Dry animal dung fuel

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Stirling-Motor powered with cow dung in the Technical Collection Hochhut in Frankfurt on Main

Dry animal dung fuel (or dry manure fuel) is animal feces that has been dried in order to be used as a fuel source. It is used as a fuel in many countries around the world. Using dry manure as a fuel source is an example of reuse of excreta. A disadvantage of using this kind of fuel is increased air pollution.[1]

Dry dung and moist dung[edit]

Dry dung is more commonly used than moist dung, because it burns more easily. Dry manure is typically defined as having a moisture content less than 30 percent.[2]

Benefits[edit]

The M.N. Yavari, of Peru built by Thames Iron Works, London in 1861-62 had a Watt steam engine (powered by dried lama dung) until 1914

The benefits of using dry animal dung include:[3]

  • Cheaper than most modern fuels
  • Efficient
  • Alleviates local pressure on wood resources
  • Readily available - short walking time required to collect fuel
  • No cash outlays necessary for purchase (can be exchanged for other products)
  • Less environmental pollution
  • Safer disposal of animal dung
  • Sustainable and renewable energy source

Countries[edit]

Drying cow dung fuel

Africa[edit]

Egyptian women making "Gella" dry animal dung fuel
  • In Egypt dry animal dung (from cows & buffaloes) is mixed with straw or crop residues to make dry fuel called "Gella" or "Jilla" dung cakes in modern times and ""khoroshtof"" in medieval times.[4] Ancient Egyptians used the dry animal dung as a source of fuel.[5] Dung cakes and building crop residues were the source of 76.4% of gross energy consumed in Egypt's rural areas during the 1980s.[6] Temperatures of dung-fueled fires in an experiment on Egyptian village-made dung cake fuel produced
""a maximum of 640 degrees C in 12 minutes, falling to 240 degrees C after 25 minutes and 100 degrees C after 46 minutes. These temperatures were obtained without refueling and without bellows etc.""[7]

Also, camel dung is used as fuel in Egypt.[8]

Huts in a village near Maseru, Lesotho. The fuel being used on the fire is dried cattle dung

Asia[edit]

Dung cooking fire. Pushkar India.
Water buffalo dung fuel drying on a wall in a Hani ethnic minority village in Yuanyang county, Yunnan, China
  • Nepal[11]
  • Tibetan people also use dry Yak & sheep dung fuel.[9]
  • Palestine & Arabia used animal and human dung fuel.[12]
  • Iran since prehistoric time to modern eras[13]
  • In India dry buffalo dung is used as fuel.[9] and it is sometimes a sacred practice to use cow dung fuel in some areas in India. Cow dung is known as ""Gomaya"" or ""Komaya"" in India. Dry animal dung cakes are called Upla in Hindi.[14]
  • In Pakistan cow/buffalo dung is used as fuel.[7]
  • Bangladesh dry cow dung fuel is called Ghunte.
  • Afghanistan
  • Kyrgyz Republic Dung is used in specially designed home stoves, which vent to the outside
  • In Mongolia the dry animal (cows or horses) dung fuel is called ""Argol"".[9]
U.S. paratroopers patrolling outside a qalat covered in caked and dried cow dung in an Afghani village
Cow dung fuel was burnt on the Gauchar's Historical Field, India to gauge the direction of air currents
Making Komaya (cow dung fuel in India)

Europe[edit]

Dung cakes being prepared for fuel on the Ile de Brehat, Brittany, France, c. 1900.
  • Maltans used dry cow dung fuel[9]
  • Turks and Syrians use dry animal dung.[9]
  • Russians dry animal dung is known as ""Kiziak"" which is made by collecting dried animal dung on the steppe, wetting it in water then mixing it with straw then making it in discs which were then dried in the sun. It was used as a source of fuel for the winter and, throughout the summer.[15]
  • People of west of England used dry animal dung fuel[9]
  • France in Maison du Marais poitevin in Coulon there is a demonstration of traditional usage of dry dung fuel.

