|Country||United Arab Emirates|
|Founded by||Ubaid bin Saeed and Maktum bin Butti Al Maktoum|
|• Type||Constitutional monarchy|
|• Emir||Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum|
|• Crown Prince||Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum|
|• Metropolis||4,114 km2 (1,588 sq mi)|
(8 October 2018)
|Time zone||UTC+4 (UAE Standard Time)|
|Nominal GDP||2016 estimate|
|Total||USD 108 billion|
|Per capita||USD 35,000|
Dubai (// doo-BY; Arabic: دبي Dubay, Gulf Arabic: Arabic pronunciation: [dʊˈbɑj]) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country.
Dubai is a global city and business hub of the Middle East. It is also a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, which was already a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, tourism, aviation, real estate, and financial services.
Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. As of 2012[update], Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Governance and politics
- 6 Human rights
- 7 Crime rate
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Economy
- 10 Cityscapes
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Culture
- 13 Education
- 14 Healthcare
- 15 Notable people
- 16 International relations
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 Further reading
- 20 External links
Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, which was similar to the souq in Ba. An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai" (Arabic: دبا دبي), meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba (Arabic: دبا) (a past tense derivative of yadub (Arabic: يدب), which means "to creep"), referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" (Arabic: جراد) due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement.
The history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, and points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but also as far afield as the Levant. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai, particularly at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE. The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, and was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze.
The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir (or Bajar). After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra (Jumeirah) found several artefacts from the Umayyad period.
The earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai (Dibei) for its pearling industry.
Establishment of modern Dubai
Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.
In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty.
Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which also led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf. This led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai also – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892.
In 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds. The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been totally destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was caught in the act of starting one such blaze and was subsequently put to death.
In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and also gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance. These policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh, but also those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah (which had historical links with Lingeh through the Al Qawasim tribe) to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo. The frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference. Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh 'bids fair to become complete and permanent', and also that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States.
The 'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates towards the end of the pearling season that year, resulting in the loss of a dozen boats and over 100 men. The disaster was a major setback for Dubai, with many families losing their breadwinner and merchants facing financial ruin. These losses came at a time when the tribes of the interior were also experiencing poverty. In a letter to the Sultan of Muscat in 1911, Butti laments, 'Misery and poverty are raging among them, with the result that they are struggling, looting and killing among themselves.'
Dubai's geographical proximity to Iran made it an important trade location. The town of Dubai was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from Iran, many of whom eventually settled in the town. By the beginning of the 20th century, it was an important port. At that time, Dubai consisted of the town of Dubai and the nearby village of Jumeirah, a collection of some 45 areesh, or palm leaf. Dubai was known for its pearl exports until the 1930s; the pearl trade was damaged irreparably by the 1929 Great Depression and the innovation of cultured pearls. With the collapse of the pearling industry, Dubai fell into a deep depression and many residents lived in poverty or migrated to other parts of the Persian Gulf.
In the early days since its inception, Dubai was constantly at odds with Abu Dhabi. In 1947, a border dispute between Dubai and Abu Dhabi on the northern sector of their mutual border escalated into war. Arbitration by the British resulted in a cessation of hostilities.
Despite a lack of oil, Dubai's ruler from 1958, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, used revenue from trading activities to build infrastructure. Private companies were established to build and operate infrastructure, including electricity, telephone services and both the ports and airport operators. An airport of sorts (a runway built on salt flats) was established in Dubai in the 1950s and, in 1959, the emirate's first hotel, the Airlines Hotel, was constructed. This was followed by the Ambassador and Carlton Hotels in 1968.
1959 saw the establishment of Dubai's first telephone company, 51% owned by IAL (international Aeradio Ltd) and 49% by Sheikh Rashid and local businessmen and in 1961 both the electricity company and telephone company had rolled out operational networks. The water company (Sheikh Rashid was Chairman and majority shareholder) constructed a pipeline from wells at Awir and a series of storage tanks and, by 1968, Dubai had a reliable supply of piped water.
On 7 April 1961, the Dubai-based MV Dara, a five thousand ton British flagged vessel that plied the route between Basra (Iraq), Kuwait and Bombay (India), was caught in unusually high winds off Dubai. Early the next morning in heavy seas off Umm al-Quwain, an explosion tore out the second class cabins and started fires. The captain gave the order to abandon ship but two lifeboats capsized and a second explosion occurred. A flotilla of small boats from Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman and Umm al-Quwain picked up survivors but in all 238 lives were lost in the disaster.
Construction of Dubai's first airport was started on the Northern edge of the town in 1959 and the terminal building opened for business in September 1960. The airport was initially serviced by Gulf Aviation (flying Dakotas, Herons and Viscounts) but Iran Air commenced services to Shiraz in 1961.
In 1962 the British Political Agent noted that "Many new houses and blocks of offices and flats are being built... the Ruler is determined, against advice [from the British] to press on with the construction of a jet airport... More and more European and Arab firms are opening up and the future looks bright."
In 1962, with expenditure on infrastructure projects already approaching levels some thought imprudent, Sheikh Rashid approached his brother in law, the Ruler of Qatar, for a loan to build the first bridge crossing Dubai's creek. This crossing was finished in May 1963 and was paid for by a toll levied on the crossing from the Dubai side of the creek to the Deira side.
BOAC was originally reluctant to start regular flights between Bombay and Dubai, fearing a lack of demand for seats. However, by the time the asphalt runway of Dubai Airport was constructed in 1965, opening Dubai to both regional and long haul traffic, a number of foreign airlines were competing for landing rights. In 1970 a new airport terminal building was constructed which included Dubai's first duty-free shops.
Throughout the 1960s Dubai was the centre of a lively gold trade, with 1968 imports of gold at some £56 million. This gold was, in the vast majority, re-exported - mainly to customers who took delivery in international waters off India. The import of gold to India had been banned and so the trade was characterised as smuggling, although Dubai's merchants were quick to point out that they were making legal deliveries of gold and that it was up to the customer where they took it.
In 1966, more gold was shipped from London to Dubai than almost anywhere else in the world (Only France and Switzerland took more), at 4 million ounces. Dubai also took delivery of over $15 million-worth of watches and over 5 million ounces of silver. The 1967 price of gold was $35 an ounce but its market price in India was $68 an ounce - a healthy markup. Estimates at the time put the volume of gold imports from Dubai to India at something like 75% of the total market.
After years of exploration following large finds in neighbouring Abu Dhabi, oil was eventually discovered in territorial waters off Dubai in 1966, albeit in far smaller quantities. The first field was named 'Fateh' or 'good fortune'. This led to an acceleration of Sheikh Rashid's infrastructure development plans and a construction boom that brought a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Asians and Middle easterners. Between 1968 and 1975 the city's population grew by over 300%.
As part of the infrastructure for pumping and transporting oil from the Fateh field, located offshore of the Jebel Ali area of Dubai, two 500,000 gallon storage tanks were built, known locally as 'Kazzans', by welding them together on the beach and then digging them out and floating them to drop onto the seabed at the Fateh field. These were constructed by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, which gave the beach its local name (Chicago Beach), which was transferred to the Chicago Beach Hotel, which was demolished and replaced by the Jumeirah Beach Hotel in the late 1990s. The Kazzans were an innovative oil storage solution which meant super-tankers could moor offshore even in bad weather and avoided the need to pipe oil onshore from Fateh, which is some 60 miles out to sea.
Dubai had already embarked on a period of infrastructural development and expansion. Oil revenue, flowing from 1969 onwards supported a period of growth with Sheikh Rashid embarking on a policy of building infrastructure and a diversified trading economy before the emirate's limited reserves were depleted. Oil accounted for 24% of GDP in 1990, but had reduced to 7% of GDP by 2004.
Critically, one of the first major projects Sheikh Rashid embarked upon when oil revenue started to flow was the construction of Port Rashid, a deep water free port constructed by British company Halcrow. Originally intended to be a four-berth port, it was extended to sixteen berths as construction was ongoing. The project was an outstanding success, with shipping queuing to access the new facilities. The port was inaugurated on 5 October 1972, although its berths were each pressed into use as soon as they had been built. Port Rashid was to be further expanded in 1975 to add a further 35 berths before the larger port of Jebel Ali was constructed.
Port Rashid was the first of a swath of projects designed to create a modern trading infrastructure, including roads, bridges, schools and hospitals.
Reaching the UAE's Act of Union
Dubai and the other 'Trucial States' had long been a British protectorate where the British government took care of foreign policy and defence, as well as arbitrating between the rulers of the Eastern Gulf, the result of a treaty signed in 1892, the 'Exclusive Agreement'. This was to change with PM Harold Wilson's announcement, on 16 January 1968, that all British troops were to be withdrawn from 'East of Aden'. The decision was to pitch the coastal emirates, together with Qatar and Bahrain, into fevered negotiations to fill the political vacuum that the British withdrawal would leave behind.
