A dual-clutch transmission, (DCT) (sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch transmission or double-clutch transmission), is a type of automatic transmission or automated automotive transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets. It can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions (with their respective clutches) contained within one housing, and working as one unit. They are usually operated in a fully automatic mode, and many also have the ability to allow the driver to manually shift gears in semi-automatic mode, albeit still carried out by the transmission's electro-hydraulics.
- 1 History
- 2 Overview
- 3 Suppliers
- 4 Applications
- 4.1 Volkswagen Group
- 4.2 Lamborghini (VW GROUP)
- 4.3 Kia
- 4.4 BMW
- 4.5 BYD
- 4.6 Daimler AG
- 4.7 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
- 4.8 Ford Motor Company
- 4.9 General Motors
- 4.10 Honda
- 4.11 Hyundai
- 4.12 John Deere
- 4.13 Lotus
- 4.14 McLaren Automotive
- 4.15 Mitsubishi
- 4.16 Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation
- 4.17 Nissan
- 4.18 PSA Peugeot Citroën
- 4.19 Porsche (VW GROUP)
- 4.20 Qoros
- 4.21 Renault
- 5 Railcar use
- 6 References
This type of transmission was invented by Frenchman Adolphe Kégresse just before World War II but he never developed a working model. The first development of the Twin Clutch or Dual-clutch transmission started in the early part of 1980 under the guidance of Harry Webster at Automotive Products (AP), Leamington Spa with prototypes built into the Ford Fiesta Mk1, Ford Ranger & Peugeot 205. Initially, the control systems were based on purely analogue/discrete digital circuitry with patents filed in July 1981. All of these early AP Twin Clutch installations featured a single dry clutch and multi-plate wet clutch. Following discussions with VW/Porsche, DCT work continued from Porsche in-house development, for Audi and Porsche racing cars later in the 1980s, when computers to control the transmission became compact enough: the Porsche Doppelkupplungsgetriebe (English: dual-clutch gearbox) (PDK) used in the Porsche 956 and 962 Le Mans race cars from 1983, and the Audi Sport Quattro S1 rally car.
A dual-clutch transmission eliminates the torque converter as used in conventional epicyclic-geared automatic transmissions. Instead, dual-clutch transmissions that are currently on the market primarily use two oil-bathed wet multi-plate clutches, similar to the clutches used in most motorcycles, though dry clutch versions are also available.
As of 2009[update], the largest number of sales of DCTs in Western Europe are by various marques of the German Volkswagen Group, though this is anticipated to lessen as other transmission makers and vehicle manufacturers make DCTs available in series production automobiles. In 2010, on BMW Canada's website for the 3 Series Coupe, it is described both as a 7-speed double-clutch transmission and as a 7-speed automatic transmission. It is actually a dual-clutch semi-automatic.
In DCTs where the two clutches are arranged concentrically, the larger outer clutch drives the odd numbered gears, while the smaller inner clutch drives the even numbered gears. Shifts can be accomplished without interrupting torque distribution to the driven roadwheels, by applying the engine's torque to one clutch at the same time as it is being disconnected from the other clutch. Since alternate gear ratios can pre-select an odd gear on one gear shaft while the vehicle is being driven in an even gear, (and vice versa), DCTs are able to shift more quickly than cars equipped with single-clutch automated-manual transmissions (AMTs), a.k.a. single-clutch semi-automatics. Also, with a DCT, shifts can be made more smoothly than with a single-clutch AMT, making a DCT more suitable for conventional road cars.[not in citation given]
Dual-clutch transmissions use two fundamentally different types of clutches: either two wet multi-plate clutches, bathed in oil (for cooling)—or two dry single-plate clutches. The wet clutch design is generally used for higher torque engines that can generate 350 newton metres (258 lbf·ft) and more (the wet multi-plate clutch DCT in the Bugatti Veyron is designed to cope with 1,250 N·m (922 lbf·ft)), whereas the dry clutch design is generally suitable for smaller vehicles with lower torque outputs up to 250 N·m (184 lbf·ft). However, while the dry clutch variants may be limited in torque compared to their wet clutch counterparts, the dry clutch variants offer an increase in fuel efficiency, due to the lack of pumping losses of the transmission fluid in the clutch housing.
