Drunk driving law by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The laws of driving under the influence vary between countries. One difference is the acceptable limit of blood alcohol content before a person is charged with a crime.

Africa[edit]

Americas[edit]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

  • Canada: 0.0–0.15%

The Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968–69 made it a per se offense to drive with a BAC in excess of 80 mg/100 ml of blood. Refusal of a police officer's demand to provide a breath sample was made an offence at the same time and both began as summary conviction offenses, with a mandatory minimum $50 fine.[7]

Mexico[edit]

United States[edit]

A 1937 poster warns US drivers about the dangers of mixing alcohol and driving.

In the United States, the blood alcohol level at which all states make it unlawful to operate a motor vehicle is 0.08, although it is possible to be convicted of impaired driving at a lower blood alcohol level.[9] Some states define two impaired driving offenses.[10]

  1. The first is the traditional offense, variously called driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), driving while intoxicated/impaired (DWI),[11] operating under the influence (OUI), or operating while intoxicated/impaired (OWI).[12]
  2. The second and more recent is the so-called illegal per se offense of driving with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) by volume (mass of alcohol/volume of blood) of 0.08% (previously 0.10%) or higher.

The first offense requires proof of intoxication, although evidence of BAC is admissible as rebuttably presumptive evidence of that intoxication; the second requires only proof of BAC at the time of being in physical control of a motor vehicle. An accused may potentially be convicted of both offenses as a result of a single incident, but may only be punished for one.[13] The differences between state penalties still varies. Wisconsin, for instance, is the only state that continues to treat first offense drunk driving arrests as forfeiture.[14]

Some states also include a lesser charge of driving with a BAC of 0.05%; other states limit this offense to drivers under the age of 21. All states and DC also now have zero tolerance laws: the license of anyone under 21 driving with any detectable alcohol in their bloodstream (BAC limits of 0.01% or 0.02% apply in some states, such as Florida.) will be suspended. In 2009, Puerto Rico joined these states, setting a limit of 0.02 for drivers under 21, despite maintaining a legal drinking age of 18.[15]

The blood alcohol limit for commercial drivers is 0.04%.[16] Pilots of aircraft may not fly within eight hours of consuming alcohol, while under the impairing influence of alcohol or any other drug, or while showing a blood alcohol concentration equal to or greater than 0.04 grams per decilitre of blood.[17]

Utah became the first U.S. state to lower the legal limit to .05% BAC by volume on 24 March 2017. The law takes effect on 30 December 2018.[18] The bill’s passage, HB155, was controversial in the state. A poll published on 29 July 2017 found 50 percent of Utahns supported the new law, but 47 percent opposed it.

In most states, the timing of the chemical test for suspected drunk driving is important because the law mandates a result within a given time period after the driving stopped, usually two hours.[citation needed]

The aftermath of a drunk driving car crash is simulated as part of an anti-drunk driving campaign for California high school students.

Caribbean[edit]

Central America[edit]

  • Belize: 0.08%[2]
  • Costa Rica: 0.02%[2] for public transport, commercial drivers and new drivers, or 0.05% for all others results in a fine of CRC 280,000 (US$489.61 as of 27 July 2017). A BAC in excess of 0.05% for public transport, commercial drivers and new drivers or 0.075% for all others additionally results in a 1 to 3 year prison sentence, vehicle impoundment and 2 year licence suspension.[23]
  • El Salvador: 0.05%[2]
  • Guatemala: 0.08%[2]
  • Honduras: 0.07%[2]
  • Nicaragua: 0.05%[24]
  • Panama: 0.08%[2]

South America[edit]

  • Argentina: 0% for public transport and commercial vehicles, 0.02% for motorcycles, and 0.05% for all others[25]
  • Bolivia: 0.05% for professional drivers only[26]
  • Brazil: Since 2008 Brazil practices zero tolerance. If a driver is found to be driving with any BAC (up to .06%), the driver is to have their license suspended for 12 months, pay a fine of BRL 2,934.70 (doubled if recurrence) and will have the car seized. Anything above 0.06% is considered a criminal offense.[27][28]
  • Chile: From 15 March 2012, 0.03–0.08% the driver is considered to be driving under the influence and carries a three-month suspension and a fine of US$82–410 (as of 19 March 2012); over 0.08% the driver is considered to be drunk and carries a prison term of 61 to 301 days, a fine of US$164–820 (as of 19 March 2012) and a two-year suspension for the first offense, a five-year suspension for a second offense, and a life suspension for a third offense.[29]
  • Colombia: Colombia is known to have the toughest penalties against those driving under the influence in all of Latin America and practice a zero tolerance policy on DUIs. If a driver is found to be driving with 20–39 mg/100 ml ethanol in blood (equivalent to 0.02–0.039% BAC), the driver is to have their license suspended for a year, pay a fine of US$914 (as of 22 December 2013), and serve twenty hours of community service. In the most extreme cases, if a driver is found to be driving with grade three alcohol (150 mg/100 ml ethanol in blood), the driver is to have their licence confiscated for ten years, pay a fine of US$7,314 (as of 22 December 2013), and serve fifty hours of community service. If the driver gets in an accident and causes injuries and or deaths, the driver is to face between 2.5 and eighteen years of prison sentence.[30]
  • Ecuador: 0.01% for commercial or professional drivers; 0.03% for all other drivers[2]
  • Guyana: 0.08%[2]
  • Paraguay: 0[31]
  • Peru: Drivers below a 0.05% BAC will be given a warning. At a 0.05% and over, the driver will be given a fine and a license suspension of no less than six months and no more than two years. If the driver is involved in an accident without causing death or severe injury to another individual, he or she may possibly face jail time. If the driver's causes an accident with a BAC over 0.101%, involving death or severe injury to another party, he or she will receive a mandatory prison sentence of three to five years. The driver's license will also be permanently revoked.[citation needed]
  • Suriname: 0.05%[2]
  • Uruguay: 0 tolerance for every driver, professional or not (since January 2016).[2] The driver will have to pay a fine of US$464 (as of 29 April 2015) and will have their licence suspended. Depending on the concentration of alcohol in blood and the times the driver was found guilty, the suspension goes from a minimum of six months to a maximum of two years.[32] If the driver causes an accident involving death, he or she will be charged with negligent homicide and will face a minimum of six months in prison.
  • Venezuela: 0.08%[2]