The principle of union was first agreed between the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, and Sheikh Rashid of Dubai on 18 February 1968 meeting in an encampment at Argoub Al Sedirah, near Al Semeih, a desert stop between the two emirates. The two agreed to work towards bringing the other emirates, including Qatar and Bahrain, into the union. Over the next two years, negotiations and meetings of the rulers followed -often stormy- as a form of union was thrashed out. The nine-state union was never to recover from the October 1969 meeting where heavy-handed British intervention resulted in a walk-out by Qatar and Ras Al Khaimah. Bahrain and Qatar dropped out of talks, leaving six of the seven 'trucial' emirates to agree on union on 18 July 1971.
On 2 December 1971, Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain and Fujairah joined in the Act of Union to form the United Arab Emirates. The seventh emirate, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the UAE on 10 February 1972, following Iran's annexation of the RAK-claimed Tunbs islands.
In 1973, Dubai joined the other emirates to adopt a uniform currency: the UAE dirham. In that same year, the prior monetary union with Qatar was dissolved and the UAE Dirham was introduced throughout the Emirates.
During the 1970s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war. Border disputes between the emirates continued even after the formation of the UAE; it was only in 1979 that a formal compromise was reached that ended disagreements. The Jebel Ali port was established in 1979. JAFZA (Jebel Ali Free Zone) was built around the port in 1985 to provide foreign companies unrestricted import of labour and export capital. Dubai airport and the aviation industry also continued to grow.
The Gulf War of 1990 had a negative financial effect on the city, as depositors withdrew their money and traders withdrew their trade, but subsequently, the city recovered in a changing political climate and thrived. Later in the 1990s, many foreign trading communities—first from Kuwait, during the Gulf War, and later from Bahrain, during the Shia unrest—moved their businesses to Dubai. Dubai provided refuelling bases to allied forces at the Jebel Ali Free Zone during the Gulf War, and again during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. Large increases in oil prices after the Gulf War encouraged Dubai to continue to focus on free trade and tourism.
Dubai is situated on the Persian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates and is roughly at sea level (16 m or 52 ft above). The emirate of Dubai shares borders with Abu Dhabi in the south, Sharjah in the northeast, and the Sultanate of Oman in the southeast. Hatta, a minor exclave of the emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and by the emirates of Ajman (in the west) and Ras Al Khaimah (in the north). The Persian Gulf borders the western coast of the emirate. Dubai is positioned at and covers an area of 1,588 sq mi (4,110 km2), which represents a significant expansion beyond its initial 1,500 sq mi (3,900 km2) designation due to land reclamation from the sea.
Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert. However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai's landscape is highlighted by sandy desert patterns, while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country. The sand consists mostly of crushed shell and coral and is fine, clean and white. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as sabkha, give way to a north-south running line of dunes. Farther east, the dunes grow larger and are tinged red with iron oxide.
The flat sandy desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with Oman at Hatta. The Western Hajar chain has an arid, jagged and shattered landscape, whose mountains rise to about 1,300 metres (4,265 feet) in some places. Dubai has no natural river bodies or oases; however, Dubai does have a natural inlet, Dubai Creek, which has been dredged to make it deep enough for large vessels to pass through. Dubai also has multiple gorges and waterholes, which dot the base of the Western Al Hajar mountains. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai and eventually leads into the desert known as The Empty Quarter. Seismically, Dubai is in a very stable zone—the nearest seismic fault line, the Zagros Fault, is 200 kilometres (124 miles) from the UAE and is unlikely to have any seismic impact on Dubai. Experts also predict that the possibility of a tsunami in the region is minimal because the Persian Gulf waters are not deep enough to trigger a tsunami.
The sandy desert surrounding the city supports wild grasses and occasional date palms. Desert hyacinths grow in the sabkha plains east of the city, while acacia and ghaf trees grow in the flat plains within the proximity of the Western Al Hajar mountains. Several indigenous trees such as the date palm and neem as well as imported trees such as the eucalypts grow in Dubai's natural parks. The houbara bustard, striped hyena, caracal, desert fox, falcon and Arabian oryx are common in Dubai's desert. Dubai is on the migration path between Europe, Asia and Africa, and more than 320 migratory bird species pass through the emirate in spring and autumn. The waters of Dubai are home to more than 300 species of fish, including the hammour. The typical marine life off the Dubai coast includes tropical fish, jellyfish, coral, dugong, dolphins, whales and sharks. Various types of turtles can also be found in the area including the hawksbill turtle and green turtle, which are listed as endangered species.
Dubai Creek runs northeast-southwest through the city. The eastern section of the city forms the locality of Deira and is flanked by the emirate of Sharjah in the east and the town of Al Aweer in the south. The Dubai International Airport is located south of Deira, while the Palm Deira is located north of Deira in the Persian Gulf. Much of Dubai's real-estate boom is concentrated to the west of Dubai Creek, on the Jumeirah coastal belt. Port Rashid, Jebel Ali, Burj Al Arab, the Palm Jumeirah and theme-based free-zone clusters such as Business Bay are all located in this section. Dubai is notable for sculpted artificial island complexes including the Palm Islands and The World archipelago.
Dubai has a hot desert climate. Summers in Dubai are extremely hot, windy, and humid, with an average high around 41 °C (106 °F) and overnight lows around 30 °C (86 °F) in the hottest month, August. Most days are sunny throughout the year. Winters are cool with an average high of 24 °C (75 °F) and overnight lows of 14 °C (57 °F) in January, the coldest month. Precipitation, however, has been increasing in the last few decades, with accumulated rain reaching 110.7 mm (4.36 in) per year. Dubai summers are also known for the very high humidity level, which can make it very uncomfortable for many with exceptionally high dew points in summer. The highest recorded temperature in Dubai is 48.4 °C (119 °F), reached in July 1996.
|Climate data for Dubai|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.6
|Average high °C (°F)||23.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||19.1
|Average low °C (°F)||14.3
|Record low °C (°F)||1.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||18.8
|Average precipitation days||5.5||4.7||5.8||2.6||0.3||0.0||0.5||0.5||0.1||0.2||1.3||3.8||25.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||251||241||270||306||350||345||332||326||309||307||279||254||3,570|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||8.1||8.6||8.7||10.2||11.3||11.5||10.7||10.5||10.3||9.9||9.3||8.2||9.8|
|Source #1: Dubai Meteorological Office|
|Source #2: UAE National Center of Meteorology|
Governance and politics
Dubai has been ruled by the Al Maktoum family since 1833; the emirate is a constitutional monarchy. Dubai citizens participate in the electoral college to vote representatives to the Federal National Council of the UAE. The ruler, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, is also the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and member of the Supreme Council of the Union (SCU). Dubai appoints 8 members in two-term periods to the Federal National Council (FNC) of the UAE, the supreme federal legislative body.
The Dubai Municipality (DM) was established by the then-ruler of Dubai, Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, in 1954 for purposes of city planning, citizen services and upkeep of local facilities. DM is chaired by Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, deputy ruler of Dubai, and comprises several departments such as the Roads Department, Planning and Survey Department, Environment and Public Health Department and Financial Affairs Department. In 2001, Dubai Municipality embarked on an e-Government project with the intention of providing 40 of its city services through its web portal, [dubai.ae]. Thirteen such services were launched by October 2001, while several other services were expected to be operational in the future. Dubai Municipality is also in charge of the city's sanitation and sewage infrastructure.
The UAE has a Minister of Happiness, appointed by Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. The UAE has also appointed a Minister of Tolerance to promote tolerance as a fundamental value of the UAE, a country filled with a diverse range of faiths and ethnicities, and also a Minister for Youth Affairs.
The Dubai Police Force, founded in 1956 in the locality of Naif, has law enforcement jurisdiction over the emirate. The force is under direct command of Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum.
Dubai and Ras al Khaimah are the only emirates that do not conform to the federal judicial system of the United Arab Emirates. The emirate's judicial courts comprise the Court of First Instance, the Court of Appeal, and the Court of Cassation. The Court of First Instance consists of the Civil Court, which hears all civil claims; the Criminal Court, which hears claims originating from police complaints; and Sharia Court, which is responsible for matters between Muslims. Non-Muslims do not appear before the Sharia Court. The Court of Cassation is the supreme court of the emirate and hears disputes on matters of law only.
Alcohol sale and consumption, though legal, is regulated. Adult non-Muslims are allowed to consume alcohol in licensed venues, typically within hotels, or at home with the possession of an alcohol license. Places other than hotels, clubs, and specially designated areas are typically not permitted to sell alcohol. As in other parts of the world, drinking and driving is illegal, with 21 being the legal drinking age in the Emirate of Dubai.