There are now three variations of clutch installation. The original design used a concentric arrangement, where both clutches shared the same plane when viewed perpendicularly from the transmission input shaft, along the same centre line as the engine crankshaft; when viewed head-on along the length of the input shaft, this makes one clutch noticeably larger than the other.
The second implementation uses two single-plate dry clutches—side-by-side from the perpendicular view, but again sharing the centre line of the crankshaft.
A later variation uses two separate but identical size clutches. These are arranged side-by-side when viewed head-on (along the length of the input shaft and crankshaft centre line), and also share the same plane when viewed perpendicularly. This latter clutch arrangement (unlike the other two variations) is driven via a gear from the engine crankshaft.
BorgWarner Inc. supplies wet dual clutches and electro-hydraulic control modules (mechatronics) for these dual-clutch transmissions, along with complete dual-clutch transmission and transaxle assemblies. BorgWarner, who call their technology "DualTronic", entered series production (excludes Bugatti Veyron) for Volkswagen Group, who renamed Direct-Shift Gearbox (DSG) in 2003 in the Volkswagen Golf Mk4 R32. The company signed further agreements with three other (unnamed) European automotive manufacturers to incorporate their components in DCTs.
On 14 January 2009, BorgWarner announced a joint venture with the China Automobile Development United Investment Co., Ltd. (CDUI), which is owned by twelve Chinese automakers. This joint venture is known as the BorgWarner United Transmission Systems Co., Ltd., and is located in Dalian, China. The company has produced various dual-clutch transmission modules beginning in 2011.
Fiat Powertrain Technologies
Fiat Powertrain Technologies developed a dual-clutch transmission with Magneti Marelli and BorgWarner called Euro Twin Clutch Transmission. Magneti Marelli produces the control system, which integrates BorgWarner's hydraulic actuation module into its own power and transmission control units. It can handle torque inputs of up to 350 N·m (260 lb·ft), making it the highest-torque dry clutch application. Its weight of 81 kg (179 lb), including oil and transmission control unit, its three-shaft architecture, especially axially, means it can be installed in several types of B- and C-segment vehicles.
FEV developed a DCT with an integrated Electric Motor, providing hybrid capability. The 7H AMT Transmission provides 7 forward speeds with multiple usage of gears (the electric drive can use unused gears from the combustion engine path): this aims to substantially reduce the complexity of the unit as well as the package size and weight. Another spin-off from this design was the FEV xDCT that provides 10 forward speeds but with the mechanical complexity of a standard 6 speed DCT.
Getrag has developed a range of DCT transaxles, including 7DCL750, a seven-speed transaxle for mid-engine longitudinal applications, capable of taking more than 750 N·m (553 lbf·ft). Getrag will provide its DCT in its first commercial applications, for the Dodge Journey and Volvo S40 and V50, from mid-2008. Getrag has developed the 6DCT250 dry clutch DCT for use in front wheel drive transverse applications. With use of electro-mechanical actuation, rather than electro-hydraulic, the 6DCT250 transmission surpasses the conventional manual transmission in fuel consumption and CO2 emission.
In the 2nd quarter of 2008, Getrag had signed an agreement with Chrysler to supply its PowerShift DCTs for use in American markets. However, due to the global economic downturn, this was subsequently cancelled.
Getrag dual-clutch transmissions are used in the BMW M3, BMW 335is, BMW Z4 Sdrive35i, Ferrari California, Ferrari 458 Italia,LaFerrari, Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG, Mercedes-Benz CLA, Mercedes-Benz GLA, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X, Mitsubishi Lancer Ralliart, Ford Fiesta, Ford Focus, Renault Megane, Renault Scenic, smart fortwo, Volvo V40, Volvo V60 Volvo V70 vehicles.