Asia[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

East Asia[edit]

  • China: 0.02%. Over 0.02% but under 0.08%: CN¥1000–2000 fine, six months license suspension; Over 0.08%: up to three years imprisonment, [33] five years license suspension. If the driver causes serious injuries or death, he or she will be charged with crime and the license will be permanently cancelled.[34]
  • Hong Kong: 0.05% or BAC 0.22 mg/L or urine 0.067%. Driving under the influence of alcohol beyond legal limit is punishable with a monetary fine and up to three years imprisonment, with ten driving-offense points and mandatory Driving Improvement Course.[35]
  • Japan: BrAC 0.15 mg/L (equivalent to 0.03%). Additionally, regardless of alcohol readings, police may also determine the driver to be "driving drunk", which is punished more severely than exceeding the designated alcohol limits.[36]
  • Republic of Korea: 0.05%[37]
  • Taiwan: 0.05% (BrAC 0.15 mg/L). Over 0.05% but under 0.11%: TWD 15,000 to 90,000 fine.[citation needed] 0.11% and above: license suspension for one year, and charge of offenses against public safety with possible prison sentence up to two years as the maximum penalty. If the driver is convicted of causing accidents, the penalty shall be increased by half.[citation needed] If the driver causes serious injuries or death, the license will be suspended for life or even face the death penalty.

South Asia[edit]

  • Afghanistan: 0[2]
  • India: 0.03%. This is according to section 185 of Motor Vehicles Act 1988. On a first offence, the punishment is imprisonment of six months, a fine of 2000 Indian Rupees (INR) or both. If the second offense is committed within three years, the punishment is two years, a fine of 3000 Indian Rupees (INR) or both. The clause of 30 mg/dL was added by an amendment in 1994. It came into effect beginning 14 November 1994.
  • Nepal: 0%. Breathalyzer testing is regularly used in major cities like Kathmandu, Pokhara, and Biratnagar, and highways. For more verification, driver will be taken to nearest hospitals for blood and urine test (if demanded by the driver). License will be seized instantly. Driver will get the license back after attending anti-alcoholic classes run by Nepal Traffic Police and fine will be charged NRS 1000.[citation needed]
  • Pakistan: Falls under drink and drugs, S. No 14. No set limit. 8 penalty points.[38]
  • Sri Lanka: 0.06%.[citation needed] Breathalyzer testing is not used routinely. If suspected by police the driver is produced before the closest government medical officer who examines and determines whether the driver is under influence. If the driver refuses examination by the medical officer he is considered to have been under influence by default.

Southeast Asia[edit]

  • Brunei: 35 microgrammes of alcohol in 100 millilitres of breath or 80 milligrammes of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood.[39]
  • Cambodia: 0.01%[2]
  • Indonesia: 0[2]
  • Laos: 80 mg/100 ml of blood.[40][citation needed]
  • Malaysia: 0.08%, or 80 mg100 ml alcohol in blood[41]
  • Philippines: The Republic Act 10586 or the "Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013" indicates that blood alcohol content (BAH) should be 0.05% for non-professional drivers and 0.01% for motorcycle riders and professional drivers. A traffic enforcer must first establish probable cause before directing a motorist suspected of DUI to pull over. Then, the motorist should do the following field sobriety tests – the horizontal gaze nystagmus (eye test), the walk-and-turn, and one-leg stand. A breath analyzer shall only be used after the motorist fails these three tests.[42]
  • Singapore: 0.08% (80 mg/100 ml alcohol blood) or BrAC: 35 μg/100 ml alcohol in breath, strictly enforced.[citation needed]
  • Thailand: 0 for professional or commercial drivers, 0.05% for all other drivers[2]
  • Vietnam: 50 mg/100 ml alcohol in blood motorbikes and 0 for cars or larger vehicles[43]

Western Asia[edit]