Companies in Dubai have in the past been criticised for human rights violations against labourers. Some of the 250,000 foreign labourers in the city have been alleged to live in conditions described by Human Rights Watch as "less than humane". The mistreatment of foreign workers was a subject of the difficult-to-make documentary, Slaves in Dubai (2009). The Dubai government has denied labour injustices and stated that the watchdog's (Human Rights Watch) accusations were 'misguided'. The filmmaker explained in interviews how it was necessary to go undercover to avoid discovery by the authorities, who impose high fines on reporters attempting to document human rights abuses, including the conditions of construction workers. Towards the end of March 2006, the government had announced steps to allow construction unions. UAE labour minister Ali al-Kaabi said: "Labourers will be allowed to form unions."
Freedom of speech in Dubai is limited, with both residents and citizens facing severe sanctions from the government for speaking out against the royal family or local laws and culture. Most of the low paid labours are victims of human trafficking or forced labour while some women are even trafficked into the growing sex trade in Dubai, a centre of human trafficking and prostitution.
Dubai has one of the world's lowest crime rates, and in 2018 was ranked the eighth-safest city in the world. The Security Industry Regulatory Agency classified the crimes into six categories. These crimes include theft, forced robbery, domestic burglary, fraud, sexual assault and abuse, and criminal damages.
As per Gulf News, Dubai Police stated that the crime in Dubai is reduced by fifteen percent during 2017. However the cases of drugs operation increased by eight percent. Major-General Abdullah Khalifa Al Merri, Commander-in-Chief of Dubai Police, hailed the force which solved 86 percent of criminal cases.
The statistics also indicated that murder crimes dropped from 0.5 in 2016 to 0.3 in 2017 for every 100,000 population, while violent and aggressive crimes in the past 5 years went from 2.2 crimes per 100,000 and dropped to 1.2 by the end of 2017, pointed out Al Mansouri. General crimes have decreased since 2013, registering around 0.2 by the end of 2017. Robberies went from 3.8 in 2013 to 2.1 by the end of last year, while kidnapping cases also dropped from 0.2 in 2013 to 0.1 in 2017.
Vehicle thefts in 2013 were 3.8 per 100,000 population, and fell to 1.7 in 2017. All the stolen vehicles were also recovered after being smuggled to neighboring countries, in cooperation with the competent authorities there. According to the US Bureau of Diplomatic Security, petty theft, pick pocketing, scams, and sexual harassment still occur although they are usually not violent and weapons are not involved.
Ethnicity and languages
According to the census conducted by the Statistics Centre of Dubai, the population of the emirate was 1,771,000 as of 2009[update], which included 1,370,000 males and 401,000 females. As of June 2017[update], the population is 2,789,000. The region covers 1,287.5 square kilometres (497.1 sq mi). The population density is 408.18/km2 – more than eight times that of the entire country. Dubai is the second most expensive city in the region and 20th most expensive city in the world.
As of 2013[update], only about 15% of the population of the emirate was made up of UAE nationals, with the rest comprising expatriates, many of whom either have been in the country for generations or were born in the UAE. Approximately 85% of the expatriate population (and 71% of the emirate's total population) was Asian, chiefly Indian (51%) and Pakistani (16%); other significant Asian groups include Bangladeshis (9%) and Filipinos (3%). There is a sizable community of Somalis numbering around 30,000, as well as other communities of various nationalities. A quarter of the population (local and foreign) reportedly traces their origins to Iran. In addition, 16% of the population (or 288,000 persons) living in collective labour accommodation were not identified by ethnicity or nationality, but were thought to be primarily Asian. There are over 100,000 British expatriates in Dubai, by far the largest group of Western expatriates in the city. The median age in the emirate was about 27 years. In 2014, there were estimated to be 15.54 births and 1.99 deaths per 1,000 people. There are other Arab nationals, including GCC nationals.
Arabic is the national and official language of the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people. English is used as a second language. Other major languages spoken in Dubai due to immigration are Malayalam, Hindi-Urdu (or Hindustani), Gujarati, Persian, Sindhi, Tamil, Punjabi, Pashto, Bengali, Balochi, Tulu, Kannada, Sinhala, Marathi, Telugu, Tagalog and Chinese, in addition to many other languages.
Article 7 of the UAE's Provisional Constitution declares Islam the official state religion of the UAE. The government subsidises almost 95% of mosques and employs all Imams; approximately 5% of mosques are entirely private, and several large mosques have large private endowments. All mosques in Dubai are managed by the Islamic Affairs and Charitable Activities Department also known as "Awqaf" under the Government of Dubai and all Imams are appointed by the Government. The Constitution of the United Arab Emirates provides for freedom of religion. Any person held preaching religious hatred or promoting religious extremism is usually jailed and deported.
Non-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, where they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build a compound. Groups that do not have their own buildings are allowed to use the facilities of other religious organisations or worship in private homes. Non-Muslim religious groups are also permitted to advertise group functions openly and distribute various religious literature. Catholics are served pastorally by the Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Arabia. British preacher Reverend Andrew Thompson claimed that the United Arab Emirates is one of the most tolerant places in the world towards Christians, and that it is easier to be a Christian in the UAE, than in the UK.
One of the world's fastest growing economies, Dubai's gross domestic product is projected at US$107.1 billion, with a growth rate of 6.1% in 2014. Although a number of core elements of Dubai's trading infrastructure were built on the back of the oil industry, revenues from oil and natural gas account for less than 5% of the emirate's revenues. It is estimated that Dubai produces 50,000 to 70,000 barrels (7,900 to 11,100 m3) of oil a day and substantial quantities of gas from offshore fields. The emirate's share in the UAE's total gas revenues is about 2%. Dubai's oil reserves have diminished significantly and are expected to be exhausted in 20 years. Real estate and construction (22.6%), trade (16%), entrepôt (15%) and financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy.
Dubai's non-oil foreign trade stood at $362 billion in 2014. Of the overall trade volumes, imports had the biggest share with a value of $230 billion while exports and re-exports to the emirate stood at $31 billion and $101 billion respectively.
By 2014, China had emerged as Dubai's largest international trading partner, with a total of $47.7 billion in trade flows, up 29% from 2013. India was second among Dubai's key trading partners with a trade of $29.7 billion, followed by the United States at $22.62 billion. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was Dubai's fourth trading partner globally and first in the GCC and Arab world with a total trade value of $14.2 billion. Trade with Germany in 2014 totalled $12.3, Switzerland and Japan both at $11.72 billion and UK trade totalled $10.9 billion.
Historically, Dubai and its twin across Dubai Creek, Deira (independent of Dubai City at that time), were important ports of call for Western manufacturers. Most of the new city's banking and financial centres were headquartered in the port area. Dubai maintained its importance as a trade route through the 1970s and 1980s. Dubai has a free trade in gold and, until the 1990s, was the hub of a "brisk smuggling trade" of gold ingots to India, where gold import was restricted. Dubai's Jebel Ali port, constructed in the 1970s, has the largest man-made harbour in the world and was ranked seventh globally for the volume of container traffic it supports. Dubai is also a hub for service industries such as information technology and finance, with industry-specific free zones throughout the city. Dubai Internet City, combined with Dubai Media City as part of TECOM (Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority), is one such enclave, whose members include IT firms such as Hewlett Packard Enterprise, HP Inc., Google, EMC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Microsoft, Dell and IBM, and media organisations such as MBC, CNN, BBC, Reuters, Sky News and AP.
The government's decision to diversify from a trade-based, oil-reliant economy to one that is service- and tourism-oriented made property more valuable, resulting in the property appreciation from 2004 to 2006. A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008. The large-scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers and largest projects in the world such as the Emirates Towers, the Burj Khalifa, the Palm Islands and the most expensive hotel, the Burj Al Arab. Dubai's property market experienced a major downturn in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the slowing economic climate. By early 2009, the situation had worsened with the Great Recession taking a heavy toll on property values, construction and employment. This has had a major impact on property investors in the region, some of whom were unable to release funds from investments made in property developments. As of February 2009[update], Dubai's foreign debt was estimated at approximately $80 billion, although this is a tiny fraction of the sovereign debt worldwide. Dubai real estate and UAE property experts believe that by avoiding the mistakes of the past, Dubai's realty market can achieve stability in the future.
The Dubai Financial Market (DFM) was established in March 2000 as a secondary market for trading securities and bonds, both local and foreign. As of fourth quarter 2006, its trading volume stood at about 400 billion shares, worth $95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalisation of about $87 billion. The other Dubai-based stock exchange is NASDAQ Dubai, which is the international stock exchange in the Middle East. It enables a range of companies, including UAE and regional small and medium-sized enterprises, to trade on an exchange with an international brand name, with access by both regional and international investors.
DMCC (Dubai Multi Commodities Centre) was established in 2002. It's world's fastest growing free zone and been nominated as "Global Free Zone of the Year 2016" by The Financial Times fDi Magazine.
Dubai is also known as the City of Gold, because a major part of the economy is based on gold trades, with Dubai's total gold trading volumes in H1 2011 reaching 580 tonnes, with an average price of US$1,455 per troy ounce.