Italian specialist Oerlikon Graziano was in the process of developing a wet clutch DCT for original equipment manufacturer (OEM) fitment into supercars. They planned to have it in production by 2010. Their DCT is aiming to have a torque handling capacity of 750 N·m (553 lbf·ft), and they are also aiming to improve shift quality over their current automated manual transmissions (AMTs). As of 2011, they supplied the 7-speed DCT for McLaren's MP4-12C supercar with a shifting time of 50ms.
LuK Clutch Systems, LLC. designed and manufacture the dual dry single plate clutch system for the Volkswagen Group seven-speed DQ200 Direct-Shift Gearbox (DSG) introduced in 2008. This DSG variant is used in smaller cars, with smaller displacement engines with relatively low torque outputs. LuK are naming their technology "XSG" for their overview of automated shift gearbox systems, and "Parallel Shift Gearbox" (PSG) for its own proprietary DCT.
English specialist consulting engineering company Ricardo plc designed and built the Bugatti Veyron's seven-speed dual wet multi-plate dual-clutch transmission, specifically to cope with the 1,250 N·m (922 lbf·ft) of torque generated by W16 engine.
ZF Friedrichshafen AG, with Porsche, designed and now build the two different variants of the Porsche Doppelkupplungsgetriebe (PDK) seven-speed '7DT' dual wet multi-plate clutch transmission.
Volkswagen Group produces, so far, the fastest DCTs in the world (8ms) under the Direct-Shift Gearbox (DSG) name, from the German: Direkt-Schalt-Getriebe. It is used in all of their mainstream marques, including Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, SEAT, Škoda, and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, and also its top-tier marque Bugatti. Audi originally used the Direct-Shift Gearbox (DSG) name, but now uses the name "S tronic" for its DCTs.
The first ever worldwide series production DCT was the Volkswagen Group DQ250 six-speed dual-clutch transmission, with dual concentric wet multi-plate clutches. It was produced at the Group's Kassel plant under exclusive license from Borg-Warner for use in transverse powertrain installations, of either front-wheel drive or four-wheel drive (4WD) layouts. The 4WD versions are fundamentally identical to the 2WD versions, but the 4WD versions use an additional bolt-on power take-off unit to direct engine torque to the Haldex Traction rear axle. This DQ250 variant is used in a wide range of models: Volkswagen Passenger Cars (Polo, Golf/Rabbit/Golf Plus, Scirocco, Jetta, Eos, Passat and Touran); Audi cars (A3, and TT); SEAT cars (Ibiza, León, Altea and Toledo); Škoda cars (Octavia and Superb); and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles (Caddy and T5 Transporter).
A second variant of the Direct-Shift Gearbox went into series production in 2008—the DQ200. This unit has seven forward ratios, but the notable difference over the original DQ250 is the change from wet to dry clutches. This variant uses two single-plate dry clutches, arranged in a tandem design (instead of concentrically) and therefore similar in size. The DQ200 is again for use in transverse applications, but is intended for use in smaller cars, with smaller displacement engines that generate relatively low torque outputs. When used in the latest Golf with the 90 kilowatts (122 PS; 121 hp) engine, this new 7-speed DSG uses roughly 6% (5.9l/100 km for the 7-speed DSG compared to 6.3l/100 km with the 6-speed manual gearbox) less fuel than the same engine with a manual transmission and up to 20% less than a conventional automatic transmission. The original DQ250 also remains available.
Volkswagen Group subsidiary Audi AG have also developed an all-new DCT—the DL501, for use in longitudinal powertrains. Like the original transverse DQ250, this DL501 utilises dual wet multi-plate clutches, but unlike the DQ250, this variant uses seven forward ratios. This DL501 variant made its debut in the Q5, and also is used in the latest versions of the A4 (B8) and S4 (B8). It is also being considered for use in an all new A6.
The Lamborghini Huracan uses a double clutch ‘Lamborghini Doppia Frizione' (LDF) transmission, while the Aventador uses a robotized manual. After the facelift in 2012, the Audi R8 uses a seven-speed S tronic.
