Duchess of Richmond's ball
The Duchess of Richmond's ball was a ball hosted by Charlotte, Duchess of Richmond in Brussels on 15 June 1815, the night before the Battle of Quatre Bras. Charlotte's husband Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, was in command of a reserve force in Brussels, which was protecting that city in case Napoleon Bonaparte invaded.
Elizabeth Longford described it as "the most famous ball in history". "The ball was certainly a brilliant affair", at which "with the exception of three generals, every officer high in [Wellington's] army was there to be seen".
The proceedings were interrupted soon after the arrival of the Duke of Wellington, when he was notified of Napoleon's unexpected advance on the nearby crossroads of Quatre Bras. This forced him to depart after ordering his officers to leave to join their regiments. Some of the officers would soon die in battle and the poignancy of the drama has provided an enduring theme for artists, novelists and poets.
According to Lady Georgiana, a daughter of the Duchess,
|“||My mother’s now famous ball took place in a large room on the ground-floor on the left of the entrance, connected with the rest of the house by an ante-room. It had been used by the coach-builder, from whom the house was hired, to put carriages in, but it was papered before we came there; and I recollect the paper—a trellis pattern with roses. … At the ball supper I sat next to the Duke of Wellington, when he gave me an original miniature of himself painted by a Belgian artist. …||”|
|— Georgiana, Dowager Lady De Ros|
Lady Louisa, another of the Duchess's daughters, recalled:
|“||I well remember the Gordon Highlanders dancing reels at the ball. My mother thought it would interest foreigners to see them,[a] which it did. I remember hearing that some of the poor men who danced in our house died at Waterloo. There was quite a crowd to look at the Scotch dancers.||”|
|— Lady Louisa|
While the exact order of the dances at this ball is not known, there is a comment from a contemporary critical observer about the season in Brussels:
|“||Whenever they get together the severest etiquette is present. The women on entering always salute on each side of the cheek; they then set [sic] down as stiff as waxworks. They begin a ball with a perfect froideur they go on with their dangerous waltz (in which all the Englishwomen join) and finish with the gallopade, a completely indecent and violent romp.||”|
|— Rev. George Griffin Stonestreet[b]|
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington with his intimate staff arrived some time between 11 pm. and midnight.[c] Shortly before supper, which started around 1 am., Henry Weber, an aide-de-camp to the William, Prince of Orange, arrived with a message for the Prince. The Prince handed it to Wellington, who pocketed it unopened. A short time later Wellington read the message—written at around 10 pm., it reported that Prussian forces had been forced by the French to retreat from Fleurus. As Fleurus is north-east of Charleroi this meant that the French had crossed the river Sambre (although Wellington couldn't tell from this message in what strength)— Wellington requested the Prince to return to his headquarters immediately, and then after issuing a few more orders went into supper, where he sat between Lady Frances Webster and Lady Georgiana. To his surprise the Prince of Orange returned and in a whisper informed him of another dispatch, this one sent by Baron Rebecque to the Prince's headquarters at Braine-le-Comte, and dated 10:30 pm. It informed the Prince that the French had pushed up the main Charleroi to Brussels road nearly as far as Quatre Bras.[d] After repeating to the Prince that he should return to his headquarters, Wellington continued to sit at the table and make small talk for 20 minutes more, before announcing that he would retire to bed. He rose from the supper-table and:
|“||whispered to ask the Duke of Richmond if he had a good map. The Duke of Richmond said he had, and took Wellington into his dressing-room. Wellington shut the door and said, "Napoleon has humbugged me, by God; he has gained twenty-four hours' march on me. … I have ordered the army to concentrate at Quatre Bras; but we shall not stop him there, and if so I must fight him there" (passing his thumb-nail over the position of Waterloo). The conversation was repeated to me by the Duke of Richmond two minutes after it occurred.||”|
|— Captain Bowles[e]|
The atmosphere in the room changed when news circulated among the guests that the French were crossing the border:
|“||When the duke [of Wellington] arrived, rather late, at the ball, I was dancing, but at once went up to him to ask about the rumours. He said very gravely, "Yes, they are true; we are off to-morrow." This terrible news was circulated directly, and while some of the officers hurried away, others remained at the ball, and actually had not time to change their clothes, but fought in evening costume. I went with my eldest brother (A.D.C. to the Prince of Orange) to his house, which stood in our garden, to help him to pack up, after which we returned to the ballroom, where we found some energetic and heartless young ladies still dancing. I heard afterwards that it had been said that "the Ladies Lennox were fine, and did not do the honours of the ball well". …
It was a dreadful evening, taking leave of friends and acquaintances, many never to be seen again. The Duke of Brunswick, as he took leave of me in the ante-room adjoining the ball-room, made me a civil speech as to the Brunswickers being sure to distinguish themselves after "the honour" done them by my having accompanied the Duke of Wellington to their review! I remember being quite provoked with poor Lord Hay, a dashing merry youth, full of military ardour, whom I knew very well for his delight at the idea of going into action, and of all the honours he was to gain; and the first news we had on the 16th was that he and the Duke of Brunswick were killed. …
|— Georgiana, Dowager Lady De Ros|
Katherine Arden daughter of Richard Arden, 1st Lord Alvanley described the events towards the end of the ball and the rest of the night:
|“||… on our arrival at the ball we were told that the troops had orders to march at three in the morning, and that every officer must join his regiment by that time, as the French were advancing, you cannot possibly picture to yourself the dismay and consternation that appeared on every face. Those who had brothers and sons to be engaged openly gave way to their grief, as the last parting of many took place at this most terrible ball; others (and, thank Heaven, we ranked amongst that number, for in the midst of my greatest fears I still felt thankfulness was my prominent feeling that my beloved Dick was not here) who had no near relation yet felt that amongst the many friends we all had there it was impossible that all should escape, and that the next time we might hear of them they might be numbered with the dead; in fact, my dear aunt, I cannot describe to you mingled feelings; you will, however, I am sure, understand them, and I feel quite inadequate to express them. We stayed at this ball as short a time as we could, but long enough to see express after express arrive to the Duke of Wellington, to hear of aides-de-camp arriving breathless with news, and to see, what was more extraordinary than all, the Duke's equanimity a little discomposed.
We took a mournful farewell of some of our best friends, and returned home to anything but repose. The morning dawned most lovelily [sic], and before seven o'clock, we had seen 12,000 Brunswickers, Scotch and English pass before our windows, of whom one-third before the night were mingled with the dust. Mama took a farewell of Duke [of Wellington] as he passed by, but Fanny and myself, at last wearied out, had before he went, retired to bed. …
|— Katherine Arden|
At the time of the ball no accurate record was kept of the location of the ballroom. In 1887 a plan of the house was published by Lady De Ros (daughter of the Duchess of Richmond), provided by her brother, who were both resident in the house. It was later reprinted in "Reminiscences of Lady de Ros" by the Honourable Mrs J. R. Swinton, her daughter.
Sir William Fraser examined the site and concluded that the room proposed as the ballroom by Lady de Ros was too small a space for the number of people who attended the ball. A short time after his visit, he wrote a letter to The Times which was published on 25 August 1888. He reported that he had likely discovered the room and that it was not part of the principal property that the Duke of Richmond had rented on the Rue des Cendres, but was a coach house that backed onto the property and had an address in the next street, the Rue de la Blanchisserie. The room had dimensions of 120 feet (37 m) long, 54 feet (16 m) broad, and about 13 feet (4.0 m) high (the low ceiling was a case where reality impinged on one meaning of Lord Byron's artistic allusion to "that high hall").
Research by lawyer P. Duvivier and published by Fleischman and Aerts in their 1956 book Bruxelles pendant la bataille de Waterloo put forward an alternative theory. It proposes that, unknown to Fraser, the coach house used as a ballroom had been demolished by the time of his investigations and that the building he assumed was the ballroom was not built until after 1815.