The Americas[edit]

  • Early European settlers on the Great Plains of the United States used dried buffalo manure as a fuel. They called it buffalo chips.
  • American officials in Texas are studying using dry cow dung as a fuel
  • Pueblo Indians used dry animal dung as a fuel
  • In Peru a boat engine was fueled by Lama dung fuel.
  • Dry dung can be used in the production of celluloid for film.

Human feces[edit]

Human feces can in principal also be dried and used as a fuel source if they are collected in a type of dry toilet, for example an incinerating toilet. Since 2011, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting the development of such toilets as part of their "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" to promote safer, more effective ways to treat human excreta.[16] The omni-processor is another example of using human feces contained in faecal sludge or sewage sludge as a fuel source.

History[edit]

Dry animal dung was used since prehistoric times,[17] including in Ancient Persia[13] and Ancient Egypt.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mudway, Ian S; Duggan, Sean T; Venkataraman, Chandra; Habib, Gazala; Kelly, Frank J; Grigg, Jonathan (2005). "Combustion of dried animal dung as biofuel results in the generation of highly redox active fine particulates". Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1743-8977-2-6. ISSN 1743-8977. 
  2. ^ "Biomass Report, Yakima County Public Works Solid Waste Division" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  3. ^ "Pyrolysis Processing of Animal Manure to Produce Fuel Gases" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  4. ^ "Egyptian cities and markets: What's behind a name? - Street Smart - Folk - Ahram Online". English.ahram.org.eg. 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  5. ^ "Al-Ahram Weekly | Chronicles |". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  6. ^ "Biogas Technology Transfer To Rural Communities In Egypt" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  7. ^ a b "Dung & Archeology". Sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  8. ^ Travels Through Turkey in Asia, the Holy Land, Arabia, Egypt and Other Parts of the World: Giving a Particular and Faithful Account of what is Most Remarkable in the Manners, Religion, Polity, Antiquities and Natural History of Those Countries : with a Curious Description of Jerusalem as it Now Appears, and Other Places Mentioned in the Holy Scriptures, vol 2 Page 187 by Charles Thompson
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Bourke, John (1891). Scatalogic rites of all nations. A dissertation upon the employment of excrementitious remedial agents in religion, therapeutics, divination, witchcraft, love-philters, etc., in all parts of the globe. W. H. Lowdermilk & co. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  10. ^ Picornell Gelabert, Llorenç; Asouti, Eleni; Martí, Ethel Allué (2011). "The ethnoarchaeology of firewood management in the Fang villages of Equatorial Guinea, central Africa: Implications for the interpretation of wood fuel remains from archaeological sites". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30 (3): 375–384. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2011.05.002. ISSN 0278-4165. 
  11. ^ "Health Costs of Dung-Cake Fuel Use by the Poor in Rural Nepal" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  12. ^ The Bible Ezekiel 4:12 And you shall eat it as barley cakes, and you shall bake it with dung that comes out of man. http://bibleapps.com/ezekiel/4-12.htm
  13. ^ a b Miller, Naomi (1984-01-01). "The use of dung as fuel: an ethnographic example and an archaeological application | Naomi Miller". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  14. ^ "Animal Dung As A Source Of Energy In Remote Areas Of Indian Himalayas" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  15. ^ "Polish settlements in Russia during WW II". Polishresettlementcampsintheuk.co.uk. 1936-09-19. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  16. ^ Elisabeth von Muench, Dorothee Spuhler, Trevor Surridge, Nelson Ekane, Kim Andersson, Emine Goekce Fidan, Arno Rosemarin (2013) Sustainable Sanitation Alliance members take a closer look at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s sanitation grants, Sustainable Sanitation Practice Journal, Issue 17, p. 4-10
  17. ^ Mlekuž, Dimitrij (2009). "The materiality of dung: the manipulation of dung in Neolithic Mediterranean caves". Documenta Praehistorica 36 (0): 219. doi:10.4312/dp.36.14. ISSN 1854-2492. 

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