Lamborghini (VW GROUP)
Lamborghini's first dual clutch transmission is available in the Lamborghini Huracán Lp610-4(2014/2015–present). The name of the transmission is 7-speed LDF Dual Clutch "Doppia Frizione" with shift characteristics variable via Drive Select Mode and All-wheel drive with electrohydraulic multi-plate clutch.
The car has three modes changed using the steering-wheel-mounted “ANIMA,” or mode selector. The three modes are strada, sport, and corsa, each with faster shifts. Launch control raises the rpm to 4200 rpm before dropping the clutch. The Huracán upshifts automatically at redline, but not before running into the limiter for a fraction of a second. Using the paddles to call for earlier shifts knocks a tenth to two tenths off the figures.
Kia Motors has developed a new seven-speed dual-clutch automatic transmission (dry clutch) as a replacement for its current six-speed automatic. The new transmission will start appearing in global Kia models in 2015, with U.S. models receiving it after 2015—though Kia did not specify which models would get it first.
Compared to the six-speed DCT currently used in the Europe market Cee'd models, the new transmission is expected to deliver a fuel-economy improvement of seven percent and a five-percent improvement in 0–62 mph acceleration times. Like most new DCTs, the new transmission features dual dry clutches and two input shafts, allowing for seamless torque delivery between shifts as well as gear-jumping to the optimal ratio, should the driver ask for it. If that was to apply to the current Forte sedan/Cerato/K3 and ProCee'd GT, with its 173-hp 2.0L Inline-4 NU GDI Engine and 204-hp 1.6L Inline-4 Gamma T-GDI Turbo Engine, for example, that would raise its fuel economy from 24 mpg city/36 highway to about 26/39 while bringing its 7.4-second 0–60 run to about seven seconds flat. Kia claims it is 7 percent more efficient than the six-speed, while improving acceleration times by 5 percent.
NVH(Noise, vibration, and harshness) has also been a key focus for the team behind the DCT’s development, with an external damper ensuring a high level of refinement for the new transmission of Kia.
In January 2008, BMW introduced a dual-clutch transmission for their M3 model, manufactured by GETRAG, embedding a DualTronic dual-clutch module from BorgWarner, and dubbed "M double-clutch transmission" (M DCT ). The same transmission is used in the second generation Z4 (the Sdrive35i and sDrive35is versions), and is an available option on the 335i (coupe, convertible), 335is and later 135i builds.
The Mercedes SLS AMG use a Getrag AMG 'SpeedShift' seven-speed dual-clutch gearbox, mounted at the rear in a transaxle configuration, and connected to the engine via a carbon fibre driveshaft enclosed in an aluminium torque tube. According to Mercedes-Benz, it is capable of gear changes in as little as 100 ms. The SLS and the Ferrari California share the same DCT unit.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Powertrain Technologies (FPT) started production of "TCT" Dual Dry Clutch Transmission (DDCT) in early 2010 at the Verrone plant. The C635 DDCT gearbox is used for B (supermini), C (compact car), and D segment (large family car) cars, and can handle torque up to 350 N·m (258 lbf·ft). Fiat's C635 DDCT gearbox was introduced in Alfa Romeo MiTo in 2011.
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company released a wet clutch "PowerShift" transmission on the 2008 Ford Focus (international) and Ford C-MAX. This wet clutch DCT was designed with gearbox specialist Getrag under the GETRAG FORD Transmissions joint venture, founded in 2001, and is expected to feature in other Ford and Volvo models.
Ford announced the US-market version of the Mark VI Ford Fiesta for 2011 featured a dry clutch PowerShift transmission. Ford also announced the introduction of PowerShift transmission to North American market by 2010.
The Volvo version will be built in Koping, Sweden at Volvo's transmission plant. The PowerShift gearbox will be introduced on the second generation Volvo S60, and then on to the V50 and C30 models. The XC60 is expected to get this Ford PowerShift gearbox along with other new models to make more sporty cars.
