Dihydrocodeine
  44. Dihydromorphine
  45. Dihydroxydihydromorphinone
  46. Dimenoxadol
  47. Dimepheptanol
  48. Dimethylthiambutene
  49. Dioxaphetyl butyrate
  50. Diphenoxylate
  51. Dipipanone
  52. Drotebanol
  53. Ecgonine
  54. Ethylmethylthiambutene
  55. Ethylmorphine
  56. Etonitazene
  57. Etorphine
  58. Etoxeridine
  59. Fentanyl
  60. Furethidine
  61. Ganja
  62. Heroin
  63. Hydrocodone
  64. Hydromorphinol
  65. Hydromorphone
  66. Hydroxypethidine
  67. Isomethadone
  68. Ketobemidone
  69. Levomethorphan
  70. Levomoramide
  71. Levophenacylmorphan
  72. Levorphanol
  73. Metazocine
  74. Methadone
  75. Methadone intermediate
  76. Methyldihydromorphine
  77. Methyldihydromorphine
  78. 3-Methylfentanyl
  79. 3-Methylthiofentanyl
  80. Metopon
  81. Moramide intermediate
  82. Morpheridine
  83. Morphine
  84. Morphine methobromide
  85. Morphine-N-oxide
  86. MPPP
  87. Myrophine
  88. N-cyclopropyl methyl-7,8-dihydro-7-(1-hydroxy-1 methyl-ethyl) O-methyl-6,14-endoethanonormorphine
  89. Nicocodine
  90. Nicodicodine
  91. Nicomorphine
  92. Noracymethadol
  93. Norcodeine
  94. Norlevorphanol
  95. Normethadone
  96. Normorphine
  97. Norpipanone
  98. Opium
  99. Opium derivatives
  100. Oxycodone
  101. Oxymorphone
  102. Para-fluorofentanyl
  103. PEPAP
  104. Pethidine
  105. Pethidine intermediate A
  106. Pethidine intermediate B
  107. Pethidine intermediate C
  108. Phenadoxone
  109. Phenampromide
  110. Phenazocine
  111. Phenomorphan
  112. Phenoperidine
  113. Pholcodine
  114. Piminodine
  115. Piritramide
  116. Poppy straw
  117. Preparations made from the extract or tincture of Indian hemp
  118. Proheptazine
  119. Properidine
  120. Propiram
  121. Racemethorphan
  122. Racemoramide
  123. Racemorphan
  124. Sufentanil
  125. Thebacon
  126. Thebaine
  127. Thiofentanyl
  128. Tilidine
  129. Tobacco
  130. Trimeperidine
  131. Brolamfetamine
  132. Cathinone
  133. 3-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]indole (N,N-Diethyltryptamine)
  134. (+)-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine
  135. 3-(1,2-dimethylheptyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  136. 3-[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl] indole (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
  137. (+)-4-ethyl-1,5-dimethoxy-alpha-phenethylamine
  138. Eticyclidine
  139. Etryptamine
  140. (+)-Lysergide
  141. (+)-N,alpha-dimethyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine
  142. 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine
  143. Methcathinone
  144. (+)-cis-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline
  145. 2-methoxy-alpha-methyl-4,5-phenethylamine
  146. (±)-N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine
  147. (±)-N-(alpha-methyl-3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenethyl) hydroxylamine
  148. 3-hexy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-1-ol
  149. p-methoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine
  150. 3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)indol-4-ol
  151. Psilocybine
  152. Rolicyclidine
  153. 2,5-dimethoxy-alpha,4-dimethylphenethylamine
  154. Tenamfetamine
  155. Tenocyclidine
  156. (+)-3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-methyphenethylamine
  157. 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphen Dexamfetamine
  158. Fenetylline
  159. Levamfetamine
  160. (x)-N,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine
  161. Mecloqualone
  162. Metamfetamine
  163. Metamfetamine (racemate)
  164. Methaqualone
  165. Methylphenidate
  166. Phencyclidine
  167. Phenmetrazine
  168. Secobarbital
  169. Dronabinol
  170. Zipeprol
  171. Buprenorphine
  172. Butalbital
  173. Cathine
  174. Cyclobarbital
  175. Flunitrazepam
  176. Glutethimide
  177. Pentazocine
  178. Pentobarbital
  179. Benzfetamine
  180. Bromazepam
  181. 5-butyl-5ric acid
  182. Brotizolam
  183. Camazepam
  184. Chlordiazepoxide
  185. Clobazam
  186. Clonazepam
  187. Clorazepate
  188. Clotiazepam
  189. Cloxazolam
  190. Delorazepam
  191. Diazepam
  192. Estazolam
  193. Ethchlorvynol
  194. Ethinamate
  195. Ethylloflazepate
  196. Etilamfetamine
  197. Fencamfamin
  198. Fenproporex
  199. Fludiazepam
  200. Flurazepam
  201. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
  202. Halazepam
  203. Haloxazolam
  204. Ketazolam
  205. Lefetamine
  206. Loprazolam
  207. Lorazepam
  208. Lormetazepam
  209. Mazindol
  210. Medazepam
  211. Mefenorex
  212. Meprobamate
  213. Mesocarb
  214. Methylphenobarbital
  215. Methyprylon
  216. Midazolam
  217. Nimetazepam
  218. Nitrazepam
  219. Nordazepam
  220. Oxazepam
  221. Oxazolam
  222. Pemoline
  223. Phendimetrazine
  224. Phenobarbital
  225. Phentermine
  226. Pinazepam
  227. Pipradrol
  228. Prazepam
  229. Pyrovalerone
  230. Secbutabarbital
  231. Temazepam
  232. Tetrazepam
  233. Triazolam
  234. Vinylbital
  235. Zolpidem
  236. Any mixture or preparation that of with or without a neutral material, of any of the above drugs.
  237. The following isomers and their sterochemical variants:
  • 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol (9R,10aR)-8,9,10,10a-trtrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyan-1-ol
  • (6aR,9R,10aR)-6a,9,10,10-a- tetrahydro-6,6,9-tremthyl-3-penthyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
  • (6aR,10aR)-6a,7,10,10a- tetrahydro-6,6,9-tremthyl-3-penthyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
  • 6a,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6h-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
  • (6aR,10aR)-6a,7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydro-6, 6-dimethyl-9-methylene 3-pentyl-6H-dibenxo[b,d]pyran-1-ol