List of invitations
- Major-General the Prince of Orange (wounded at Waterloo)
- Prince Frederic of Orange
- Duke of Brunswick (killed by a gunshot at Quatre-Bras)
- Prince of Nassau
- Duc d'Arenberg
- Prince Auguste d'Arenberg
- Prince Pierre d'Arenberg
- Lord van der Linden d'Hoogvoorst [nl], Mayor of Brussels
- Duc et Duchesse de Beaufort and their daughter
- Duc et Duchesse d’Ursel
- Marquis and Marquise d'Assche.[h]
- Comte and Comtesse d'Oultremont [nl]
- Comtesse Douairiere d'Oultremont and her daughters[i]
- Comte and Comtesse Liedekerke Beaufort [fr]
- Comte and Comtesse Auguste Liedekerke [nl] and their daughter
- Comte and Comtesse Latour Lupin [fr]
- Comte and Comtesse Mercy d'Argenteau
- Comte and Comtesse de Grasiac
- Comtesse de Luiny
- Comtesse de Ruilly
- Baron and Baroness d'Hooghvoorst [fr], their daughter and son C. d'Hooghvoorst
- Monsieur and Madame Vander Capellen
- Baron de Herelt
- Baron de Tuybe
- Baron Brockhausen
- General Baron von Vincent (Austrian envoy, wounded at Waterloo)
- General Pozzo de Borgo (Russian envoy, wounded)
- General Miguel de Álava (Spanish Ambassador to The Hague — the court of King William I of the Netherlands)
- Comte de Belgade
- Comte de la Rochefoucauld
- General d'Oudenarde
- Colonel Knife (?), A.D.C.
- Colonel Ducayler
- Major Ronnchenberg, A.D.C.
- Colonel Tripp, A.D.C.
- Captain de Lubeck, A.D.C. to the Duke of Brunswick
- Earl and Countess Conyngham and Lady Elizabeth Conyngham.[j]
- Viscount Mount-Charles and Hon. Mr. Conyngham (afterwards 2nd Marquess Conyngham)
- Countess Mount-Norris and Lady Julianna Annesley
- Dowager Countess of Waldegrave
- Duke of Wellington
- Lord and Lady Fitzroy Somerset (Neither were present; Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Fitzroy lost his arm at Waterloo)
- Lord and Lady John Somerset
- Mr. and Lady Frances Webster
- Mr. and Lady Caroline Capel and their daughter
- Lord and Lady George Seymour and their daughter
- Mr. and Lady Charlotte Greville
- Viscountess Hawarden
- Sir Henry and Lady Susan Clinton (Lieutenant-General G.C.B., commanding the 2nd Division)
- Lady Alvanley and daughters Katherin and Fanny Arden
- Sir James, Lady Craufurd, and their daughter
- Sir George Berkeley, K.C.B.,[k] and Lady Berkeley
- Lady and Miss Sutton.[l]
- Sir Sidney and Lady Smith, and Miss Rumbolds
- Sir William and Lady Johnstone
- Sir Hew and Lady Delancey (invited but declined; died of his wounds at Waterloo)
- Hon. Mrs. Pole (Wife of William Wellesley-Pole, Wellington's older brother, later Lady Maryborough)
- Mr. and Mrs. Lance, their daughter and son, Mr. Lance, Jr.
- Mr. Ord and his daughters
- Mr. and Mrs. Greathed
- Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd
- Hon. Sir Charles Stuart, G.C.B. (Minister at Bruxelles) and Mr. Stuart
- Lieutenant-General Earl of Uxbridge (commanded the cavalry; lost his leg at Waterloo)
- Lieutenant-Colonel Earl of Portarlington, 23rd Light Dragoons
- Captain Earl of March, 52nd Foot, A.D.C. to the Prince of Orange
- Major-General Lord Edward Somerset (commanded the Household Brigade of cavalry, wounded at Waterloo)
- Captain Lord Charles FitzRoy, 1st Foot Guards
- Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Robert Manners, 10th Hussars (wounded)
- Lieutenant-General vertical-align=supLord Hill (Commanding the II Corps)
- Lord Rendlesham
- Ensign Lord Hay, A.D.C. (killed at Quatre Bras)
- Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Saltoun
- Lord Apsley (afterwards Earl Bathurst)
- Hon. Colonel Stanhope, Guards
- Hon. Colonel Abercromby, Guards (wounded)
- Hon. Colonel Ponsonby (afterwards Sir Frederick Ponsonby, K.C.B.; severely wounded)
- Hon. Colonel Acheson, Guards
- Hon. Colonel Stewart (wounded)
- Hon. Captain O. Bridgeman, A.D.C. to Lord Hill (wounded )
- Hon. Mr. Percival
- Hon. Ensign Wm. Stopford
- Hon. Mr. John Gordon.