In the company's restructuring plan, it revealed that dry dual-clutch transmission would be available in 2012 calendar year. The GM's dual-clutch gearbox will be introduced on the GMC Granite. The new front-wheel drive transmission will incorporate the latest innovations for improving fuel economy and performance. The transmission alone will provide upward of 10 percent improvement in fuel economy over today’s conventional six-speed automatic transmissions. The co-developed transmission between GM and SAIC features dry, dual-clutch technology. It provides shift comfort equal to a conventional fully automatic transmission, with superior quality, while reducing CO2 emissions.
In October 2009, Honda launched the VFR1200F, a motorcycle with a 1,237 cc (75.5 cu in) V4 engine and optional DCT dubbed the Next Generation Transmission. In May 2009, Honda CEO Takeo Fukui mentioned that Honda was working on a new dual-clutch transmission system that could be matched with future hybrids.
2013 Honda introduced the CTX700DCT, a 670 cc dual clutch motorcycle selling as a 2014 model. 
2015 Honda announced the 2016 CRF1000L Africa Twin would be available in both DCT and standard transmissions
Honda introduced the Acura RLX Hybrid, Honda Fit Hybrid, Acura TLX and ILX with dual clutch transmissions. For 2014/2015 vehicles equipped with 1.5L Atkinson cycle engines, Honda prepared new DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission), this has 7 gears and integrated electric motor over the first gear, which itself is a planetary reduction gear for the 3rd gear. The complete transmission is very compact, as the dual clutch assembly takes about 30% of the total volume of the 7-speed transmission.
John Deere Tractors introduced DirectDrive in 2012 in agricol tractors.
Lotus Cars has submitted a patent application for a lighter, simpler and more compact dual-clutch transmission system. The gearbox shown in the application is an eight-speed unit, with seven forward gears and reverse.
McLaren Automotive introduced a seven speed dual clutch on MP4-12C made in Italy by Oerlikon Graziano. The design comes with a feature called Pre-Cog that lets the driver preselect the next highest or lowest gear decreasing shift times.
The Mitsubishi Motors Lancer Evolution X and Lancer Ralliart are supplied with Mitsubishi's Twin Clutch SST (abbreviated TC-SST, for "Twin Clutch Sport Shift Transmission" or "Twin Clutch Sportronic Shift Transmission") dual-clutch transmission, controllable by steering wheel mounted magnesium paddle shifters. It is the Getrag-built, PowerShift 6DCT470 transmission in the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution.
Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation
The Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation presented a world first with a double-clutch transmission for commercial vehicles. The new six-speed M038S6 "Duonic transmission" features wet clutches and incorporates the ability to creep in traffic for smoother operation. Although Duonic-equipped trucks will probably be driven mostly in fully automatic mode, the transmission can also be manually shifted.
The Nissan GT-R's rear transaxle six-speed dual-clutch transmission also contains the differential for the car's all-wheel drive (AWD) system. Much of the dual-clutch system was engineered by BorgWarner, partnered with Nissan's gearbox supplier Aichi Machine Industry, and weighs a total installed mass of 117 kg (258 lb). Code named the GR6, the transmission is quite durable in that it is able to hold in excess of 600 lb·ft (810 N·m) of torque. Nissan reports shift times of 150 milliseconds.
PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA has dual-clutch transmission in Peugeot 4007 and Citroën C-Crosser SUVs, both based on the Mitsubishi Outlander and produced by Getrag. However, dual-clutch transmissions are never offered in other models.
Porsche (VW GROUP)
Porsche AG offers a series production of two new longitudinally installed, ZF Friedrichshafen AG designed and built with Porsche "7DT" wet-clutch versions of its previously race-only Porsche Doppelkupplungsgetriebe (PDK) transmission.
The first variant, the 7DT-45, is used on its 2009 997 Carrera and Carrera S models. This version is also offered on the 2009 Cayman, Boxster It uses a ZF Sachs ND2015 clutch pack, and has a torque handling capacity of 500 N·m (369 lbf·ft). A higher torque version of the same transmission, the 7DT-70, is also available for the 2010 911 Turbo. This is rated at 780 N·m (575 lbf·ft), and uses a different ZF Sachs clutch—the ND2216.