A City Mayors survey ranked Dubai 44th among the world's best financial cities in 2007, while another report by City Mayors indicated that Dubai was the world's 27th richest city in 2012, in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). Dubai is also an international financial centre (IFC) and has been ranked 37th within the top 50 global financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index (2007), and 1st within the Middle East. Since it opened in September 2004, the Dubai IFC has attracted, as a regional hub, leading international firms and set-up the NASDAQ Dubai which lists equity, derivatives, structured products, Islamic bonds (sukuk) and other bonds. The Dubai IFC model is an independent risk-based regulator with a legislative system consistent with English common law.
In 2012, the Global City Competitiveness Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Dubai at No. 40 with a total score of 55.9. According to its 2013 research report on the future competitiveness of cities, in 2025, Dubai will have moved up to 23rd place overall in the Index. Indians, followed by Britons and Pakistanis are the top foreign investors in Dubai realty.
Dubai has launched several major projects to support its economy and develop different sectors. These include Dubai Fashion 2020, and Dubai Design District, expected to become a home to leading local and international designers. The AED 4 billion first phase of the project will be complete by January 2015.
Tourism and retail
Tourism is an important part of the Dubai government's strategy to maintain the flow of foreign cash into the emirate. Dubai's lure for tourists is based mainly on shopping, but also on its possession of other ancient and modern attractions. As of 2018, Dubai is the fourth most-visited city in the world based on the number of international visitors and the fastest growing, increasing by a 10.7% rate. The city hosted 14.9 million overnight visitors in 2016, and is expected to reach 20 million tourists by 2020.
Dubai has been called the "shopping capital of the Middle East". Dubai alone has more than 70 shopping centres, including the world's largest shopping centre, Dubai Mall. Dubai is also known for the historical souk districts located on either side of its creek. Traditionally, dhows from East Asia, China, Sri Lanka, and India would discharge their cargo and the goods would be bargained over in the souks adjacent to the docks. Dubai Creek played a vital role in sustaining the life of the community in the city and was the resource which originally drove the economic boom in Dubai. As of September 2013[update], Dubai creek has been proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Many boutiques and jewellery stores are also found in the city. Dubai is also referred to as "the City of Gold" as the Gold Souk in Deira houses nearly 250 gold retail shops.
Dubai Creek Park in Dubai Creek also plays a vital role in Dubai tourism as it showcase some of the most famous tourist attractions in Dubai such as Dolphinarium, Cable Car, Camel Ride, Horse Carriage and Exotic Birds Shows.
Dubai has a wide range of parks like Safa park, Mushrif park, Hamriya park etc. Each park is uniquely distinct from the other. Mushrif park showcases different houses around the world. A visitor can check out the architectural features of the outside as well as the inside of each house.
Some of the most popular beaches in Dubai are Umm Suqeim Beach, Al Mamzar Beach Park, JBR Open Beach, Kite Beach, Black Palace Beach and Royal Island Beach Club.
On 2 November 2011, four cities had their bids for Expo 2020 already lodged, with Dubai making a last-minute entry. The delegation from the Bureau International des Expositions, which visited Dubai in February 2013 to examine the Emirate's readiness for the largest exposition, was impressed by the infrastructure and the level of national support. In May 2013, Dubai Expo 2020 Master Plan was revealed. Dubai then won the right to host Expo 2020 on 27 November 2013. The event will bring huge economic benefits by generating activities worth billions of dirhams and may create over 270,000 jobs.
The main site of Dubai Expo 2020 will be a 438-hectare area (1,083 acres), part of the new Dubai Trade Centre Jebel Ali urban development, located midway between Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Moreover, the Expo 2020 also created various social enlistment projects and monetary boons to the city targeting the year 2020. Such as initiating the world's largest solar project, the real estate upsurge, to focus on the GDP growth and to make Dubai a "Happy Dubai" for the people of the city.
Dubai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. Many modern interpretations of Islamic architecture can be found here, due to a boom in construction and architectural innovation in the Arab World in general, and in Dubai in particular, supported not only by top Arab or international architectural and engineering design firms such as Al Hashemi and Aedas, but also by top firms of New York and Chicago. As a result of this boom, modern Islamic – and world – architecture has literally been taken to new levels in skyscraper building design and technology. Dubai now has more completed or topped-out skyscrapers higher than 2⁄3 km (2,200 ft), 1⁄3 km (1,100 ft), or 1⁄4 km (820 ft) than any other city. A culmination point was reached in 2010 with the completion of the Burj Khalifa (Khalifa Tower), now by far the world's tallest building at 829.8 m (2,722 ft). The Burj Khalifa's design is derived from the patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, with the triple-lobed footprint of the building based on an abstracted version of the desert flower hymenocallis which is native to the Dubai region.
The completion of the Khalifa Tower, following the construction boom that began in the 1980s, accelerated in the 1990s, and took on a rapid pace of construction unparalleled in modern human history during the decade of the 2000s, leaves Dubai with the world's tallest skyline as of 4 January 2010[update]. At the Top, Burj Khalifa, the world's highest observatory deck with an outdoor terrace is one of Dubai's most popular tourist attractions, with over 1.87 million visitors in 2013.
Burj Al Arab
The Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب, Tower of the Arabs), a luxury hotel, is frequently described as "the world's only 7-star", though its management has said it has never made that claim. A Jumeirah Group spokesperson is quoted as saying: "There's not a lot we can do to stop it. We're not encouraging the use of the term. We've never used it in our advertising." The hotel opened in December 1999.
Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai before its inauguration, is a 828 metres (2,717 ft) high skyscraper in Dubai, and the tallest building in the world. The tower was inspired by the structure of the desert flower Hymenocallis. It was constructed by more than 30 contracting companies around the world with workers of a hundred nationalities. It is an architectural icon. The building opened in 2010.
The Palm Jumeirah is an artificial archipelago, created using land reclamation by Nakheel, a company owned by the Dubai government, and designed and developed by Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects, Inc. It is one of three planned islands called the Palm Islands which extend into the Persian Gulf. The Palm Jumeirah is the smallest and the original of three Palm Islands, and it is located on the Jumeirah coastal area of Dubai. It was built between 2001 and 2006.
Dubai Miracle Garden
On 14 February 2013, the Dubai Miracle Garden, a 72,000-metre (236,000-foot) flower garden, opened in Dubailand. It is the world's largest flower garden. The garden has a total of 45 million flowers with re-use of waste water through drip irrigation. During the summer seasons from late May to September when the climate can get extremely hot with an average high of about 40 °C (104 °F), the garden stays closed.
Transport in Dubai is controlled by the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA), an agency of the government of Dubai, formed by royal decree in 2005. The public transport network has in the past faced congestion and reliability issues which a large investment programme has addressed, including over AED 70 billion of improvements planned for completion by 2020, when the population of the city is projected to exceed 3.5 million. In 2009, according to Dubai Municipality statistics, there were an estimated 1,021,880 cars in Dubai. In January 2010, the number of Dubai residents who use public transport stood at 6%.
Five main routes – E 11 (Sheikh Zayed Road), E 311 (Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Road), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway), E 77 (Dubai-Al Habab Road) and E 66 (Oud Metha Road, Dubai-Al Ain Road, or Tahnoun Bin Mohammad Al Nahyan Road) – run through Dubai, connecting the city to other towns and emirates. Additionally, several important intra-city routes, such as D 89 (Al Maktoum Road/Airport Road), D 85 (Baniyas Road), D 75 (Sheikh Rashid Road), D 73 (Al Dhiyafa Road now named as 2 December street), D 94 (Jumeirah Road) and D 92 (Al Khaleej/Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities in the city. The eastern and western sections of the city are connected by Al Maktoum Bridge, Al Garhoud Bridge, Al Shindagha Tunnel, Business Bay Crossing and Floating Bridge.
The Public Bus Transport system in Dubai is run by the RTA. The bus system services 140 routes and transported over 109 million people in 2008. By the end of 2010, there will be 2,100 buses in service across the city. In 2006, the Transport authority announced the construction of 500 air-conditioned (A/C ) Passenger Bus Shelters, and planned for 1,000 more across the emirates in a move to encourage the use of public buses.
All taxi services are licensed by the RTA. Dubai licensed taxis are easily identifiable by their cream bodywork colour and varied roof colours identifying the operator. Dubai Taxi Corporation, a division of the RTA, is the largest operator and has taxis with red roofs. There are five private operators: Metro Taxis (orange roofs); Network Taxis (yellow roofs); Cars Taxis (blue roofs); Arabia Taxis (green roofs); and City Taxis (purple roof). In addition, Dubai Taxi Corporation has a Ladies Taxi service, with pink roofs, which caters exclusively for female passengers, using female drivers. The Dubai International Airport taxi concession is operated by Dubai Taxi Corporation. There are more than 3000 taxis operating within the emirate making an average of 192,000 trips every day, carrying about 385,000 persons. In 2009 taxi trips exceeded 70 million trips serving around 140.45 million passengers.