  • Armenia: 0.04%[44]
  • Azerbaijan: 0[45]
  • Iran: Not applicable, alcohol is banned
  • Israel: 0.024% 24 mg/100 ml alcohol in breath (penalties only apply above 29 mg/100 ml alcohol in breath due to lawsuits about sensitivity of devices used).[46] New drivers, drivers under 24 years of age and commercial drivers 0.005% 5 mg/100 ml alcohol in breath.[47]
  • Jordan: 0.05.[2] Breathalyzer testing is not routinely used. If suspected by police the driver is produced before the closest government medical officer who examines and determines whether the driver is under influence.
  • Kuwait: Not applicable, alcohol is banned
  • Lebanon: 0.02%, often unenforced
  • Saudi Arabia: Not applicable, alcohol is banned
  • Syria: often unenforced, unless heavily drunk and driving. License revoked for 1 to 3 months. 2000 Syrian pounds fine.
  • Turkey: 0.05%,[48] 0 for commercial transport and public service drivers
  • United Arab Emirates: 0[citation needed]

Europe[edit]

Map of Europe showing countries' blood alcohol limits as defined in g/dl for the general population

Note: Take zero to usually mean below detection limit.

  • Albania: 0.01%[48]
  • Austria: 0.05%[2] 0.01% for drivers who have held a license for less than two years and drivers of vehicles over 7.5 tonnes[citation needed]
  • Belarus: 0.03%
  • Belgium: 0.05%[48] Fines and driving bans increase as the alcohol concentration in the blood increases.[49]
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: 0.03% for all drivers except for drivers of C, CE, D and DE categories, public service drivers, professional drivers, driving instructors, and drivers younger than 21 years or without 3 years of experience, where the limit is zero[50]
  • Bulgaria: 0.05%[2]
  • Croatia: 0.05%. Zero for drivers aged 16 to 24 and professional drivers on duty.[51][52]
  • Cyprus: 0.05%[2]
  • Czech Republic: Zero[48]
  • Denmark: 0.05%, imprisonment if over 0.20%, zero if not driving safely. Fine: one month's pay after taxes × BAC × 10.[53]
  • Estonia: 0.019%[54]
  • Finland: 0.05%,[48] 0.12% (aggravated). The penalty is a fine or jail up to six months plus license suspension from one month to five years. For aggravated, also a prison sentence (sixty days to two years) is possible,[55] usually as a suspended sentence. Routine breath testing without a probable cause is permitted and often practiced. Penalties vary by level of intoxication.
  • France: 0.05% or 0.02% for new drivers (under three years of driving license) and bus drivers (€135 fine and six demerit points on the driver's license, which can be suspended for three years maximum),[48] 0.08% (aggravated, criminal offense, license suspension for three years, €4,500 fine, and up to two years imprisonment)
  • Georgia: 0.02%[2]
  • Germany: Zero for beginners (less than two years' experience or under the age of 21), professional drivers, bus drivers, truck drivers, and drivers transporting passengers commercially; 0.03% in conjunction with any other traffic offense or accident; 0.05% otherwise. For cyclists, the limit is set at 0.16%, where not in conjunction with any other traffic offense or accident. From 0.16%, cyclists face the same penalties as driving a car at that limit.[56]
    Penalties start at a €500 fine and one-month license suspension. From 0.11%, the penalty is a €500 fine and the withdrawal of the driver's license for at least six months, but usually about one year (penalty is set by the court); from 0.16%, reissue of the licence requires a successful Medical Psychological Assessment (MPU).[57] From 0.11% within ten years of an offense from 0.05%, there is a minimum €1000 fine and a one-year license withdrawal; the driver has to successfully pass an MPU and is required to prove to the court that they have been sober for the last twelve months, before they can get their licence back. For repeat offenses, the fine is multiplied by the ordinal of the offence (doubled, tripled, etc.), regardless of the amount by which the driver was over the limit. These minimum penalties are usually exceeded by the German courts. From 0.11%, the courts usually also require the DUI offender to do unpaid community service.
  • Gibraltar: 0.05%[58]
  • Greece: 0.05% (BrAC 0.25 mg/L),[48] reduced to 0.02% (BrAC 0.10 mg/L) for unlicensed or new drivers who have held a license for less than two years, motor cycle and professional drivers. Above 0.11% (BrAC 0.60 mg/L) it's considered a flagrant misdemeanor punishable with up to two years of imprisonment and a hefty fine in the court plus the revoking of the drivers licence for six months. Routine breath testing without a probable cause is permitted and practiced by the traffic police, especially on weekends and major holidays.
  • Hungary: Zero[2]
  • Iceland: 0.04%[48]
  • Ireland: 0.05% generally or 0.02% for learner drivers, newly qualified drivers (those who have their license for less than two years) and professional drivers, and those who do not have their driving license on them when stopped by the Gardaí (police).[59] Police do not need a reason to request a breath sample. Being convicted of drunk driving usually carries a two-year ban as well as a €1,500 fine.[60]
  • Italy: From 0.05% to 0.08% (€500-2,000 fine, three to six months license suspension), from 0.08% to 0.15% (aggravated, €800-3,200 fine, six to twelve months license suspension, up to six months imprisonment), over 0.15% (aggravated, €1,500-6,000 fine, one to two years license suspension, six to twelve months imprisonment, vehicle seizure and confiscation), zero for drivers with less than three years experience and professional drivers (bus, trucks, etc.). License is always revoked in case of: professional drivers, second offence committed within two years or in case of an accident. If the driver refuses examination he is considered to have been under influence by default applying the over 0.15% rules.[61] Limit is zero for newly qualified drivers (those who have their license for less than three years). Routine breath testing without a probable cause is permitted and practiced by various law enforcement agencies.
