Dryopteridaceae

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Dryopteridaceae
Dryopteris carthusiana.jpg
Dryopteris carthusiana
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida/Pteridopsida
(disputed)
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Polypodiineae
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Herter 1949 (nom. cons.)
Subfamilies

The Dryopteridaceae are a family of leptosporangiate ferns in the order Polypodiales. They are known colloquially as the wood ferns. They comprise about 1700 species and have a cosmopolitan distribution. They may be terrestrial, epipetric, hemiepiphytic, or epiphytic. Many are cultivated as ornamental plants.[2] The largest genera are Elaphoglossum (600), Polystichum (260), Dryopteris (225), and Ctenitis (150). These four genera contain about 70% of the species.[3] Dryopteridaceae diverged from the other families in eupolypods I about 100 million years ago.[4]

Description[edit]

The rhizomes are often stout, creeping, ascending, or erect, and sometimes scandent or climbing, with nonclathrate scales at apices. Fronds are usually monomorphic, less often dimorphic, or sometimes scaly or glandular, but less commonly hairy. Petioles have numerous round, vascular bundles arranged in a ring, or rarely as few as three; the adaxial bundles are largest. Veins are pinnate or forking, free to variously anastomosing; the areoles occur with or without included veinlets; sori are usually round, acrostichoid (covering the entire abaxial surface of the lamina) in a few lineages; usually indusiate, or sometimes exindusiate. Indusia, when present, are round-reniform or peltate. Sporangia have three-rowed, short to long stalks; spores arereniform, monolete, perine or winged.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

History[edit]

In 1990, Karl U. Kramer and coauthors defined the Dryopteridaceae broadly to include the present family, as well as the Woodsiaceae sensu lato, Onocleaceae, and most of Tectariaceae.[5] Molecular phylogenetic studies found Kramer's version of the Dryopteridaceae to be polyphyletic, and it was split up by Smith and others in 2006.[3] The inclusion of Didymochlaena, Hypodematium, and Leucostegia in the Dryopteridaceae is doubtful. If these three are excluded, then the family is strongly supported as monophyletic in cladistic analyses.[6] Some authors have already treated these genera as outside of the Dryopteridaceae.[1]

Nothoperanema is now included in Dryopteris. In 2007, a phylogenetic study of DNA sequences showed that Pleocnemia should be transferred from the Tectariaceae to the Dryopteridaceae.[7] In 2010, in a paper on bolbitidoid ferns, Arthrobotrya was resurrected from Teratophyllum.[8] Later that year, Mickelia was described as a new genus.[9]

Some species have been removed from the genus Oenotrichia because they do not belong there or even in the family Dennstaedtiaceae where Oenotrichia sensu stricto is placed. These species probably belong in the Dryopteridaceae, but have not yet been given a generic name.[6]

In 2012, a phylogenetic study of Dryopteris and its relatives included Acrophorus, Acrorumohra, Diacalpe, Dryopsis, Nothoperanema, and Peranema within that genus.[10] The Flora of China treatment of the family, published in 2013, used phylogenetic results to sink Lithostegia and Phanerophlebiopsis into Arachniodes.[11]

The Dryopteridaceae Herter, under the classification system of Christenhusz and Chase (2014), are submerged as subfamily Dryopteridoideae Link, one of eight subfamilies constituting family Polypodiaceae. This family corresponds to the clade Eupolypods I.[12]

Subdivision[edit]

The following table shows the currently accepted Dryopteridaceae generic names and the corresponding synonyms.