Dubai International Airport (IATA: DXB), the hub for Emirates, serves the city of Dubai and other emirates in the country. The airport is the third-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic and the world's busiest airport by international passenger traffic. In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport is the sixth-busiest cargo airport in world, handling 2.37 million tons of cargo in 2014. Emirates is the national airline of Dubai. As of 2018[update], it operated internationally serving over 150 destinations in over 70 countries across six continents.
The development of Al Maktoum International Airport (IATA: DWC) was announced in 2004. The first phase of the airport, featuring one A380 capable runway, 64 remote stands, one cargo terminal with annual capacity for 250,000 tonnes of cargo and a passenger terminal building designed to accommodate five million passengers per year, has been opened. When completed, Dubai World Central-Al Maktoum International will be the largest airport in the world with five runways, four terminal buildings and capacity for 160 million passengers and 12 million tons of cargo.
The $3.89 billion Dubai Metro project is operational. It consists of two lines (Red line and Green line) which run through the financial and residential areas of the city. The Metro system was partially opened on September 2009. UK-based international service company Serco is responsible for operating the metro. The metro comprises the Green Line, which has 20 stations (8 underground, 12 elevated) and runs from the Etisalat Station to the Creek Station and the Red Line, the major back bone line, which has 29 stations (4 underground, 24 elevated and 1 at ground level) and runs from Rashidiya Station to UAE Xchange Station Jebel Ali. In July 2016 a contract was awarded to add a branch to the Red Line running to the EXPO 2020 site; this extension is due to open in April 2020. A Blue and a Purple Line have also been planned. The Dubai Metro (Green and Blue Lines) will have 70 km (43.5 mi) of track and 43 stations, 37 above ground and ten underground. The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula. All the trains run without a driver and are based on automatic navigation.
Palm Jumeirah Monorail
The Palm Jumeirah Monorail is a monorail line on the Palm Jumeirah. It connects the Palm Jumeirah to the mainland, with a planned further extension to the Red Line of the Dubai Metro. The line opened on 30 April 2009. It is the first monorail in the Middle East. Two tram systems are expected to be built in Dubai by 2011. The first is the Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System and the second is the Al Sufouh Tram. The Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System is a 4.6 km (2.9 mi) tram service that is planned to service the area around the Burj Khalifa, and the second tram will run 14.5 km (9.0 mi) along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates.
A tramway located in Al Sufouh, Dubai, will run for 14.5 kilometres (9.0 miles) along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates with two interchanges with Dubai Metro's Red Line. The first section, a 10.6-kilometer (6.6 mi) long tram line which serves 11 stations, was opened on 11 November 2014, by H.H. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, The Vice-President and Prime Minister of UAE and Ruler of Dubai, with the line opening to the public at 6 am on 12 November 2014.
High speed rail
Dubai has announced it will complete a link of the UAE high-speed rail system which will eventually hook up with the whole GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council, also known as Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf) and then possibly Europe. The High Speed Rail will serve passengers and cargo.
There are two major commercial ports in Dubai, Port Rashid and Port Jebel Ali. Port Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour, the biggest port in the Middle East, and the 7th-busiest port in the world. One of the more traditional methods of getting across Bur Dubai to Deira is by abras, small boats that ferry passengers across the Dubai Creek, between abra stations in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road. The Marine Transport Agency has also implemented the Dubai Water Bus System. Water bus is a fully air conditioned boat service across selected destinations across the creek. One can also avail oneself of the tourist water bus facility in Dubai. Latest addition to the water transport system is the Water Taxi.
The UAE culture mainly revolves around traditional Arab culture. The influence of Arab and Islamic culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine, and lifestyle is very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday and Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday and Sunday. Prior to 2006, the weekend was Thursday-Friday.
Because of the touristic approach of many Dubaites in the entrepreneurial sector and the high standard of living, Dubai's culture has gradually evolved towards one of luxury, opulence, and lavishness with a high regard for leisure-related extravagance. Annual entertainment events such as the Dubai Shopping Festival (DSF) and Dubai Summer Surprises (DSS) attract over 4 million visitors from across the region and generate revenues in excess of $2.7 billion.
Dubai is known for its nightlife. Clubs and bars are found mostly in hotels because of liquor laws. The New York Times described Dubai as "the kind of city where you might run into Michael Jordan at the Buddha Bar or stumble across Naomi Campbell celebrating her birthday with a multiday bash".
The city's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogeneous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indians and Pakistanis in the 1960s. In 2005, 84% of the population of metropolitan Dubai was foreign-born, about half of them from India.
The International Festivals and Events Association (IFEA), the world's leading events trade association, has crowned Dubai as IFEA World Festival and Event City, 2012 in the cities category with a population of more than one million. Large shopping malls in the city, such as Deira City Centre, Mirdiff City Centre, BurJuman, Mall of the Emirates, Dubai Mall (the world's largest) and Ibn Battuta Mall as well as traditional Dubai Gold Souk and other souks attract shoppers from the region.
Arabic cuisine is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small shawarma diners in Deira and Al Karama to the restaurants in Dubai's hotels. Fast food, South Asian, and Chinese cuisines are also very popular and are widely available. The sale and consumption of pork is regulated and is sold only to non-Muslims, in designated areas of supermarkets and airports. Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. A liquor permit is required to purchase alcohol; however, alcohol is available in bars and restaurants within hotels. Shisha and qahwa boutiques are also popular in Dubai. Biryani is also a popular cuisine across Dubai with being the most popular among Indians and Pakistanis present in Dubai.
The inaugural Dubai Food Festival was held between 21 February to 15 March 2014. According to Vision magazine, the event was aimed at enhancing and celebrating Dubai's position as the gastronomic capital of the region. The festival was designed to showcase the variety of flavours and cuisines on offer in Dubai featuring the cuisines of over 200 nationalities at the festival. The next food festival was held between 23 February 2017 to 11 March 2017.
Arabic movies are popular in Dubai and the UAE. Since 2004, the city has hosted the annual Dubai International Film Festival which serves as a showcase for Arab and Middle Eastern film making talent. The Dubai Desert Rock Festival was also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists but is no longer held in Dubai.
One of the lesser known sides of Dubai is the importance of its young contemporary art gallery scene. Since 2008, the leading contemporary art galleries such as Carbon 12 Dubai, Green Art, gallery Isabelle van den Eynde, and The Third Line have brought the city onto the international art map. Art Dubai, the growing and reputable art fair of the region is as well a major contributor of the contemporary art scene's development.
Many international news agencies such as Reuters, APTN, Bloomberg L.P. and Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC) operate in Dubai Media City and Dubai Internet City. Additionally, several local network television channels such as Dubai One (formerly Channel 33), and Dubai TV (EDTV) provide programming in English and Arabic respectively. Dubai is also the headquarters for several print media outlets. Dar Al Khaleej, Al Bayan and Al Ittihad are the city's largest circulating Arabic language newspapers, while Gulf News, Khaleej Times, Khaleej Mag and 7days are the largest circulating English newspapers.
Etisalat, the government-owned telecommunications provider, held a virtual monopoly over telecommunication services in Dubai prior to the establishment of other, smaller telecommunications companies such as Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC—better known as Du) in 2006. Internet was introduced into the UAE (and therefore Dubai) in 1995. The network has an Internet bandwidth of 7.5 Gbit/s with capacity of 49 STM1 links. Dubai houses two of four Domain Name System (DNS) data centres in the country (DXBNIC1, DXBNIC2). Censorship is common in Dubai and used by the government to control content that it believes violates the cultural and political sensitivities of Emirates. Homosexuality, drugs, and the theory of evolution are generally considered taboo.
Internet content is regulated in Dubai. Etisalat uses a proxy server to filter Internet content that the government deems to be inconsistent with the values of the country, such as sites that provide information on how to bypass the proxy; sites pertaining to dating, gay and lesbian networks, and pornography; and sites originating from Israel. Emirates Media and Internet (a division of Etisalat) notes that as of 2002[update], 76% of Internet users are male. About 60% of Internet users were Asian, while 25% of users were Arab. Dubai enacted an Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law in 2002 which deals with digital signatures and electronic registers. It prohibits Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from disclosing information gathered in providing services. The penal code contains official provisions that prohibit digital access to pornography; however, it does not address cyber crime or data protection.
Football and cricket are the most popular sports in Dubai. Three teams (Al Wasl FC, Shabab Al-Ahli Dubai FC and Al Nasr SC) represent Dubai in UAE Pro-League. Al-Wasl have the second-most number of championships in the UAE League, after Al Ain. Dubai also hosts both the annual Dubai Tennis Championships and The Legends Rock Dubai tennis tournaments, as well as the Dubai Desert Classic golf tournament and the DP World Tour Championship, all of which attract sports stars from around the world. The Dubai World Cup, a thoroughbred horse race, is held annually at the Meydan Racecourse. Dubai also hosts the traditional rugby union tournament Dubai Sevens, part of the Sevens World Series Event pictures of Rugby 7 Dubai 2015. In 2009, Dubai hosted the 2009 Rugby World Cup Sevens. Auto racing is also a big sport in Dubai, the Dubai Autodrome is home to many auto racing events throughout the year. It also features a state-of-the-art indoor and outdoor Kartdrome, popular among racing enthusiasts and recreational riders.