- Hon. Ensign Edgecombe
- Hon. Ensign Seymour Bathurst, A.D.C. to Gen. Maitland
- Hon. Ensign Forbes
- Hon. Ensign Hastings Forbes (killed at Waterloo)
- Hon. Major George Dawson (wounded)
- Hon. Mr. Lionel Dawson, 18th Light Dragoons
- Major-General Sir Hussey Vivian (commanding 6th Cavalry Brigade)
- Horace Seymour, A.D.C. (afterwards Sir Horace Seymour, K.C.B.)
- Colonel Hervey, A.D.C. (afterwards Sir Felton Hervey-Bathurst, 1st Baronet)
- Colonel Fremantle, A.D.C.
- Lieutenant Lord George Lennox, A.D.C.
- Captain Lord Arthur Hill, A.D.C. (afterwards General Lord Sandys)
- Major Henry Percy, A.D.C. (son of 1st Earl of Beverley, deliverd news of the victory to London along with two Eagles and dispatches)
- Hon. Lieutenant George Cathcart, A.D.C. (afterwards Sir George Cathcart, killed at Inkerman, 1854)
- Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Alexander Gordon, A.D.C. (died of his wounds at Waterloo)
- Colonel Sir Colin Campbell, K.C.B., A.D.C.
- Major-General Sir John Byng, G.C.B. (created Earl of Strafford, commanded 2nd Brigade of Guards)
- Lieutenant-General Sir John Elley, K.C.B. (deputy Adjutant-General of Cavalry, wounded at Waterloo)
- Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Scovell, K.C.B. (Major, commanding Staff Corps of Cavalry)
- Colonel Sir George Wood, Colonel, Royal Artillery
- Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Bradford (wounded)
- Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Robert C. Hill, (brother of Lord Hill, wounded)
- Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Noel Hill, K.C.B. (brother of Lord Hill)
- Sir William Ponsonby, K.C.B. (Brother of Lord Ponsonby; commanded the Union Brigade of cavalry; killed at Waterloo)
- Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Andrew Barnard (commanding 1st Battalion the 95th Foot (Rifles; wounded, afterwards Governor of Chelsea Hospital)
- Major-General Sir Denis Pack, G.C.B. (commanded the 9th Brigade, wounded)
- Major-General Sir James Kempt, G.C.B (commanded the 8th Brigade)
- Sir Pulteney Malcolm RN
- Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Picton, (commanded 5th Division, killed at Waterloo)
- Major-General Sir Edward Barnes, Adjutant-General (wounded at Waterloo)
- Sir James Gambier
- Hon. General Francis Dundas
- Lieutenant-General Cooke (Commanded 1st Division, wounded)
- Major-General Maitland (afterwards Sir Peregrine Maitland, G.C.B.; commanded 1st Brigade of Guards)
- Major-General Adam (Not present; commanded 3rd Infantry Brigade. afterwards Sir Frederick Adam, K.C.B.)
