Duke of Orléans

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Dukedom of Orléans
Coat of arms of the Duke of Orléans with the coronet of a "Son of France" (Order of the Holy Spirit).svg
The arms of the House of Orléans of the ninth creation
Creation date1344
PeeragePeerage of France
First holderPhilip of Valois
Last holderFerdinand Philippe of Orléans
Extinction date13 July 1842
Seat(s)Château de Blois
Château de Saint-Cloud

Duke of Orléans (French: Duc d'Orléans) was a title reserved for French royalty, first created in 1344 by Philip VI in favor of his son Philip of Valois.[1] Known as princes of the blood (princes du sang), the title of Duke of Orléans was given, when available, to the King of France's eldest brother. Thus, until 1830, they formed a collateral line of the French royal family, with an eventual right to succeed to the throne should more senior princes of the blood die out. In this way, the title of Duke of Orléans may be considered analogous to the Duke of York, which is traditionally granted to the reigning English (and later British) monarch's second son.

During the period of the ancien régime the holder of the title often assumed a political role. The Orléans branch of the House of Valois came to the throne with Louis XII (15th century). Louis Philippe II, fifth Duke of Orléans, contributed to the destruction of the ancien régime. At the head of a retrospectively named 'Orleanist' faction centred on the Palais Royal, he contested the authority of his cousin Louis XVI in the adjacent Louvre. His son would eventually ascend the throne in 1830 following the July Revolution as Louis-Philippe I, King of the French. The descendants of the family are the Orléanist pretenders to the French throne, and the title has been used by several members of the House. The holder of the title held the style of Serene Highness.

House of Valois[edit]

First creation (1344)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Philip of Valois
Blason Philippe de France (1336-1375) duc d'Orléans.svg July 1, 1336 –
September 1, 1376
Philip VI of France
Joan the Lame

Philip died without legitimate issue.[1]

Second creation (1392)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Louis I
LouisOrlean ChristinaPisan.jpg March 13, 1372 –
November 23, 1407
Charles V of France
Joanna of Bourbon
Charles I
Charles Ier d'Orléans.jpg November 24, 1394 –
January 5, 1465
Louis I, Duke of Orléans
Valentina Visconti
Louis II
Ludvig XII av Frankrike på målning från 1500-talet.jpg June 27, 1462 –
January 1, 1515
Charles I, Duke of Orléans
Marie of Cleves

Third creation (1519)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Henry II
Henry II of France..jpg March 31, 1519 –
July 10, 1559
Francis I of France
Claude of France

Fourth creation (1536)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Charles II
Charles II de Orleans.jpg January 22, 1522 –
September 9, 1545
Francis I of France
Claude of France

Fifth creation (1549)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Louis III
D2ed0a7b2a.jpg February 3, 1549 –
October 24, 1550
Henry II of France
Catherine de' Medici

Sixth creation (1550)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Charles III Maximilian
Bemberg Fondation Toulouse - Portrait de Charles IX - François Clouet - Inv.1012.jpg June 27, 1550 –
May 30, 1574
Henry II of France
Catherine de' Medici

Seventh creation (1560)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Henry III
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg September 19, 1551 –
August 2, 1589
Henry II of France
Catherine de' Medici

House of Bourbon[edit]

Eighth creation (1607)[edit]

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Nicholas Henri
Portrait of Nicolas Henri of France, Duke of Orléans circa 1610 after Frans Pourbus the Younger.jpg 16 April 1607 –
17 November 1611
Henry IV of France
Marie de' Medici

Ninth creation (1626)[edit]

At the death of Nicholas Henri, his younger brother Gaston was given the title of Orléans but was not officially allowed to be styled as the Duke of Orléans until his marriage with the heiress Marie de Bourbon, Duchess de Montpensier in her own right (she had been betrothed to Nicholas at the age of 3). They were the parents of Anne Marie Louise of Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier. At her death in 1693, much of her vast wealth went to her cousin, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans.

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Full length portrait painting of Gaston of France, Duke of Orléans in 1634 by Anthony van Dyck (Musée Condé).jpg 25 April 1608 –
2 February 1660
Henry IV of France
Marie de' Medici

Tenth creation (1660)[edit]

Upon the death of Gaston of Orléans, the appanage of Orléans reverted to the crown and was given to Philippe de France, the brother of Louis XIV of France. As the king's eldest brother he was known at court as Monsieur.

Philippe and his second wife, the famous court writer Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, founded the modern House of Orléans. Their surviving son Philippe d'Orléans was the regent for the child king Louis XV.

The first two dukes were addressed as Royal Highness (Altesse royale); their successors had the style Serene Highness. After 1709, the dukes of Orléans were the First Princes of the Blood – this meant that they could be addressed as Monsieur le Prince, and were in line to the throne of France after the descendants of Louis XIV.

Name Portrait Lifespan Parents
Philippe I
Painting of Philippe of France, Duke of Orléans by Corneille the Elder (Versailles).jpg September 21, 1640 –
June 8, 1701
Louis XIII of France
Infanta Ana of Spain
Philippe II
Philippe d'Orléans, Regent et la comtesse de Parabère (Marie Madeleine de La Vieuville) par Santerre.jpg August 2, 1674 –
December 2, 1723
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
Rochard after Coypel - Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans in Armour.jpg August 4, 1703 –
February 4, 1752
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Françoise-Marie de Bourbon
Louis Philippe I
Rioult portrait after van Loo depicting Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (Versailles).jpg May 12, 1725 –
November 18, 1785
Louis, Duke of Orléans
Margravine Auguste Marie Johanna of Baden-Baden
Louis Philippe II
Portrait of Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (known as Philippe Égalité) in ceremonial robes of the Order of the Holy Spirit by Antoine François Callet.jpg April 13, 1747 –
November 6, 1793
Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
Louise Henriette de Bourbon
Louis Philippe III
1841 portrait painting of Louis Philippe I (King of the French) by Winterhalter.jpg 6 October 1773 –
August 26, 1850
Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon
Ferdinand Philippe
Ferdinand-P.JPG September 3, 1810 –
July 13, 1842
Louis Philippe III, Duke of Orléans
Princess Maria Amalia Teresa of the Two Sicilies
(did not use the title)
Philippe d'Orléans, Count of Paris (1838-1894).jpg 24 August 1838 –
8 September 1894
Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Duchess Helen of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
DukeOrleans.jpg August 24, 1869 –
March 28, 1926
Philippe, Count of Paris
Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans


  • François Gaston Michel Marie of Orléans, Duke of Orléans (1935–1960) second son of Henri, comte de Paris (posthumous creation)


  • Legitimists recognize Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris, Head of the House of Orléans, as Duke of Orléans, inheriting the title as the heir male of Philip I, Duke of Orléans.
  • Orleanists recognize Jacques d'Orléans, younger brother of the Count of Paris, as Duke of Orléans. Per Orleanist reckoning, the title has merged with the crown. Jacques is the younger fraternal twin brother of Michel d'Orléans. According to Orleanists, the last of twins to be born is the first-born. Thus, Jacques is considered the eldest younger brother of the Count of Paris, whom they consider the king.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Orleans, Dukes of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 282.