The Emirati attire is typical of several countries in the Arabian Peninsula. Women usually wear the "abaya", a long black robe with a hijab (the head-scarf which covers the neck and part of the head). Some women may add a niqab which cover the mouth and nose and only leaves the eyes exposed. Men wear the "kandurah" also referred to as "dishdasha" or even "thawb" (long white robe) and the headscarf (ghotrah). The UAE traditional ghotrah is white and is held in place by an accessory called "egal", which resembles a black cord. The younger Emiratis prefer to wear red and white ghotras and tie it round their head like a turban.
The above dress code is never compulsory and many people wear western or other eastern clothing without any problems; but prohibitions on wearing "indecent clothing" or revealing too much skin are aspects of the UAE to which Dubai's visitors are expected to conform, and are encoded in Dubai's criminal law. The UAE has enforced decency regulations in most public places, aside from waterparks, beaches, clubs, and bars.
The school system in Dubai follows that of the United Arab Emirates. As of 2009[update], there are 79 public schools run by the Ministry of Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arab people as well as 145 private schools. The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.
More than 15 schools offer an international education using the one or more of the four International Baccalaureate Programmes for students aged 3–19. Several schools have introduced the new IB Career-related Programme that can be combined with a vocational qualification such as a BTEC. The Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) signed an agreement with the IB in efforts to widen the options offered for parents and to meet the different needs of students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Additionally a number of schools offer either a CBSE or an Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. The Indian High School, DPS, DMHS are some examples. Similarly, there are also several reputable Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate children in Dubai.
A number of schools also offer British primary education up to the age of eleven. British style eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools offering General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels include Dubai Gem Private School, Dubai British School, English Language School Pvt. Some schools, such as The American School of Dubai, also offer the curriculum of the United States.
The most well-known universities in Dubai are American University in Dubai, Hult International Business School, Al Ghurair University, The American College of Dubai, University of Wollongong in Dubai, British University in Dubai offering courses in Business Administration, Engineering, Architecture and Interior Design. American University in Dubai is one of the six UAE universities featured in QS World University Rankings 2014/2015. In 2013 Synergy University Dubai Campus opened its campus in Jumeirah Lakes Towers being a first University in Dubai to be located outside of Educational Zones (Knowledge Village or Academic City).
Healthcare in Dubai can be divided into two different sectors: public and private. Each Emirate is able to dictate healthcare standards according to their internal laws, although the standards and regulations rarely have extreme differences. Public hospitals in Dubai were first built in the late 1950s and continued to grow with public health initiatives. There are now 28 hospitals in Dubai, 6 public and 22 private, with 3 more major hospitals scheduled to be built by 2025.
By the end of 2012, there were also a total of 1,348 medical clinics, 97% of which are operated privately. In 2015, Dubai phased in mandatory health insurance for all inhabitants, thereby leading to increased demand for medical services.
Twin towns and sister cities
Dubai is twinned with the following cities:
- Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (2006)
- Busan, South Korea (2006)
- Detroit, Michigan, United States (2003)
- Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany, as a Friendship city since 2005
- Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (2001)
- Shanghai, China (2009)
- Istanbul, Turkey (1997)
- Padang, Indonesia (2015)
- Pyongyang, North Korea
- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2010)
- Dundee, Scotland, UK (2004)
- Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates
- Al Sufouh Archaeological Site
- Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve
- Dubai Silicon Oasis
- List of buildings in Dubai
- Sustainability in Dubai
- Outline of Dubai
- "Population Bulletin" (PDF). Dubai Statistics Center, Government of Dubai. 2015.
- Area of "Dubai emirate", includes artificial islands.
- "Population Clock". www.dsc.gov.ae. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Gross Domestic Product at Current Prices 2016 - Emirate of Dubai" (PDF). Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "United Arab Emirates: metropolitan areas". World-gazetteer.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. D Long, B Reich. p.157
- "Federal Supreme Council". uaecabinet.ae. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "Where is Dubai and Dubai city?". Thatsdubai.com. 14 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "The 2008 Global Cities Index". Foreign Policy. 15 October 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- Sampler & Eigner (2008). Sand to Silicon. UAE: Motivate. p. 11. ISBN 9781860632549.
- DiPaola, Anthony (28 September 2010). "Dubai gets 2% GDP from oil". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- Oil share dips in Dubai GDP Archived 26 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine AMEInfo (9 June 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.
- Dubai economy set to treble by 2015 Archived 3 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine ArabianBusiness.com (3 February 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.
- "Dubai diversifies out of oil". AMEInfo. 7 September 2005. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
- Cornock, Oliver. "Dubai must tap booming halal travel industry – Khaleej Times". khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- Lucy Barnard (6 March 2013). "Cost of living in Dubai rising rapidly". The National. Abu Dhabi. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Oslo, Zürich and Tokyo are most expensive cities". Thepeninsulaqatar.com. 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Dubai second-most expensive city to stay in, report says". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Gillian Duncan (8 March 2013). "Abu Dhabi and Dubai are best places to live in the Middle East, survey says". The National. Abu Dhabi. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Alkaabi, Alyazya (July 2011). مسميات مناطق دبي قديماً [Old names areas of Dubai]. Al Jundi (in Arabic). 444: 76.
- "Old Dubai". Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "How Did Dubai, Abu Dhabi and other Cities Get Their Names? Experts Reveal All". UAE Interact. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Weeks, Lloyd; Cable, Charlotte; Franke, Kristina; Newton, Claire; Karacic, Steven; Roberts, James; Stepanov, Ivan; David-Cuny, Hélène; Price, David (26 April 2017). "Recent archaeological research at Saruq al-Hadid, Dubai, UAE". Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy. 28 (1): 39. doi:10.1111/aae.12082. ISSN 0905-7196.
- "Brushing off sands of time at the archaeological site of Saruq al-Hadid". The National. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- "SHARP – the Saruq al-Hadid Archaeological Research Project". Research Plus. 3 September 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- "History and Traditions of the UAE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- "The old ... turned new". Travel & Culture. 25 October 2001. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- Ibrahim Al Abed, Peter Hellyer (2001). United Arab Emirates: A perspective. Trident Press. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- "The Coming of Islam and the Islamic Period in the UAE. King, Geoffrey R." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Heard-Bey, Frauke (1990). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. p. 238. ISBN 978-0582277281.
- Schofield, R (1990). Islands and Maritime Boundaries of the Gulf 1798–1960. UK: Archive Editions. p. 545. ISBN 9781852072759.
- "Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture. Karim, Luiza". Alshindagah.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- Lorimer, John (1915). Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. British Government, Bombay. p. 750.
- Lorimer, John (1915). Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. British Government, Bombay. p. 2236.
- Lorimer, John (1915). Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. British Government, Bombay. p. 743.
- Wilson, Graeme (1999). Father of Dubai. Media Prima. p. 34.
- Lorimer, John (1915). Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf Vol II. British Government, Bombay. p. 454.
- Wilson, Graeme (1999). Father of Dubai. Media Prima. p. 39.
- "Dubayy". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008
- "The UAE: Internal Boundaries And The Boundary With Oman. Archived Editions. Walker, J". Archiveeditions.co.uk. 18 February 1969. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- The Middle East and North Africa. Schofield, C. p 175
- Heard-Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. London: Longman. p. 260. ISBN 978-0582277281.
- Wilson, Graeme (1999). Father of Dubai. UAE: Media Prima. p. 126. ISBN 9789948856450.
- Donald., Hawley (1970). The Trucial States. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 245. ISBN 978-0049530058. OCLC 152680.
- Reporter, Mariam M. Al Serkal, Staff (9 April 2011). "Fifty years on, the tragedy of vessel MV Dara lingers". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Wilson, Graeme (2008). Fly Buy Dubai. UAE: Media Prima. p. 58. ISBN 9789948859437.
- Thomas, Anthony (3 March 1969). "Gold smuggling boosts Dubai economy". The Times.
- Donald., Hawley (1970). The Trucial States. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 204. ISBN 978-0049530058. OCLC 152680.
- "Historic population statistics" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- Chapman, Len. "How Chicago Beach got its name...then lost it!". Dubai As It Used To Be. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- Donald., Hawley (1970). The Trucial States. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 222. ISBN 978-0049530058. OCLC 152680.
- Wilson, Graeme (1999). Father of Dubai. UAE: Media Prima. p. 151. ISBN 9789948856450.
- Al Maktoum, Mohammed bin Rashid (2012). Spirit of the Union. UAE: Motivate. pp. 27–39. ISBN 9781860633300.
- Maktoum, Mohammed bin Rashid (2012). Spirit of the Union. UAE: Motivate. p. 30. ISBN 9781860633300.