The second PDK variant, the 7DT-75, is available on the 2009 Panamera. This is constructed fundamentally differently from the 7DT-45/7DT-70 versions; in that the internal shafts are mounted above the input shaft, so as to achieve a lower centre of gravity for the Panamera. It also uses just one oil circuit, whereas the 7DT-45/7DT-70 use two separate circuits; with very different specifications of fluids needed.
Both variants use seven forward speeds, and Porsche claim the Doppelkupplung PDK transmission will replace the outgoing conventional Tiptronic automatic transmissions. However, other reliable industry sources state that Porsche still intends to use conventional automatics; with the eight-speed ZF 8HP being cited. Like all DCTs, the Porsche PDK transmission is fundamentally two separate manual transmissions in one. With the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th gears and reverse available on one shaft, and 2nd, 4th, and 6th gears available on the other shaft.
Porsche claims noteworthy improvements in CO2 emissions of around 15% when comparing DCT installations against its former automatic transmission, of which half can be directly attributed to the DCT. When compared directly with a manual transmission, 16% improvement can be directly attributed to the DCT.
Getrag received the first order for its dual clutch transmission 6DCT250 from Qoros Automotive Co., Ltd, an independent JV carmaker in China. Attributes of the transmission include easy shifting, reduced fuel consumption compared to conventional automatic transmissions, and flexibility and functionality in hybrid applications. Start of production is planned for 2013 in the Getrag plant Nanchang. In addition to the six speed manual transmissions Getrag will supply to Qoros, the dual clutch transmission 6DCT250 will be applied to the first car under Qoros brand, which will meet all European standards and be exported to western European markets.
In the early part of 2010 Renault introduced a new six-speed dual dry clutch DCT. This is available on the Mégane with the dCi 110 DPF engine. The DCT system was built by Getrag. These DCT-equipped Meganes are the marque's first automatic cars to qualify for the Renault eco² signature.[clarification needed] Since 2012 facelift, Renault Mégane is the first French automobile with dual-clutch transmission.
A different type of dual-clutch transmission has been used in some railcars. The two clutches are placed one on the gearbox input shaft and the other on the gearbox output shaft. To make a gear change, both clutches disengage simultaneously and a brake inside the gearbox engages. The gearchange occurs with all gears stationary, so no synchronizing mechanism is needed. After the gear change, both clutches re-engage. There is a significant break in power transmission, so this system is unsuitable for shunting locomotives.
- "Powertrain — transmissions: Shift in power to the gearbox" (PDF). AMS (UnofficialBMW.com). September–October 2003. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Automatic-shifting dual-clutch transmissions are poised to grab share from traditional transmissions thanks to their combination of efficiency and convenience" (PDF). AEI-online.org (DCTfacts.com). June 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK)". Porsche.com. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Patent GB2101243 - Control system for a vehicle automatic gearbox". Espacenet.com. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- "Dual clutches take the lead". Eureka Magazine. Findlay Media Ltd. 13 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "The Porsche Transmission". Lüfteknic.com. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Wet Clutch or Dry Clutch?". DCTfacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "Volkswagen DSG — World's first dual-clutch gearbox in a production car". Volkswagen-Media-Services.com (Press release). Volkswagen AG. 22 November 2002. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "The 7-speed DSG — the intelligent automatic gearbox from Volkswagen". VolkswagenAG.com. Volkswagen AG. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "Volkswagen Group extends reach of dual clutch transmissions". DCTfacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
Some 311,000 light vehicles were produced in Western Europe with dual-clutch transmissions in 2008, according to data from JD Power; of these, the overwhelming majority were Volkswagen Group models.[dead link] Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "DCTfactsVWAG" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Dual-Clutch technology voted Transmission of The Future at CTI Symposium". TheAutoChannel.com. Gordon Communications. 11 March 2009. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- Interone Worldwide GmbH (2008-06-17). "BMW 3 Series Coupé — Highlights | BMW Canada". Bmw.ca. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- Interone Worldwide GmbH (2008-06-17). "BMW 3 Series Coupé : 7-Speed Double Clutch Transmission". Bmw.ca. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- "How dual-clutch transmissions work". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "BorgWarner — Our History". BorgWarner.com. BorgWarner Inc. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- "Dual-clutch gearbox production rapidly expanding" (PDF). BorgWarner.com. Ward's Engine & Vehicle Technology Update. 1 February 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "BorgWarner announces Joint Venture with 12 Chinese OEMs to produce Dual Clutch Transmission Modules" (PDF) (Press release). BorgWarner. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- Sutton, Mike. "BorgWarner Refining DCT Technology". Wardsautoworld.com. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- "BorgWarner to Contribute to Fiat Powertrain Technologies' First Dry Dual-Clutch Transmission". bwauto.com. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
- "Fiat Reveals Its Dual Clutch Transmission". DCTfacts.com. DCTfacts.com. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Future Automatic Transmission Requirements" (PDF).