- Colonel Washington
- Colonel Woodford (afterwards F.M. Sir Alexander Woodford, G.C.B. Governor of Chelsea Hospital)
- Colonel Rowan, 52nd Regiment of Foot (wounded, afterwards Sir Charles Rowan, Chief Commissioner of Police)
- Colonel Wyndham, Coldstream Guards, (wounded, afterwards General Sir Henry Wyndham)
- Colonel Cumming, 18th Light Dragoons
- Colonel Bowater, 3rd Foot Guards (wounded, afterwards General Sir Edward Bowater)
- Colonel Robert Torrens, 1st West Indies Regiment (afterwards Adjutant-General in India)
- Colonel William Fuller, 1st Dragoon Guards, (killed at Waterloo)
- Colonel Dick, 42nd Foot (wounded, killed at Sobraon, 1846)
- Colonel Cameron, 92nd Foot (killed at Quatre Bras)
- Lieutenant-Colonel D. Barclay, 1st Foot Guards, A.D.C. to the Duke of York
- Captain Clement Hill, 1st Foot Guards (wounded, brother to Lord Hill)
- Major Gunthorpe, 1st Foot Guards, A.D.C. to General Maitland
- Major C.H. Churchill, 1st Foot Guards, A.D.C. to Lord Hill and Q.M.G. (Killed in India)
- Major Hamilton, 4th West Indies Regiment, A.D.C. to Gen. Sir E. Barnes
- Major Thomas Noel Harris, Brigade Major to Sir Hussey Vivian (Lost an arm at Waterloo)
- Major Thomas Hunter Blair, [[91st (Argyllshire Highlanders) Regiment of Foot|91st Foot] (wounded)
- Captain D. Mackworth, 7th Foot, A.D.C. to Lord Hill
- Captain Edward Keane, 7th Hussars, A.D.C. to Sir Hussey Vivian
- Captain C.A. FitzRoy, Royal Horse Guards
- Captain T. Wildman, 7th Hussars, A.D.C. to Lord Uxbridge (wounded)
- Captain James Fraser, 7th Hussars (wounded, afterwards Sir James Frasier, Baronet)
- Captain William Verner, 7th Hussars (wounded)
- Captain Elphinstone, 7th Hussars (taken prisoner, 17 June)
- Captain H. Webster, 9th Light Dragoons
- Captain H. Somerset,18th Hussars, A.D.C. to General Lord Edward Somerset
- Captain Yorke, 52nd Foot, A.D.C. to Gen. Adam (afterwards Sir Charles Yorke, not present)
- Captain Hon. George Gore, 85th Foot, A.D.C. to Sir James Kempt
- Captain Pakenham, Royal Artillery
- Captain Henry Dumaresq, 9th Foot, A.D.C. to Gen. Sir John Byng (was wounded in the chest by a musket ball, delivering a despatch to Wellington. died 1836)
- Captain F. Dawkins, 1st Foot Guards, A.D.C.
- Captain Disbrowe, 1st Foot Guards, A.D.C. to General Sir G. Cook.
- Captain George Bowles, Coldstream Guards (afterwards General Sir George Bowles, Lieutenant of the Tower)
- Captain R.B. Hesketh, 3rd Foot Guards (wounded)
- Captain J. Gurwood, 10the Hussars (wounded, afterwards Colonel Gurwood)
- Captain C. Allix, 1st Foot Guards
- Captain Hon. Francis Russell, A.D.C.
- Lieutenant F. Brooke, 1st Dragoon Guards (killed at Waterloo)
- Cornet W. Huntley, 1st Dragoon Guards
- Mr. Lionel Hervey (in Diplomacy)
- Mr. Leigh
- Captain A. Shakespear, 10th Hussars
- Mr. O’Grady, 7th Hussars (afterwards Lord Guillamore)
- Captain C. Smyth, 95th Foot (Rifles), Brigade-Major to Sir Denis Packe (killed at Waterloo)
- Ensign G. Fludyer, 1st Foot Guards (wounded)
- Ensign Hon. John Montagu, Cold Stream Guards (wounded)
- Ensign Henry Montagu, 3rd Foot Guards (later Lord Rokeby, G.C.B.)