- Al Abed, Ibrahim (2001). United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. https://www.uaeinteract.com/uaeint_misc/pdf/perspectives/06.pdf: Trident Press. pp. 129–133. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0.
- Ahmadi, Kourosh (2008). Islands and International Politics in the Persian Gulf: The Abu Musa and Tunbs in Strategic Context. London: Routledge. p. 96.
- "Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates". Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Beirut Showing Signs of Recovery From Wounds of War". The New York Times. 26 May 1977. pg.2
- Dubai. Carter, T and Dunston, L. Lonely Planet Publications
- "Free Zones in the UAE". uaefreezones.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Davidson, Christopher, The Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai: Contrasting Roles in the International System. March 2007.
- Sampler & Eigner (2008). Sand to Silicon: Going Global. UAE: Motivate. p. 15. ISBN 9781860632549.
- Environmental Development and Protection in the UAE Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Aspinall, Simon
- Far enough from the fault lines. Archived 27 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine The National, 23 April 2008
- Flora and fauna of Dubai Archived 2 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine gowealthy.com
- Natural UAE Archived 26 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine UAE Interact. Retrieved 29 April 2010
- "Dubai Floor Plan & Area Map". Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- "Climate in Dubai across the year. Dubai Meteorological office". Dubaiairport.com. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Temperature and Humidity in Dubai". Godubai.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "UAE weather: Temperature soars to near record level". The National. Abu Dhabi. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Climate (Average Temperatures:1977–2015;Precipitation:1967-2009)". Dubai Meteorological Office. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Climate Yearly Report 2003-2018". UAE National Center of Meteorology NCM. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- US Library of Congress – Legislative Branches
- Organizational Chart. Dubai Municipality
- Dubai Municipality's e-government initiative. Powerpoint. 2 December 2005
- Wheeler, Julia (13 October 2008). "Raw sewage threat to booming Dubai". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- "The UAE now has a Minister of Happiness – What's On Dubai". What's On Dubai. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- "Members Of The Cabinet". uaecabinet.ae. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- On the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Legal System. Gulf-Law.com
- UAE Consulate of the United States
- Alcohol / liquor licence and laws in Dubai, archived from the original on 24 February 2015
- Reporter, Bassam Za'za', Senior (16 May 2010). "Law gets tough on drunk drivers in Dubai". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Davis, Mike (September–October 2006). "Fear and money in Dubai". New Left Review. II (41): 47–68. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016.
- "Job losses hasten property decline in Dubai but medium-long term outlook upbeat". Propertywire.com. 3 December 2008. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- "Mohammad Bin Rashid approves Dubai's budget for 2015". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Human Rights Watch – Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Human Rights Watch. Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates (PDF) (PDF ed.). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE to allow construction unions". BBC News. 30 March 2006. Archived from the original on 23 April 2006.
- "Dubai fire investigation launched". BBC News. 19 January 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009.
- "Slaves in Dubai documentary". VICE. 2009. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "UAE to allow construction unions". BBC News. 30 March 2006. Archived from the original on 23 April 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2006.
- "UAE ambassador: 'We do not promote idea of press freedom'". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Dubai in United Arab Emirates a centre of human trafficking and prostitution". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- Agarib, Amira. "Dubai among world's safest cities as serious crimes decline". www.khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "UAE Tours - Crime and crime rate in Dubai". www.vjcyber.com. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "Arab countries score low on crime, highest on safety in world survey". Arab News. 9 August 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "Crime Index Rate". Numbeo. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "Crime Index Rate". Numbeo. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- Reporter, Mariam M. Al Serkal, Senior Web (6 February 2018). "Revealed: Top crimes committed in Dubai". GulfNews. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Reporter, Ali Al Shouk, Staff (13 January 2018). "Dubai Police hailed as serious crimes rate falls by 15%". GulfNews. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "Common Crimes and Laws in the UAE". www.internations.org. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Karin, Luiza (September 1999). "Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture by Luiza Karim". alshindagah.com. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- Hadjari, Karim. "3D Modelling and Visualisation OF Al Baskita in Dubai IN Dubai, United Arab Emerites" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Tourism in Dubai" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2005. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- Lahmeyer, Jan (2001). "The United Arab Emigrates – Historical demographical data of the urban centers". .populstat. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- Heard-Bey, Frauke. "The Tribal Society of the UAE and its Traditional Economy" (PDF). uaeinteract.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- "Census 2005 U.A.E." tedad.ae. Archived from the original on 16 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- Younes, Bassem. "Roundabouts vs. Intersections: The Tale of Three UAE Cities" (PDF). ite.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- "Dubai in Figures 2009. Government of Dubai. Statistical Center". Dsc.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- "Active Individuals' Movement During Peak Hours* End of the Year - Emirate of Dubai" (PDF). www.dsc.gov.ae.
- "Cost of living – The world's most expensive cities". City Mayors. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Dubai population jumps 4.8 per cent to 2.17m". UAE interact. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- "Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE". Reuters. Reuters UK. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
- "GCC Citizenship Debate: A Place To Call Home". Gulf Business. 5 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014.
- "Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. MPI Data Hub
- HASSAN M. FATTAH; Nada El Sawy contributed reporting for this article. (4 December 2005). "Young Iranians Follow Dreams to Dubai". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- "HSBC Reveals "The Future of Retirement: What the World Wants" Survey Results" (PDF). HSBC. 26 April 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- "Dubai leads British exodus overseas". Arabian Business. 21 May 2008. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "United Arab Emirates Demographics Profile 2014". indexmundi.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Christensen, Shane (2010). Frommer's Dubai. John Wiley & Sons. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-470-71178-1.
- "Nama Tuluveru all set to entertain UAE with Rangabhoomi's 'Kaala Chakra'". daijiworld.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Languages spoken in Dubai". Justlanded.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Country Profile: United Arab Emirates (UAE) Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. United States Library of Congress
- "Report on International Religious Freedom". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Staff (22 July 2015). "UAE to deport expats abusing religions". Emirates 24|7. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- Religion in Dubai Archived 24 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Dubaidreams
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – United Arab Emirates". State.gov. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- "'It's easier being Christian in Abu Dhabi than in UK'". Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- Everington, John (22 January 2015). "Dubai enters top five ranked fastest growing economies". The National. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Dubai's gross domestic product is expected to reach US$107.1 billion, posting a growth rate of 6.1% in 2014 and exceeding Dubai government's estimates of 5%, according to Citibank". Zawya Thomson Reuters. 14 June 2014. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Dubai – Overview". USA Today. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- "Dubai's oil discovery and Dubai's debt". Moneycontrol.com. 5 February 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "UAE Oil and Gas". Uae.gov.ae. 19 June 1999. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- Prospects of Dubai Economic Sectors Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Dubai Chamber of Commerce. 2003
- "Dubai's foreign trade steady at Dh1.331 trillion in 2014". Emirates 24|7. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "World Port Rankings – 2008" (PDF). American Association of Port Authorities. 15 April 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "Free Zone Authorities in Dubai". Business-Dubai.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- Armitstead, Louise (20 November 2008). "Dubai's Palm Jumeirah sees prices fall as crunch moves in". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- "World's Tallest Hotel Opens Its Doors". BBC News. 1 December 1999. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- "Dubai: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly". 17 March 2012. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- "Laid-Off Foreigners Flee as Dubai Spirals Down" Archived 11 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine article by Robert F. Worth in The New York Times 11 February 2009
- Hanif, Nadeem (12 November 2009). "JLT owners still waiting for homes promised in 2007". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Warner, Jeremy (27 November 2009) Dubai is just a harbinger of things to come for sovereign debt Archived 30 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. The Telegraph
- "How Dubai real estate can avoid repeating past mistakes | Bayut Blog". Blog.bayut.com. 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Nasdaq Dubai | Exchange Overview". www.nasdaqdubai.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- gold-dubai (22 February 2016) "Gold rate in Dubai". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- "Citgy Mayors: World's best financial cities". Citymayors.com. 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- "World's richest cities by purchasing power". City Mayors. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "MW-IndexRpt-CoComm FA.indd" (PDF).
- "Laws & Regulations | Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC)". www.difc.ae. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "Hot Spots 2025: Dubai Moves Up to 23rd Place Dubai Chronicle". Dubaichronicle.com. 2 July 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Indians top foreign investors in Dubai realty". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Dubai Fashion 2020 To Be Unveiled Soon Dubai Chronicle". Dubaichronicle.com. 18 June 2013. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Construction of 10 buildings in Dubai Design District already underway". Dubaichronicle.com. 9 June 2013. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Bargain-hunting Fashionistas Descend onto Dubai". 17 March 2012. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- "Shopping in Dubai". Shopping Galore in Dubai. 17 October 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "104 Attractions in Dubai". 25 September 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- Murray, Tom. "The 20 most visited cities around the world in 2018". Business Insider. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
- "14.9 million overnight visitors for Dubai in 2016". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- Jacobs, Deborah L. "Most Visited Cities In The World 2012". forbes. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Dubai History". dubai.ae. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Dubai Creek for World Heritage List". Khaleej Times. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Krane, Jim (September 2009). City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-53574-2.