  • Latvia: 0.02% for drivers with less than two years of experience and 0.05% for those with more than two years of experience
  • Liechtenstein: 0.08%[62]
  • Lithuania: Zero for taxi, truck, bus, motorcycle drivers. 0.02% for drivers with less than two years of experience and 0.04% for those with more than two years of experience[48]
  • Luxembourg: 0.02% for professional drivers and drivers with less than two years of experience and 0.05% for the rest (€145 fine and two demerit points on the driving licence if caught). 0.08% earns you a citation, 0.12% means loss of license (since 1 October 2007)[63]
  • Macedonia: Zero for professional drivers, public service drivers, commercial transport and beginner drivers, 0.05% for all others[64]
  • Malta: 0.08%[48]
  • Moldova: 0.03%[48]
  • Montenegro: 0.03%[48]
  • Netherlands: 0.05%,[48] 0.02% for drivers with less than five years' experience (or less than seven years' experience when the driver got his/her license before reaching the age of eighteen). Educational measures or rehabilitation courses are given when disobeying the law. The LEMA (Light Educational Measure Alcohol and traffic) consists of two day parts of 3.5 hours each. LEMA is intended for drivers with a BAC between 0.8‰ and 1.0‰ (between 0.5‰ and 0.8‰ for novice drivers). In the Netherlands, the legal limit for this group of drivers is 0.2‰. The course is compulsory; if refused (or when not participating actively enough), the driving licence is declared invalid. The offender must pay the course fee of 546 euro (CBR pricelist 2015). The EMA (Educational Measure Alcohol and traffic) is a two-day course (one full day and two dayparts) given to people who participated in traffic with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) between 1.0‰ and 1.3‰ (between 0.8‰ and 1.0‰ for novice drivers). EMA is compulsory: if the offender does not participate (or not actively enough), the driving licence is suspended. In addition, the offender must pay the course fee of 870 euro (CBR pricelist 2015).[65]
  • Norway: 0.02%.[48] Punishment depends on the alcohol level. 0.02% (fine, but one may also risk a suspended licence if any aggravated circumstances are present.), 0.05% (fine, suspended sentence and suspended license), 0.10% (fine, suspended or mandatory sentence and suspended license), 0.15% (fine, mandatory sentence and suspended license). The guidelines state that the fine for an alcohol level of more than 0.05% should be around 1.5 months base salary and usually not lower than 10,000 NOK. For 0.02 to 0.05% the fine is lower. Prison sentences are usually around three weeks to three months with a maximum of one year. The suspension period varies from less than a year to forever, when license is suspended forever, one may apply to get it back after five years.[66]
  • Poland: 0.02% (misdemeanor, punishable by fine and 10 penalty points, suspended sentence of up to 30 days of jail and possible driving license suspension for up to 3 years), 0.05% (crime, punishable by fine and 10 penalty points, suspended sentence or mandatory sentence of jail up to 2 years, possible driving license suspension from 3 years up). Intoxication is also considered an aggravated circumstance in case of an accident, resulting n more severe punishment.
  • Portugal: 0.05%. 0.02% for drivers with less than three years of experience[48]
  • Romania: Zero. Above 0.8 mg/L imprisonment or criminal fine and suspended license. Between 0 and 0.8 mg/L civil fine and suspended license.[citation needed][67]
  • Russian Federation: 0.0356% since 1 September 2013,[68][69] previously zero since 2010[70][71]
  • Serbia: 0.03% for all, zero for motorcycle drivers, professional drivers, public service drivers, commercial transport and beginning drivers[72] Starting in 2018, it will be 0.02% for non-professional drivers.
  • Slovakia: Zero[48]
  • Slovenia: Zero for drivers with three years or less experience and professional drivers, 0.24 mg/l (0.05%) for all others[citation needed]
  • Spain: 0.05% BAC (0.25 mg/l BrAC)[73] and 0.03% BAC (0.15 mg/l BrAC) for drivers with less than two years experience and drivers of freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes, and of passenger vehicles with more than nine seats. Surpassing the limit is a serious offense, fined with €500.[74] Driving with an alcohol rate over 0.12% is a crime (up to six months imprisonment and license suspension up to one years).[75]
  • Sweden: 0.02%. Above 0.1% is considered aggravated.[76] Annually about 2.5 million random tests are performed for alcohol and about twelve thousand tests on suspicion of drugs.[77]
  • Switzerland: Zero for drivers with less than three years experience, 0.05%[48] for all others
  • Ukraine: 0.02%[78]
  • United Kingdom
    • England and Wales: 80 mg/100 ml (~0.08% BAC) alcohol in blood, 35 μg/100 ml alcohol in breath or 107 mg/100 ml alcohol in urine.[79]
    • Northern Ireland: 80 mg/100 ml (~0.08% BAC) alcohol in blood. As of November 2014 results of a public consultation regarding reduction of this limit were being considered,[80] with a reduction to fifty being thought likely[81]
    • Scotland: 50 mg/100 ml (~0.05% BAC) alcohol in blood or 22 μg/100 ml alcohol in breath (legislation became effective from 5 December 2014)[82]