- "Dual clutch transmissions (DCTs)". GETRAG.de. GETRAG Corporate Group. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "GETRAG Powershift 7DCL750 transmission". GETRAG.de. GETRAG Corporate Group. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- Lewin, Tony (17 September 2007). "Getrag's dual-clutch transmissions to take off". Automotive News Europe. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "GETRAG Powershift 6DCT250 transmission". GETRAG.de. GETRAG Corporate Group. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "Chrysler deal with Getrag reportedly dead". AutoBlog.com. Weblogs, Inc. 19 October 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Chrysler investigated after collapse of Getrag deal". AutoWeek.com. Crain Communications, Inc. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Bosch and Getrag have agreed to work together on hybrid systems". Bosch.co.uk — press forum. Robert Bosch GmbH. 5 June 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Robinson, Peter (2008-07-28). "Getrag Jumps Into DCT Fray With High-Performance Applications". Subscribers.wardsauto.com. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- Pund, Daniel (2008-11-06). "2009 Ferrari California First Drive on Inside Line". Insideline.com. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- "2010 Ferrari 458 Italia First Drive". Insideline.com. 2009-11-10. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- **TIME AGO**. "2011 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Gullwing — Second Drive — Auto Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- (no votes). "Renault Megane CC dual clutch transmission". Eurocarblog.com. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- "Supercar OEMs seek quick change to DCTs". Automotive Engineer, UK. October 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- English, Andrew (2011-02-14). "McLaren MP4-12C review". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "LuK dual dry clutch 7-speed DSG gearbox in volume production at Volkswagen (Group)". LuKclutch.com. Schaeffler Group USA Inc., BÜHL, GERMANY. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2009.[dead link]
- "LuK XSG range". LuK.com. LuK GmbH & Co. oHG. 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- "LuK PSG Components". LuK.com. LuK GmbH & Co. oHG. 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- "Ricardo Extends DCT Production for Open-top Bugatti". DCTfacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.[dead link]
- "FEATURE: ZF's new 7DT 'Mood-Sensing' Dual-Clutch Transmissions". Just-Auto.com. CSM Worldwide. 23 September 2009. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- "ZF in the Porsche 911 Carrera: Porsche Carrera — Versatility with sports car genetics". ZF.com. ZF Friedrichshafen AG. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "ZF 7-speed dual clutch transmission". ZF.com. ZF Friedrichshafen AG. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Top 911 moves to industry-standard shift controls". DCTfacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.[dead link]
- "Porsche Joins the DCT Set". DCTfacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. Retrieved 28 October 2009.[dead link]
- Volkswagen Service Training Manual 308 — 02E 6-speed DSG
- "Inside Audi's premium DCT". DCTfacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.[dead link]
- "2009 Audi S4 Sedan, Avant revealed ahead of Paris". Jalopnik.com. Audi AG. 23 September 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "BorgWarner dual-clutch technology shifts into high gear on BMW M3" (PDF). October 9, 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- http://autonews.gasgoo.com/china-news/production-of-new-6b-begins-at-byd-s-changsha-fact-120522.shtml Production of new 6B begins at BYD's Changsha factory
- "Mercedes-Benz SLS — road test first drive". Autocar.co.uk. Haymarket Media Group. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
- "Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG (2011)". NetCarShow.com. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
- Jeremy Clarkson "The Italian Job" DVD (0:59:19 - 0:59:31)
- "Smart Fortwo, Forfour reborn with fresh styling on new platform [w/video]".
