The surface of the knuckles of a hand with xeroderma
|Classification and external resources|
|Specialty||endocrinology, ophthalmology, dermatology|
|ICD-10||E50.0-E50.3, H11.1, L85.3|
|ICD-9-CM||264.0-264.3, 372.53, 706.8|
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers. Xeroderma occurs most commonly on the scalp, lower legs, arms, hands, the knuckles, the sides of the abdomen, and thighs. Symptoms most associated with xeroderma are scaling (the visible peeling of the outer skin layer), itching, and skin cracking.
Xeroderma is a very common condition. It happens more often in the winter where the cold air outside and the hot air inside creates a low relative humidity. This causes the skin to lose moisture and it may crack and peel. Bathing or hand washing too frequently, especially if one is using harsh soaps, can contribute to xeroderma. Xeroderma can be caused by a deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin D, systemic illness, severe sunburn, or some medication. Xeroderma can be caused by choline inhibitors. Detergents such as washing powder and dishwashing liquid can cause xeroderma.
Since the development of Nivea Skin Creme by German pharmacists in the late 1800s, a huge array of topical skin moisturizers have been introduced on the worldwide market. Today, many creams and lotions, commonly based on vegetable oils/butters, petroleum oils/jellies, and even lanolin are widely available. As a preventive measure, such products may be rubbed onto the affected area as needed (often every other day) to prevent dry skin. The skin is then patted dry to prevent removal of natural lipids from the skin.
Repeated application (typically over a few days) of emollients or skin lotions/creams to the affected area will likely result in quick alleviation of xeroderma. In particular, application of highly occlusive barriers to moisture, such as petrolatum, vegetable oils/butters, and mineral oil have been shown to provide excellent results. Many individuals find specific commercial skin creams and lotions (often comprising oils, butters, and or waxes emulsified in water) quite effective (although individual preferences and results vary among the wide array of commercially available creams). Lanolin, a natural mixture of lipids derived from sheep's wool, helps replace natural lipids in human skin and has been used since ancient times (and in modern medicine) as among the most powerful treatments for xeroderma. However, pure lanolin is a thick waxy substance which, for many individuals, proves difficult and inconvenient for general use on dry skin (especially over large areas of the body). As a result, many formulated lanolin products, having a softer consistency than pure lanolin, are available (see external links below or consult a pharmacist for recommendations concerning commercially available spreadable formulations comprising lanolin).
- Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.
- Information and introductory article on wrongdianosis.com. Retrieved from http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/x/xeroderma/intro.htm.
- Entry on medterms.com
- Overview of Lanolin Basics at www.lanicare.com/lanolin.html
- Lee, Doctor. "Dry Skin Prevention". Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Overview of Important Lanolin Facts and History www.lanicare.com/history.html
- External Site Offering Formulated Lanolin Products www.lanicare.com
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