Britain[edit]

In British law it is a criminal offence to be drunk in charge of a motor vehicle. The definition depends on such things as being in or near the vehicle, and having access to a means of starting the vehicle's engine and driving it away (i.e., the keys to a vehicle). A passenger in the vehicle can also be prosecuted if the police can prove that they were driving under the influence at some point.[83]

The UK's drug driving laws were updated in 2015. The changes included: a new roadside testing kit, which could detect the presence of cocaine and cannabis in a suspect's saliva; zero tolerance limits for a number of illegal drugs, Limits were also set for certain prescription medications. The laws, however, did not end the use of the field impairment test, but made them more relevant for determining driver impairment by those drugs that are not now covered by the new legislation, or cannot be identified by the limited use of a device, that currently are only authorised for cannabis and cocaine.

Further rules in the United Kingdom (UK)[edit]

In the UK, driving or attempting to drive whilst above the legal limit of 0.08% BAC in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and 0.05% BAC in Scotland or unfit through drink carries a maximum penalty of six months' imprisonment, a fine of up to £5,000 and a minimum twelve months' disqualification. For a second offense committed within ten years of conviction, the minimum ban is three years. Being in charge of a vehicle whilst over the legal limit or unfit through drink could result in three months' imprisonment plus a fine of up to £2,500 and a driving ban. Causing death by careless driving when under the influence of alcohol or other drugs carries a maximum penalty of fourteen years in prison, a minimum two-year driving ban and a requirement to pass an extended driving test before the offender is able to drive legally again.

It is an offense to refuse to provide a specimen of breath, blood or urine for analysis. The penalties for refusing are the same as those for actual drunk driving.

The offense of driving whilst under the influence of alcohol is one to which there is no defense, as such (although defences such as duress or automatism, which are not specific to the offense of driving with excess alcohol, may apply in certain rare circumstances). However, it may be possible to argue that special reasons exist which are such that the offender shouldn't be disqualified from driving despite having committed the offense. Special reasons are notoriously difficult to establish and the burden of proof is always upon the accused to establish them. Such reasons may include:

  • shortness of distance driven
  • unintentional commission of the offence (i.e., laced drinks)
  • emergencies

Magistrates' sentencing guidelines[edit]

In England and Wales, when DWI offenders appear before a magistrates' court, the magistrates have guidelines they refer to before they decide on a suitable sentence to give the offender. These guidelines are issued by the Sentencing Guidelines Council[84] and cover offenses for which sentence is frequently imposed in a magistrates' court when dealing with adult offenders.

Offenses can either be tried summarily which means they can only be heard in the magistrates' court or they can be either way offense which means magistrates may find their sentencing powers are insufficient and indict the case to crown court. The majority of drunk driving offenses are summary only offences which can only be tried in a magistrates' court. Only the most serious offences such as a collision, death or injury involved are indicted to crown court. The maximum sentence magistrates can usually impose for "being in charge of a vehicle while above the legal limit or unfit through drink" is a £2,500 fine, a three-month prison sentence or a driving ban. The maximum sentence magistrates can usually impose for "driving or attempting to drive while above the legal limit or unfit through drink" is six months’ imprisonment, an unlimited fine or a driving ban for at least 1 year (3 years if convicted twice in 10 years).[85] In theory, the fine is means tested and based on disposable income.[86]

As with England and Wales, road traffic law in Scotland is in the main framed within the Road Traffic Act 1988 as amended. Prosecution and disposal of drink-drive offenses is broadly similar to England and Wales with less serious cases prosecuted on complaint through the sheriff summary courts. Cases involving aggravations, life-changing or fatal injuries are prosecuted on indictment via the sheriff solemn or high court. As with most UK-wide legislation, the penalties and sentencing guidelines for drunk driving in Scotland mirror those in effect in England and Wales.

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

A roadside warning in Victoria, Australia

Road laws are state or territory based, but all states and territories have set similar rules.

Australian law allow police officers to stop any driver and perform a random breath test without reason. Roadblocks can be set up (for example, leading out of town centers on Friday and Saturday nights and after football matches or other major events), where every single driver will be breath-tested.