Accepted generic names[3] Synonyms[13][14]
Arachniodes Blume 1828
Arthrobotrya J.Sm. 1875
Bolbitis Schott 1834
  • Anapausia C. Presl
  • Campium C. Presl
  • Cyrtogonium J.Sm.
  • Edanyoa Copel.
  • Egenolfia Schott 1836
  • Heteroneurum C.Presl
  • Jenkinsia Hook.
  • Poecilopteris C.Presl
Ctenitis (C.Chr.) C.Chr. 1938
  • Atalopteris Maxon & C. Chr.
  • Ataxipteris Holttum 1984
Cyclodium C.Presl 1836
Cyrtomium C.Presl 1836
  • Amblia C. Presl
  • Cyrtogonellum Ching 1938
  • Cyrtomidictyum Ching 1940
Dryopolystichum Copel. 1947
Dryopteris Adans. 1763
  • Acrophorus C. Presl 1836[10]
  • Acrorumohra (H.Itô) H.Itô 1938[10]
  • Arthrobotrys (C.Presl) Lindl. 1846
  • Diacalpe Blume 1828
  • Dichasium (A.Braun) Fée 1852
  • Diclisodon T.Moore 1857
  • Dryopsis Holttum & P.J.Edwards 1986[10]
  • Filix Ség. 1754
  • Filix-mas Hill ex Farw. 1931
  • Lophodium Newman 1851
  • Nephrodium Marthe ex Michx. 1803
  • Nothoperanema (Tagawa) Ching 1966[10] – Island Lacefern[15]
  • Peranema D.Don 1825[10]
  • Pteris Gled. ex Scop. 1753
  • Pycnopteris T. Moore 1855
  • Revwattsia D.L.Jones 1998
  • Sphaeropteris R.Br. ex Wall. 1830 (non Bernh. 1801)[10]
  • Stenolepia Alderw. 1909
Elaphoglossum Schott ex J. Sm. 1842
  • Aconiopteris C.Presl 1836
  • Dictyoglossum J.Sm. 1846
  • Hymenodium Fée 1845
  • Microstaphyla C.Presl 1851
  • Peltapteris Link 1841
  • Rhipidopteris Schott ex Fée 1845
Lastreopsis Ching 1938
  • Coveniella M.D.Tindale 1986
Lomagramma J.Sm. 1841
  • Cheiloepton Fée 1845
Maxonia C.Chr. 1916
Megalastrum Holttum 1986
Mickelia R.C.Moran, Labiak & Sundue 2010
Olfersia Raddi 1819
  • Dorcapteris C.Presl 1851
Parapolystichum (Keyserl.) Ching 1940
Phanerophlebia C. Presl 1836
Pleocnemia C.Presl 1836
Polybotrya Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. 1810
  • Soromanes Fée 1845
Polystichopsis (J.Sm.) Holttum 1947
Polystichum Roth 1800
  • Acropelta T.Nakai 1953
  • Adenoderris J.Sm. 1875
  • Aetopteron Ehrh. ex House 1920
  • Hemesteum H.Lév. 1915
  • Hypopeltis Michx. 1803
  • Papuapteris C. Chr. 1937
  • Plecosorus Fée 1852
  • Sorolepidium Christ 1911
Rumohra Raddi 1819
Stigmatopteris C.Chr. 1909
Teratophyllum Mett. ex Kuhn 1870
Trichoneuron Ching 1965[16]
Wessiea Pigg & Rothwell 2001 (extinct)

Didymochlaena has been removed to Didymochlaenaceae, and Hypodematium and Leucostegia to Hypodematiaceae. Aenigmopteris has been suggested to belong to this family, rather than Tectariaceae, on the grounds of its morphological similarity to Ctenitis, but has not yet been studied in a molecular phylogeny.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Schneider, Harald (18 February 2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54. ISSN 1179-3163. 
  2. ^ Sue Olsen. 2007. Encyclopedia of Garden Ferns Timber Press: Portland, OR, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-819-8
  3. ^ a b c d Smith et al., 2006 Archived February 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Alan R. Smith, Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Petra Korall, Harald Schneider & Paul G. Wolf: "A classification for extant ferns," Taxon, 55(3): 705–731 (Aug 2006)
  4. ^ Eric Schuettpelz and Kathleen M. Pryer. 2009. "Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(27):11200-11205. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811136106
  5. ^ Karl U. Kramer (with Richard E. Holttum, Robin C. Moran, and Alan R. Smith). 1990. "Dryopteridaceae". pages ??. In: Klaus Kubitzki (general editor); Karl U. Kramer and Peter S. Green (volume editors) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume I. Springer-Verlag: Berlin;Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-0-387-51794-0
  6. ^ a b Alan R. Smith, Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Petra Korall, Harald Schneider, and Paul G. Wolf. 2008. "Dryopteridaceae". pages ??. In: "Fern Classification". pages 417-467. In: Tom A. Ranker and Christopher H. Haufler (editors). Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87411-3
  7. ^ Hong-Mei Liu, Xian-Chun Zhang, Wei Wang, Yin-Long Qiu, and Zhi-Duan Chen. 2007. "Molecular Phylogeny of the Fern Family Dryopteridaceae inferred from Chloroplast rbcL and atpB genes". International Journal of Plant Sciences 168(9):1311-1323. doi:10.1086/521710
  8. ^ Robbin C. Moran, Paulo H. Labiak, and Michael Sundue. 2010. "Phylogeny and character evolution of the bolbitidoid ferns (Dryopteridaceae)". International Journal of Plant Sciences 171(5):547-559. doi:10.1086/652191
  9. ^ Robbin C. Moran, Paulo H. Labiak, and Michael Sundue. 2010. "Synopsis of Mickelia, a newly recognized genus of bolbitidoid ferns (Dryopteridaceae)". Brittonia 62(4):337-356.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Li-Bing Zhang, Liang Zhang, Shi-Yong Dong, and Atsushi Ebihara. 2012. "Molecular circumscription and major evolutionary lineages of the fern genus Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae)". BMC Evolutionary Biology 12(1):180
  11. ^ a b c d e He H, Wu SG, Xiang JY, Barrington DS (2013) "Arachniodes". In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (eds) Flora of China, vol 2–3.
  12. ^ Christenhusz & Chase 2014.
  13. ^ Family:Dryopteridaceae USDA-ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) 25 Jan 2012
  14. ^ Dryopteridaceae Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 25 Jan 2012
  15. ^ "Nothoperanema". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  16. ^ Hong-Mei Liu, Xian-Chun Zhang, Mei-Ping Wang, Hui Shang, Shi-Liang Zhou, Yue-Hong Yan, Xue-Ping Wei, Wen-Bin Xu, Harald Schneider. 2016. "Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic fern genus Trichoneuron informs on the infra-familial relationship of Dryopteridaceae". Plant Systematics and Evolution 302:319–332


Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]