- "Fiat TCT Dual-Clutch Gearbox Coming to U.S. First". www.edmunds.com/. Edmunds.com. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- "F149 GT revealed to be new Ferrari California". PaulTan.org. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Ferrari chooses DCT for its latest supercar". DCTfacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. Retrieved 30 October 2009.[dead link]
- "26.02.2010 FIAT POWERTRAIN'S "TCT" GEARBOX TO DEBUT ON THE ALFA MITO IN GENEVA". www.italiaspeed.com/2010. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- "Production of the new C635 family of transmissions gets under way at the FPT facility in Verrone" (PDF) (Press release). Fiat Powertrain Technologies S.p.A. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- "Ford Ford Focus 2.0 TDCi Powershift (2008-) review". 4car. Channel 4. Retrieved 28 October 2009.[dead link]
- "GETRAG FORD Transmissions". Getrag.de. GETRAG. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Driven by efficiency". EuropeanSupplyChainManagement.co.uk. Schofield Publishing Ltd. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Ford officially announces dual clutch PowerShift gearbox for 2010". AutoBlog.com. Weblogs, Inc. 21 January 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "GM Restructuring Plan Reveals CTS Coupe, Dual-Clutch Gearbox, 26 Hybrids by 2014". MotorTrend.com. Interlink Media. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
- "Detroit 2010: GMC Granite takes Professional Grade in a new direction". AutoBlog.com. Weblogs, Inc.. 11 January 2010.
- "GM and SAIC Motor Announce Powertrain Co-Development". General Motors. General Motors. 18 August 2010.
- Atlas, Steve (8 October 2009). "2010 Honda VFR1200F First Look". Motorcycle USA. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Honda developing dual clutch motorcycle transmission". HellForLeatherMagazine.com. 3 March 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Honda's Fukui says worst is over, sees 2nd-half improvement". AutoNews.com. Crain Communications, Inc. 17 May 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009. (registration required)
- "Geneva 2009: Hyundai ix-onic concept is far more enticing than its name". AutoBlog.com. Weblogs, Inc. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Mitsubishi Motors develops S-AWC vehicle dynamics control system & Twin Clutch SST automated manual transmission" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X MR: Are Shift Paddles for Wimps?". Blogs.Edmunds.com. Edmunds Inc. 2009-05-06. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "SS-T: The Magic Inside the Evo X". TheMotorReport.com.au. The Motor Report Pty. Ltd. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "First double-clutch transmission in a truck". Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "BorgWarner DCT for Nissan's GT-R". SAE.org. SAE International. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Aichi Kikai manufacturing history". AichiKikai.co.jp. Aichi Machine Industry Co.,Ltd. Retrieved 7 July 2010.[dead link]
- "Nissan GT-R" (PDF). Nissan USA. Nissan USA. January 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- "New Porsche 911 with Direct Fuel Injection and Double-Clutch Gearbox" (Press release). Porsche Cars Great Britain Ltd. / Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. 6 June 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) — 911 Carrera & 911 Targa 4 Models". Porsche.com. Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "The new 911 Turbo. Efficiency demands performance.". Porsche.com. Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- "Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) — Panamera Models". Porsche.com. Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "2009 Porsche Carrera PDK Transmission" (YouTube video interview with Porsche official). Roadfly.com/YouTube, LLC. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "First Getrag dual clutch transmission order from China". Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Renault — Dual-Clutch Transmission". Renault.com. Renault. 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009.