This differs from UK and US laws where police generally need a reason to suspect that the driver is intoxicated before requesting a breath or sobriety test. It is an offence to refuse to provide a sample of breath when requested with severe penalties including prison.[87]

Australian Capital Territory[edit]

  • 0 for drivers or riders holding a learner, provisional, restricted or probationary license and for drivers operating heavy vehicles over 15t GVM or driving a public vehicle for hire or reward (for example taxi and bus drivers)[88]
  • 0.05% for all other drivers

New South Wales[edit]

  • Zero for learner and provisional licences[89]
  • 0.02% for drivers of vehicles of "gross vehicle mass" greater than 13.9 tonnes, vehicles carrying dangerous goods or public vehicles such as a taxi or bus
  • 0.05% for all other drivers
  • 0 limit for methamphetamine, cannabis and MDMA

Northern Territory[edit]

  • 0 for provisional (probationary) license holders and all motorcyclists
  • 0.05% for all other drivers

Queensland[edit]

  • A 0 limit applies to the drivers of trucks, buses, articulated vehicles, vehicles carrying dangerous goods, pilot vehicles, taxis, all learner drivers and provisional drivers and RE class licensed motorcyclists in their first twelve months.[90]
  • 0.05% for other drivers
  • 0 limit for methamphetamine, cannabis and MDMA

South Australia[edit]

  • 0 limit for learner, provisional, probationary, heavy (greater than fifteen tonnes) vehicle, taxis, licensed chauffeured vehicles, dangerous goods, and bus licenses.
  • 0.05% for all other drivers
  • 0 limit for methamphetamine, cannabis and MDMA

Tasmania[edit]

  • 0 limit for learner, provisional, truck, bus, and taxi licenses
  • 0.05% for all other drivers
  • 0 limit for methamphetamine, cannabis and MDMA

Victoria[edit]

  • 0 limit applies for unlicensed drivers, holders of learner permits and probationary licences, "professional" drivers, and certain relicensed drunk-drivers.
  • 0.05% for all other drivers
  • 0 limit for methamphetamine, cannabis and MDMA

There are also other restrictions for drivers in Victoria:

  • Limits apply within three hours of driving - that is, police can require a person to submit to an alcohol or drugs test within three hours of driving and it is an offense to fail that test, unless the drug or alcohol use occurred after driving (see Road Safety Act 1986, ss. 49, 53 and 55E).
  • Licenses cancelled for certain serious drunk-driving offenses may only be reissued after obtaining a court order. This is the case for repeat offenders, and first offenders above 0.15% . In such cases, the relicensed driver is subject to a 0 limit for three years following relicensing, or for as long as the person is required to use an alcohol interlock.
  • Alcohol interlocks must be imposed whenever a repeat drunk-driver is relicensed.
  • A court also has discretion to impose an alcohol interlock when relicensing a first offender in certain serious cases, generally when the offense involves a BAC of 0.15% or higher.
  • The law requires interlocks to be used for certain minimum periods, but the requirement to use an interlock does not automatically end at the completion of the minimum period. Once that period has expired, an individual may apply to a court to have the interlock condition removed from their driver's license. The State Police must be given notice of the application and may make submissions to the court on whether the interlock condition should be removed. The court will also take into account data recorded by the interlock itself (e.g., whether any attempts were made to start the vehicle by a person who had been drinking).
  • Driving without an interlock when one is required carries severe penalties, including imprisonment.
  • If a doctor sees any patient who is aged fifteen years or over as a result of a motor vehicle accident, the patient must allow the doctor to take a blood sample for testing for alcohol and drug content in a way that preserves the chain of evidence. If this process is skipped the doctor may not be able to discover the alcohol blood level. The results can be used as evidence in subsequent court proceedings.
  • The law allows a police officer to require any driver (or any person who has driven a vehicle within the last three hours) to perform a random saliva test for methamphetamine, cannabis and MDMA, all of which are subject to a zero limit (see Road Safety Act 1986: ss. 49, 55E & 55D)

Western Australia[edit]

  • 0 for learner and probationary license holders and persons convicted of driving under the influence or failing to comply with a request for breath, blood or urine (for three years after the offense).
  • 0.05% for all other drivers.

Readings over 0.08% but under 0.15% BAC, and 0.15% BAC and above (legally defined as Drunk Driving) comprise separate offenses, the latter attracting heavier penalties. Persistent offenders may be barred from driving for terms up to and including life, and may also be imprisoned.

The law allows a police officer to require any driver to perform a random saliva test for methamphetamine, Cannabis or MDMA, all of which are subject to a zero limit.

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand operates a program called Compulsory Breath Testing, which allows police to stop motorists at any time. CBT is usually carried out at roadside checkpoints but mobile patrol cars can also randomly stop motorists to administer a test. The police also carry out roadside drug tests upon motorists they suspect have used drugs.[91]

The system in New Zealand is age-based.[92] the limits are:

  • 0 limit for people under twenty years
  • 0.05% BAC or 250μg/L breath for people twenty years and over

The penalties for exceeding the limits are:

  • People under twenty years, up to 0.03% BAC, 150 μg/L breath: instant NZ$200 fine and fifty demerit points
  • People under twenty years, 0.03–0.08% BAC, 150–400 μg/L breath: up to three months imprisonment, up to NZ$2,250 fine or both. Loss of license for three months or more.
  • People twenty years and over, 0.051–0.08% BAC, 251–400 μg/L breath: instant NZ$200 fine and fifty demerit points. Twelve hour prohibition from driving immediately after test.[93]
  • All people over 0.08% BAC, 400 μg/L breath (first and second offenses): up to three months imprisonment, up to NZ$4,500 fine or both; loss of license for six months or more
  • All people over 0.08% BAC, 400 μg/L breath (third and subsequent offenses): two years imprisonment; NZ$6,000 fine; loss of license for one year or more

Note that penalties apply to the lowest reading taken across both breath and blood tests. For example, if a driver twenty years or over has a breath test result of 426 μg/L but a subsequent blood test returns 0.077% BAC, then the driver is not charged with any drink driving offense despite the breath reading being over the breath alcohol limit. The penalty for injuring or killing someone when under the influences is the same as dangerous driving (up to five years imprisonment, up to NZ$20,000 or both. Loss of license for one year or more).