Source: Narcotics Control Bureau

Punishment[edit]

Anyone who contravenes the NDPS Act will face punishment based on the quantity of the banned substance.

  • where the contravention involves small quantity(<1 kg), with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to 6 months, or with fine which may extend to 10,000 or with both;
  • where the contravention involves quantity lesser than commercial quantity but greater than small quantity, with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to 10 years and with fine which may extend to 1 lakh;
  • where the contravention involves commercial quantity, with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than 10 years but which may extend to 20 years and shall also be liable to fine which shall not be less than 1 lakh but which may extend to 2 lakh.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Acts & Rules". Central Bureau of Narcotics. Retrieved 6 Mar 2017. 
  2. ^ "NDPS Amendment Act 2014" (PDF). Central Bureau of Narcotics. Retrieved 6 Mar 2017. 
  3. ^ "Department of Revenue Gazette Notification: NDPS Rules" (PDF). Central Bureau of Narcotics. Retrieved 6 Mar 2017. 
  4. ^ "Department of Revenue Gazette Notification: NDPS Rules 2015" (PDF). Central Bureau of Narcotics. Retrieved 6 Mar 2017. 
  5. ^ "Department of Revenue Gazette Notification: Essential Narcotic Drugs" (PDF). Central Bureau of Narcotics. Retrieved 6 Mar 2017. 
  6. ^ "Bill for legalised supply of opium, marijuana cleared for parliament". The Hindustan Times. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016. 
  7. ^ "Narcotics Control Bureau". National Informatics Center. Archived from the original on 2009-04-10. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  8. ^ a b "Narcotics Control Bureau - Ministry of Finance" (PDF). National Informatics Center. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  9. ^ http://www.antidrugs.gov.il/download/files/indian_drug-laws.pdf

External links[edit]