Drugs in the United States

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Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine brewery during the Prohibition era.

In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act definition of a drug includes "articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals" and "articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals."[1] Consistent with that definition, the U.S. separately defines narcotic drugs and controlled substances, which may include non-drugs, and explicitly excludes tobacco, caffeine and alcoholic beverages.[2]

Federal drug policy[edit]

War on Drugs[edit]

Main article: War on Drugs
As part of the "War on Drugs", the U.S. gives hundreds of millions of dollars per year of military aid to Colombia, used to combat guerrilla groups such as FARC, involved in narcotics trafficking. Colin Powell is seen here visiting Colombia in 2006 in support of Plan Colombia.

The War on Drugs is a campaign of prohibition and foreign military aid and military intervention undertaken by the United States government, with the assistance of participating countries, and the stated aim to define and reduce the illegal drug trade.[3][4] This initiative includes a set of drug policies of the United States that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of illegal psychoactive drugs. The term "War on Drugs" was first used by President Richard Nixon in 1971.

Drug courts[edit]

The first Drug court in the United States took shape in Miami-Dade County, Florida in 1989 as a response to the growing crack-cocaine problem plaguing the city. Chief Judge Gerald Wetherington, Judge Herbert Klein, then State Attorney Janet Reno and Public Defender Bennett Brummer designed the court for nonviolent offenders to receive treatment. This model of court system quickly became a popular method for dealing with an ever increasing number of drug offenders. Between 1984 and 1999, the number of defendants charged with a drug offense in the Federal courts increased 3% annually, from 11,854 to 29,306. By 1999 there were 472 Drug Courts in the nation and by 2005 that number had increased to 1262 with another 575 Drug Courts in the planning stages; currently all 50 states have working Drug Courts. There are currently about 120,000 people treated annually in Drug Courts, though an estimated 1.5 million eligible people are currently before the courts. There are currently more than 2,400 Drug Courts operating throughout the United States.

Pharmacological drugs[edit]

Doping in sports[edit]

Doping is the taking of performance-enhancing drugs, generally for sporting activities. Doping has been detected in many sporting codes, especially baseball and football.

Recreational drugs by type[edit]

Alcohol[edit]

Cigarette smokers as a percentage of the population for the United States as compared with the Netherlands, Norway, Japan, and Finland.

Cannabis[edit]

Cocaine[edit]

Methamphetamine[edit]

Tobacco[edit]

Drug Use and Deaths per State[edit]

State Population (2010) Drug Users (2010) Drug Deaths (Total 2010) Drug Deaths (per 100,000) Federal Grants (2010) Grant/Drug User
 Alabama 4,779,736 06.73%[5] 554 12 $80,040,503 $248.82
 Alaska 710,231 11.79%[6] 75 11 $30,760,934 $367.36
 Arizona 6,392,017 08.95%[7] 981 15.5 $138,524,069 $242.36
 Arkansas 2,915,918 07.96%[8] 326 11.5 $47,138,163 $203.09
 California 37,253,956 09.07%[9] 4178 11.4 $832,107,905 $246.26
 Colorado 5,029,196 11.72%[10] 747 15.4 $111,188,470 $188.64
 Connecticut 3,574,097 08.23%[11] 444 12.7 $103,493,029 $351.84
 Delaware 897,934 09.14%[12] 102 11.8 $24,161,838 $294.40
 Florida 18,801,310 07.80%[13] 2936 16.1 $338,129,029 $230.57
 Georgia 9,687,653 07.32%[14] 1043 10.6 $321,114,660 $452.83
 Hawaii 1,360,301 09.92%[15] 142 11.1 $37,176,146 $275.50
 Idaho 1,567,582 08.00%[16] 133 8.9 $21,076,027 $168.06
 Illinois 12,830,632 07.17%[17] 1239 9.6 $234,968,808 $255.41
 Indiana 6,483,802 08.79%[18] 827 13.0 $91,020,232 $159.71
 Iowa 3,046,355 04.08%[19] 211 7.1 $58,962,185 $474.39
 Kansas 2,853,118 06.77%[20] 294 10.6 $40,234,098 $208.30
 Kentucky 4,339,367 08.41%[21] 722 17 $100,547,625 $275.52
 Louisiana 4,533,372 07.16%[22] 862 20.1 $80,230,847 $247.18
 Maine 1,328,361 09.09%[23] 161 12.2 $36,320,286 $300.79
 Maryland 5,773,552 07.29%[24] 807 12.7 $192,136,722 $456.50
 Massachusetts 6,547,629 08.87%[25] 1003 15.6 $245,061,344 $421.96
 Michigan 9,883,640 08.95%[26] 1524 15.3 $243,556,706 $275.33
 Minnesota 5,303,925 08.24%[27] 359 6.9 $95,867,509 $219.35
 Mississippi 2,967,297 06.39%[28] 334 11.4 $50,554,343 $266.62
 Missouri 5,988,927 07.38%[29] 730 12.4 $123,020,244 $278.34
 Montana 989,415 10.02%[30] 132 13.8 $28,332,837 $285.79
 Nebraska 1,826,341 06.43%[31] 92 5.2 $34,675,170 $295.27
 Nevada 2,700,551 09.35%[32] 515 20.1 $46,367,799 $183.63
 New Hampshire 1,316,470 12.15%[33] 172 13.0 $55,388,743 $346.29
 New Jersey 8,791,894 06.42%[34] 797 9.2 $113,795,702 $201.61
 New Mexico 2,059,179 10.07%[35] 447 12.8 $150,896,974 $727.71
 New York 19,378,102 09.82%[36] 1797 9.2 $1,875,136,099 $985.39
 North Carolina 9,535,483 08.88%[37] 1223 13.0 $403,912,656 $477.01
  North Dakota 672,591 05.3%[38] 28 4.3 $36,344,108 $1,019.55
 Ohio 11,536,504 07.61%[39] 1691 14.7 $207,925,242 $236.84
 Oklahoma 3,751,351 08.09%[40] 687 19 $67,359,062 $221.95
 Oregon 3,831,074 12.80%[41] 564 15.1 $104,298,167 $212.69
 Pennsylvania 12,702,379 06.57%[42] 1812 14.6 $283,229,043 $339.38
 Rhode Island 1,052,567 13.34%[43] 142 13.4 $43,604,718 $310.55
 South Carolina 4,625,364 06.70%[44] 584 13.2 $77,790,340 $251.02
 South Dakota 814,180 06.28%[45] 34 4.3 $31,840,106 $622.72
 Tennessee 6,346,105 08.22%[46] 1035 16.8 $107,211,391 $205.52
 Texas 25,145,561 06.26%[47] 2343 9.8 $384,444,836 $244.23
 Utah 2,763,885 06.24%[48] 546 20.6 $47,059,651 $272.86
 Vermont 625,741 13.73%[49] 57 9.2 $58,913,913 $685.73
 Virginia 8,001,024 07.33%[50] 713 9.2 $173,221,243 $295.36
 Washington 6,724,540 09.59%[51] 1003 15.5 $130,527,165 $202.40
 West Virginia 1,852,994 06.79%[52] 405 22.4 $45,059,469 $358.13
 Wisconsin 5,686,986 08.67%[53] 639 11.4 $107,259,369 $217.54
 Wyoming 563,626 06.82%[54] 68 13 $12,483,581 $324.76
 United States 308,143,815 08.11% 38260 12.4 $8,304,469,106 $332.19