Other countries in Oceania[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Road safety status of Angola" (PDF), Road safety status of Angola, World Health Organization, retrieved 19 February 2015
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az "Legal BAC limits by country". World Health Organization. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  3. ^ "Road safety status of Egypt" (PDF), Road safety status of Egypt, www.who.int, retrieved 19 February 2015
  4. ^ "Road safety status of Ethiopia" (PDF). Road safety status of Ethiopia. World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  5. ^ "Road safety status of Nigeria" (PDF), Road safety by country profile of Nigeria, World Health Organization, retrieved 19 February 2015
  6. ^ National Road Traffic Act, 1996
  7. ^ Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights (May 1999). "Toward Eliminating Impaired Driving — Chapter 2: Legislative Background". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 14 April 2008.
  8. ^ "BAC Limits Worldwide", BAC Limits Worldwide table, www.icap.org, archived from the original on 13 October 2013, retrieved 19 February 2015
  9. ^ "Drunken / Impaired Driving". NCSL. National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  10. ^ See, e.g., Cal. Vehicle Code sec. 23152(a) and (b), "California Vehicle Code, Sec. 23152". California Legislative Information. California State Legislature. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  11. ^ See, e.g., N.Y. Vehicle and traffic law, section 1192, found at New York Assembly official web site. Go to "Bill Search and Legislative Materials", then "New York State Laws." Accessed 17 March 2008.
  12. ^ Larson, Aaron (26 May 2016). "Drunk Driving Terminology - DUI, DWI, BAC, and Related Terms". ExpertLaw.com. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  13. ^ E.g., People v. Cosko, 152 Cal. App. 3d 54, 199 Cal. Rptr. 289 (1984), citing Cal. Penal Code sec. 654
  14. ^ Walters, Steven. "First drunken driving offense shouldn't be a crime, Van Hollen says" Milwaukee Journal Sentinel17 Jan 2009.
  15. ^ Puerto Rico OKs one lowest drunk-driving limits Archived 29 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ "Alcohol concentration". edocket.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  17. ^ 14 CFR 91.17, also known as Federal Air Regulation 91.17
  18. ^ Davidson, Lee (29 July 2017). "Utahns still split on new DUI law, but big majority want changes before it kicks in". Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  19. ^ "Driving Under the Influence Unit". royalbahamaspolice.org. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  20. ^ "National Road Safety Council Jamaica". National Road Safety Council Jamaica. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  21. ^ "Police: Zero tolerance for young drivers". Trinidad Express. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  22. ^ "Motor Vehicles and Road Traffic Act" (PDF). Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  23. ^ LEY DE TRÁNSITO POR VÍAS PÚBLICAS TERRESTRES Y SEGURIDAD VIAL (PDF), Replublic of Costa Rica, retrieved 27 July 2017
  24. ^ Road safety status of Nicaragua (PDF), World Health Organization, retrieved 19 February 2015
  25. ^ "Buenos Aires Ciudad - Seguridad Vial". buenosaires.gob.ar. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  26. ^ Imprensa Nacional - Presidência da República / Casa Civil, Diário Oficial da União - Seção 1 - Edição 20 de 29 January 2013, Pag. 30
  27. ^ Imprensa Nacional - Presidência da República / Casa Civil, Diário Oficial da União - Seção 1 - Edição 20 de 29 January 2013, Pag. 31
  28. ^ Chile Transit Law, Articles 110, 193 and 196. Chile Library of Congress, accessed on 18 March 2012.
  29. ^ "Tolerancia cero: ni una cerveza si va a conducir - Noticias de Justicia en Colombia". Eltiempo.Com. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  30. ^ "Legal BAC limits by country". World Health Organization. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  32. ^ 中华人民共和国刑法 (2011年)(in Chinese). Wikisource Chinese. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  33. ^ 中华人民共和国道路交通安全法(in Chinese). Wikisource Chinese. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  34. ^ "Road Traffic Ordinance Cap. 374" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2016.
  35. ^ 飲酒運転の罰則等 (in Japanese). Metropolitan Police Department. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  36. ^ "국가법령정보센터". law.go.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  37. ^ [1] Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^ "Chapter 68 Road Traffic Act" (PDF). AGC Brunei. 2007.
  39. ^ In April 2010 Vientiane Traffic Police Department launched operation A+E (Awareness and Enforcement) to crack down on driving offences including drunk driving. The KPL Lao news release 6 April 2010 mentions the national legal limit as 80 mg.
  40. ^ "What is the legal limit of alcohol in the blood?". Department of Chemistry Malaysia. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  41. ^ "Some facts on the new anti-drunk driving law". ABS-CBN News.
  42. ^ "Điều 8: Luật Giao Thông Đường Bộ Việt Nam".
  43. ^ "Road safety status of Armenia" (PDF), violence injury prevention, www.who.int, retrieved 19 February 2015
  44. ^ "Azerbaijan travel advice", Foreign travel advice, www.gov.uk, retrieved 19 February 2015
