Du Wenxiu

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Du Wenxiu's headquarters in Dali, Yunnan; now the Dali City Museum
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Du.
Du Wenxiu
Chinese 杜文秀
Alternative Chinese name

Du Wenxiu (Chinese: 杜文秀; pinyin: Dù Wénxiù; Wade–Giles: Tu Wen-hsiu) (1823–1872) was the Chinese Muslim leader of the Panthay Rebellion, an anti-Qing revolt in China during the Qing dynasty. Du had Han Chinese ancestry.[1][2] Born in Yongchang (now Baoshan, Yunnan), Du Wenxiu was the son of a Han Chinese who converted to Islam. His original name was Yang Xiu.[citation needed] He styled himself "Sultan of Dali" and reigned for 16 years before Qing troops under Cen Yuying beheaded him after he swallowed a ball of opium.[3][4][5][6][7] His body is entombed in Xiadui.[8]

The rebellion started after massacres of Hui perpetrated by the Manchu authorities.[9] Du used anti-Manchu rhetoric in his rebellion against the Qing, calling for Han to join the Hui to overthrow the Manchu Qing after 200 years of their rule.[10][11] Du invited the fellow Hui Muslim leader Ma Rulong to join him in driving the Manchu Qing out and "recover China".[12]For his war against Manchu "oppresion", Du "became a Muslim hero", while Ma Rulong defected to the Qing.[13] On multiple occasions Kunming was attacked and sacked by Du Wenxiu's forces.[14][15]

In Kunming, there was a slaughter of 3,000 Muslims on the instigation of the judicial commissioner, who was a Manchu, in 1856. De Wenxiu was of Han Chinese origin despite being a Muslim and he led both Hui Muslims and Han Chinese in his civil and military bureaucracy. Du Wenxiu was fought against by another Muslim leader, the defector to the Qing Ma Rulong. The Muslim scholar Ma Dexin, who said that Neo-Confucianism was reconcilable with Islam, approved of Ma Rulong defecting to the Qing and he also assisted other Muslims in defecting.[16]

Tribal pagan animism, Confucianism, and Islam were all legalized and "honoured" with a "Chinese-style bureaucracy" in Du Wenxiu's Sultanate. A third of the Sultanate's military posts were filled with Han Chinese, who also filled the majority of civil posts.[17]

His capital was Dali.[18] The revolt ended in 1873.[19] Du Wenxiu is regarded as a hero by the present day government of China.[20]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989 (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 64. ISBN 0415214734. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis Crispin, eds. (1980). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0521220297. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Thant Myint-U. (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma. Macmillan. ISBN 0-374-16342-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Myint-U, Thant (2007). The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma. Macmillan. p. 145. ISBN 0374707901. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Myint-U, Thant (2012). Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0374533520. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  6. ^ White, Matthew (2011). Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 298. ISBN 0393081923. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  7. ^ Cooke, Tim, ed. (2010). The New Cultural Atlas of China. Contributor Marshall Cavendish Corporation. Marshall Cavendish. p. 38. ISBN 0761478752. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  8. ^ Asian Research Trends, Volumes 3-4. Contributor Yunesuko Higashi Ajia Bunka Kenkyū Sentā (Tokyo, Japan). Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies. 1993. p. 136. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  9. ^ Schoppa, R. Keith (2008). East Asia: identities and change in the modern world, 1700-present (illustrated ed.). Pearson/Prentice Hall. p. 58. ISBN 0132431467. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Dillon, Michael (1999). China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects. Curzon Press. p. 59. ISBN 0700710264. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Dillon, Michael (2012). China: A Modern History (reprint ed.). I.B.Tauris. p. 90. ISBN 1780763816. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Atwill, David G. (2005). The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856-1873 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0804751595. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  13. ^ Asian Research Trends, Volumes 3-4. Contributor Yunesuko Higashi Ajia Bunka Kenkyū Sentā (Tokyo, Japan). Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies. 1993. p. 137. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  14. ^ Mansfield, Stephen (2007). China, Yunnan Province. Compiled by Martin Walters (illustrated ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 69. ISBN 1841621692. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  15. ^ China's Southwest. Regional Guide Series. Contributor Damian Harper (illustrated ed.). Lonely Planet. 2007. p. 223. ISBN 1741041856. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  16. ^ John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Late Chʻing, 1800-1911, pt. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-521-22029-3. 
  17. ^ John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Late Chʻing, 1800-1911, pt. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214–. ISBN 978-0-521-22029-3. 
  18. ^ Giersch, Charles Patterson (2006). Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 217. ISBN 0674021711. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  19. ^ Mosk, Carl (2011). Traps Embraced Or Escaped: Elites in the Economic Development of Modern Japan and China. World Scientific. p. 62. ISBN 9814287520. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  20. ^ Comparative Civilizations Review, Issues 32-34. 1995. p. 36. Retrieved 24 April 2014.