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 24 September 2007.
  2. ^ "21 USC Sec. 802." U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on 24 September 2007.
  3. ^ Cockburn and St. Clair, 1998: Chapter 14
  4. ^ Bullington, Bruce; Alan A. Block (March 1990). "A Trojan horse: Anti-communism and the war on drugs". Crime, Law and Social Change (Springer Netherlands) 14 (1): 39–55. doi:10.1007/BF00728225. ISSN 1573-0751. 
  5. ^ Alabama Drug Control Update
  6. ^ Alaska Drug Control Update
  7. ^ Arizona Drug Control Update
  8. ^ Arkansas Drug control Update
  9. ^ California Drug Control Update
  10. ^ Colorado Drug Control Update
  11. ^ Connecticut Drug Control Update
  12. ^ Delaware Drug Control Update
  13. ^ Florida Drug Control Update
  14. ^ Georgia Drug Control Update
  15. ^ Hawaii Drug Control Update
  16. ^ Idaho Drug Control Update
  17. ^ Illinois Drug Control Update
  18. ^ Indiana Drug Control Update
  19. ^ Iowa Drug Control Update
  20. ^ Kansas Drug Control Update
  21. ^ Kentucky Drug Control Update
  22. ^ Louisiana Drug Control Update
  23. ^ Maine Drug Control Update
  24. ^ Maryland Drug Control Update
  25. ^ Massachusetts Drug Control Update
  26. ^ Michigan Drug Control Update
  27. ^ Minnesota Drug Control Update
  28. ^ Mississippi Drug Control Update
  29. ^ Missouri Drug Control Update
  30. ^ Montana Drug Control Update
  31. ^ Nebraska Drug Control Update
  32. ^ Nevada Drug Control Update
  33. ^ New Hampshire Drug Control Update
  34. ^ New Jersey Drug Control Update
  35. ^ New Mexico Drug Control Update
  36. ^ New York Drug Control Update
  37. ^ North Carolina Drug Control Update
  38. ^ North Dakota Drug Control Update
  39. ^ Ohio Drug Control Update
  40. ^ Oklahoma Drug Control Update
  41. ^ Oregon Drug Control Update
  42. ^ Pennsylvania Drug Control Update
  43. ^ Rhode Island Drug Control Update
  44. ^ South Carolina Drug Control Update
  45. ^ South Dakota Drug Control Update
  46. ^ Tennessee Drug Control Update
  47. ^ Texas Drug Control Update
  48. ^ Utah Drug Control Update
  49. ^ Vermont Drug Control Update
  50. ^ Virginia Drug Control Update
  51. ^ Washington Drug Control Update
  52. ^ West Virginia Drug Control Update
  53. ^ Wisconsin Drug Control Update
  54. ^ Wyoming Drug Control Update

Further reading[edit]

  • DeGrandpre, Richard J (2006). The cult of pharmacology : how America became the world's most troubled drug culture. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822338819.