  45. ^ "Court resets drunk driving threshold". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  46. ^ Kadoorie, Ronen. "Alcohol and Driving". en.mot.gov.il. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Blood Alcohol Concentration Limits Worldwide Archived 2 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine., International Centre For Policy Studies. Page retrieved 30 October 2006
  48. ^ "ETSC Fact Sheet, Belgium, January 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  49. ^ Administrator. "ZAKON O OSNOVAMA BEZBJEDNOSTI SAOBRAĆAJA NA PUTEVIMA U BIH". homologacija.gov.ba. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  50. ^ "67 9.6.2008 Zakon o sigurnosti prometa na cestama". narodne-novine.nn.hr. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  51. ^ "Zakonske odredbe". mup.hr. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  52. ^ "Straf for spritkørsel | Sikker Trafik". Sikkertrafik.dk. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  53. ^ Liiklusseadus [Traffic Act]. In Estonian. Riigi Teataja
  54. ^ "Rattijuopumuksen seuraukset". Poliisi.fi. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  55. ^ (http://www.mz-web.de/politik/alkohol-im-strassenverkehr-promille-grenze-fuer-radfahrer-bleibt-bei-1-6,20642162,24936596.html)
  56. ^ and carries a €500 fine and a minimum licence suspension of one year, but usually carries out a higher suspension as prerequisites for reissue of licences
  57. ^ UK Government Advice on Gibraltar Page retrieved 30 October 2006.
  58. ^ RTÉ News - New drink-driving laws in effect (29 October 2011)
  59. ^ "One pint too much as drive limit cut - Independent.ie". Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  60. ^ Automobile Club d'Italia art. 186 / 186 bis c.d.s.
  61. ^ "Liechtenstein travel advice". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  62. ^ police.lu - Extrait de quelques infractions au code de la route Archived 15 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  63. ^ No.234 [2][permanent dead link] in Macedonian
  64. ^ file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/fs_rehabilitation_courses_archived.pdf
  65. ^ [3](page in Norwegian). Page retrieved 21. June 2011.
  66. ^ "Consumul de alcool si procedura de recoltare". 3 July 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  67. ^ "Russia lifts zero permille limit for drunk driving". bbcrussian. 24 July 2013.
  68. ^ "Russian drivers to be allowed to have slight alcohol content in blood". Itar-tass. 26 July 2013.
  69. ^ (Russian) Medvedev signed the law, completely abolishing any alcohol limits. Even minimal alcohol content will lead to revoking of the driving licence [4]
  70. ^ "Medvedev signs total drink driving ban". RIAN. 23 July 2010.
  71. ^ "Serbia Touring Tips - South East Europe" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  72. ^ El alcohol - Dirección General de Tráfico (page in Spanish). Page retrieved 14 August 2016.
  73. ^ www.dgt.es, dgt,. "Drogas y alcohol objetivo de la nueva campaña de vigilancia de Tráfico". dgt.es. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  74. ^ Jurídicas, Noticias. "Los Delitos contra la seguridad vial y el atestado policial. Noticias Jurídicas". Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  75. ^ https://www.trafikverket.se/resa-och-trafik/Trafiksakerhet/Din-sakerhet-pa-vagen/Rattfylleri/Vad-sager-lagen-om-rattfylleri/
  76. ^ "Blåstestet avslöjar knarkade bilförare". Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  77. ^ "Drink driving and the legal alcohol limit". drinkaware. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  78. ^ DOE Northern Ireland: Road safety consultations Archived 9 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine.; see section "Drink Driving: Consultation on the Road Traffic (Drink Driving) (Amendment) Bill and Additional Measures to Tackle Drink and Drug Driving in Northern Ireland"
  79. ^ Scotland to reduce drink-drive limit, BBC
  80. ^ "Lower drink drive limit". Scottish Government News. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  81. ^ "In charge with excess alcohol/while unfit through drink or drugs". Motor Lawyers. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  82. ^ "Sentencing Guidelines Council". Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  83. ^ "Drink-driving penalties - GOV.UK". gov.uk. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  84. ^ "Drink Driving Penalties and Maximum Punishments". drinkdrivinglaw.co.uk. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  85. ^ "Can a Person Refuse a Breathalyser Test? And Other Questions Related to Drink Driving". Findlaw.com.au. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  86. ^ "Zero alcohol laws" (PDF). ACT Government. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  87. ^ Wales, Transport for New South. "Blood alcohol limits". roadsafety.transport.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  88. ^ "Alcohol limits". Queensland Government. Queensland Government.
  89. ^ "Alcohol and drugs limits". Wellington: New Zealand Transport Authority. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  90. ^ "Drinking & driving, New Zealand drink drive legal alcohol limit". Alcohol.org.nz. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  91. ^ "Land Transport Amendment Act (no 2) 2014". Ministry of Transport. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016.

External links[edit]