- "Dubai Creek Park". Capture Dubai. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Dubai Expo 2020 Master Plan". dubaichronicle.com. 22 May 2013. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Kerr, Simeon. "Jubilant Dubai wins bid to host 2020 World Expo". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "According to a research from Oxford Economics, Dubai Expo 2020 may create over 270,000 jobs". dubaichronicle.com. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "EXPO Dubai 2020 – a preview". Inexhibit magazine. Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- "Dubai launches world's largest concentrated solar power project – Gulf Business". gulfbusiness.com. 2 June 2016. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.
- "UAE Gears Up Ahead of Dubai EXPO 2020". shuraa.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016.
- Karim, Luiza Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture Archived 30 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. AlShindagah, 1999
- "Design of Burj Khalifa". Burjkhalifa.ae. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "World's Ten Tallest Cities In 2012, the JW Marriott Marquis Dubai opened and is the World's tallest hotel, standing at 72 stories (1,165 ft)". Ultrapolis Project. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
- "Calculated Average Height of the Twenty-five Tallest (CAHTT)". Ultrapolisproject.com. 4 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Burj Khalifa records over 1.87 million visitors in 2013". khaleejtimes.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Hotel star ratings standards long overdue". The National. 14 July 2009. Archived from the original on 16 January 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "Dubai In Number" Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, go-gulf.ae, 23 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015
- "Iosif Stalin-2" Archived 11 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, capturedubai.com, 29 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "The Palm Jumeirah". Nakheel. 2006. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2007.
- "World's Largest Natural Flower Garden Opens in Dubai". 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013.
- "The World's most beautiful garden-In Dubai". Xpress. 20 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016.
- "Will metro change Dubai car culture?". BBC News. 11 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 September 2009.
- "SYSTRA and AECOM win the Dubai Tram extension". Highways Today. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Gulfnews: Dubai traffic woes inflict losses of Dh4.6b a year". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- "Gulfnews: Public transport regains allure as Car-free Day gets under way". Gulf News. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Gulfnews: Rta wants 30 of dubai residents on public transport". Gulf News. 21 January 2010. Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Dubai-Al Ain Road renamed". WAM. Al Ain: Gulf News. 2 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
- Completed projects. RTA Dubai
- "Dubai buses may be privatised – The National Newspaper". The National. Abu Dhabi. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- "Gulfnews: Air-conditioned bus shelters for Dubai". Gulf News. 6 March 2010. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2006.
- "Gulfnews: Dubai Metro gives boost to public transport in city". Gulf News. 6 March 2010. Archived from the original on 12 April 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Dubai Taxi Corporation". Dtc.dubai.ae. 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- "Getting Around in Dubai". dubai.com/. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- "2008 Annual Report". Dubai Airport. 2009. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- "DXB Takes Over Top Spot for International Passenger Traffic". dubaiairports.ae. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015.
- "Our Destinations". Emirates. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015.
- "Al Maktoum International airport begins operations". Gulf News. 27 June 2010. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Al Maktoum International airport receives first flight". Gulf News. 21 June 2010. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
- "Dubai RTA – Dubai Metro – Blue Line". zawya. 11 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
- "Dubai Municipality signs Dhs12.45 billion Metro contract". UAE Interact. 30 May 2005. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011.
- "Middle East's first monorail to start services in Palm Jumeirah by April". Gulf News. 7 August 2008. Archived from the original on 16 July 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2008.
- "Palm monorail tried and tested". Timeoutdubai. 6 May 2009. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- "First Monorail system in the Middle East takes first paying passengers". AEC Online. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "About". The Dubai Tram. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "GCC Rail Network". zawya projects. 14 April 2010. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Port of Jebel Ali". worldportsource.com. 14 August 2008. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Abra-services Archived 17 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine dubai-online
- "RTA launches Water Bus System on Dubai Creek". AMEinfo. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Jonathan Sheikh-Miller. "UAE Weekend Switchover". AMEinfo. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- Luxury Fashion Branding: Trends, Tactics, Techniques – Page 80, Uché Okonkwo – 2007
- Dubai – Page 100, Terry Carter – 2009
- Introduction to Sociology – Page 14, George Ritzer – 2012
- Dubai Shopping Festival 2011 Archived 6 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine More Details
- DSF Milestones Archived 17 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Dubaicityguide
- "Sales will account for 8% of Dubai's GDP". Gulf News. 3 May 2009. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Sherwood, Seth (9 December 2007). "Clubs Bloom in the Desert". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Gulf News Community". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Dubai is world's festival city". khaleejtimes.com. 23 September 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Dubai crowned World Festival and Event City by IFEA". news.definitelydubai.com. 23 September 2012. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Top 7 Places to go Shopping in Dubai – Dubai Expats Guide". Dubai Expats Guide. 29 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. GAIN Report. United States Department of Agriculture
- Dubai Culture Archived 6 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine dubai-livethedream.com
- "Biryani in Dubai". zomato.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016.
- "Dubai Food Festival". Dubai Food Festival. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- East, Ben (February 2014). "Taste of culture: Dubai Food Festival". Vision.ae. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Dubai Food Festival 2017". Archived from the original on 10 October 2016.
- "About Dubai Film Festival (DFF)". 7th Dubai International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Carbon 12's website". Carbon12dubai.com. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original on 31 March 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Largest-Circulation Arabic Newspapers Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Arab Reform Bulletin, December 2004
- Gulf News continues to lead the way. zawya. February 2010
- "Etisalat ramps up UAE bandwidth". arabianbusiness.com. 11 June 2006. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Hashim, Abdulla (5 May 2005). "UAEnicat a Glance" (PDF). isoc.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- United Arab Emirates Archived 9 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. OpenNet Interactive. 2008
- Jack, Malvern (16 February 2009). "Geraldine Bedell's novel banned in Dubai because of gay character". The Times. UK. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Internet Filtering in the United Arab Emirates in 2004–2005: A Country Study". OpenNet Initiative. 5 May 2005. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law No.2/2002". Dubai Technology and Media Free Zone Authority. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Silenced – United Arab Emirates". Privacyinternational.org. 21 September 2003. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Criminal Law of Dubai". 23 October 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- Leijen, Majorie van. "UAE laws you must know to stay out of trouble". Emirates 24|7. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Mansell, Warwick (30 April 2010). "Expat guide to the UAE: schools". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 23 October 2015.
- "Middle East International Baccalaureate Association (MEIBA) of Schools". Archived from the original on 13 February 2015.
- "Welcome to BTEC". Archived from the original on 7 May 2015.
- "ADEC signs a protocol agreement with the International Baccalaureate Organization today". ADEC. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "List of schools in Dubai, Dubai school finder". Dubaifaqs.com. 5 June 2012. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "QS World University Rankings® 2014/15". topuniversities.com. 11 September 2014. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Synergy University Dubai Campus. "Synergy University Dubai Campus – Home Page". Synergy University Dubai Campus. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- DEG. "Synergy University, Dubai Educational Guide". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE Expo 2020 bid in good health: Dubai gets new hospitals". 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015.
- "Dubai Healthcare Overview". Colliers.
- "Dubai's mandatory health insurance law comes into force". The National. 15 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015.
- Dubai is sister city to Barcelona, on the municipality's website (in Catalan). Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Dubai and Busan are sister cities, on the municipality's website Archived 18 March 2016 at Archive.today, 13 November 2006.
- Sister Cities Agreement between Detroit and Dubai Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 28 September 2003.
- "Partnerships: Frankfurt am Main" (in German). Council of European Municipalities and Regions. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Dubai and Gold Coast are sister cities, on the municipality's website Archived 13 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Dubai is sister city to Shanghai, on the municipality's site Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 27 July 2009.
- Dubai and Istanbul are sister cities, on the municipality's website Archived 15 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish), 22 March 1997.
- "Wako: Kerjasama Padang-Perth-Dubai Saling Menguntungkan". ANTARA (in Indonesian). 15 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Corfield, Justin (2013). "Sister Cities". Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang. London: Anthem Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-85728-234-7.
- Dubai is listed as one of Kuala Lumpur's sister cities Archived 30 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Scotland's links with UAE celebrated in Dundee".
- Syed Ali. Dubai: Gilded Cage (Yale University Press; 2010) 240 pages. Focuses on the Arab emirate's treatment of foreign workers.
- Heiko Schmid: Economy of Fascination: Dubai and Chicago as Themed Urban Landscapes, Berlin, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-443-37014-5.
- John M. Smith: Dubai The Maktoum Story, Norderstedt 2007, ISBN 3-8334-4660-9.
- Dubai travel guide from Wikivoyage
- www.dubai.ae – The Official Portal of Dubai Government
- www.dm.gov.ae – Dubai Municipality website