- Ensign Algernon Greville, 1st Foot Guards
- Ensign David Baird, 3rd Foot Guargs (wounded,)
- Lieutenant James Robinson, 32nd Foot
- Ensign William James, 3rd Foot Guards
- Mr. Chad
- Mr. A.F. Dawkins, 15th Hussars (wounded)
- Dr. Hyde
- Second-Lieutanant Gustavus Hume, Royal Artillery
- Rev. Samuel Briscall[m]
The ball inspired a number of writers and artists in the nineteenth century. Sir Walter Scott mentioned it in passing in Paul's Letters to his Kinsfolk. It was described by William Makepeace Thackeray in Vanity Fair and by Lord Byron in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Byron emphasises the contrast between the glamour of the ball and the horror of battle, concentrating on the emotional partings,
|— Lord Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage|
Thackeray's dramatic use of the ball in Vanity Fair inspired, in turn, a number of screen depictions. One notable example comes from the 1935 RKO production Becky Sharp, the first full-length Technicolor film released after perfection of the full-color three-strip method, which makes the Duchess of Richmond's Ball the first historical set-piece ever staged in a full-colour feature film. Critics of the day were not kind to the picture itself, but the sequence in which the officers hurry to leave the ball — the red of their coats suddenly and emotionally filling the frame — was widely praised as showing great promise for the dramatic use of colour on-screen.
The ball also inspired artists, including John Everett Millais, who painted The Black Brunswicker in 1860, Henry Nelson O'Neil who painted Before Waterloo in 1868 and Robert Hillingford who painted The Duchess of Richmond's Ball.
The ball was a scene in the third act of a melodrama called In the Days of the Duke written by Charles Haddon Chambers and J. Comyns Carr, it was displayed sumptuously in the 1897 production, with a backdrop by William Harford showing the hall and staircase inside the Duchess's house.
The ball was used by Sergei Bondarchuk in his 1970 film Waterloo for dramatic effect. Bondarchuk contrasted an army at peace with the impending battle and in particular as a dramatic backdrop to show how completely Napoleon managed to "humbug" Wellington.
In the novel Sharpe's Waterloo (1990), Bernard Cornwell uses the ball in a similar way to Bondarchuk, placing his character Richard Sharpe in the role of the aide who brings the catastrophic news to Wellington, but includes a sub-plot where Sharpe brawls with Lord John Rossendale, Sharpe's wife's lover and a man who owes Sharpe money.
A fictional account is given of the Duchess of Richmond's ball in The Campaigners, Volume 14 of The Morland Dynasty, a series of historical novels by author Cynthia Harrod-Eagles. Some of the fictional Morland family and other characters attend the ball and the events that unfold are seen and experienced through their eyes.
The ball serves as the backdrop for the first chapter of Julian Fellowes's 2016 novel, Belgravia. The chapter is titled, "Dancing into Battle," and portrays a potential mésalliance that is avoided the next day by a battlefield fatality at Quatre Bras. Fellowes incorporates into his book real events that occurred during the ball, and inserts his fictional characters into them.
On 15 June 1965 the British Ambassador in Brussels held a ball to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo and the Duchess of Richmond's ball. 540 guests attended the function of whom the majority were Belgians. This commemoration ball has now become an annual event with the money raised going to support several charities.
- Charlotte, Duchess of Richmond, was herself a Gordon: The eldest daughter of Alexander, Duke of Gordon and Jane, the daughter of Sir William Maxwell, 3rd Baronet of Monreith.
- Due to the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars British society had been cut off from the fashions in the rest of Europe and with the end of hostilities in 1814, those who ventured to visit the European Continent were keen to assimilate the latest continental fashions including the new dances (if only not to appear staid and old-fashioned in continental society). Not everyone in Britain approved, and after the waltz was danced at the Prince Regent's court the following year The Times thundered in an editorial about "this obscene display" and warned "every parent against exposing their daughter to so fatal a contagion".
- Tim Clayton states Wellington must have arrived around 11 pm.,(Clayton 2014, p. 76) while Miller places the Duke's arrival around midnight (Miller 2005, p. 67).
- This second dispatch provided some additional vital information for Wellington. The first was that as Fleurus was on a different main road out of Charleroi from that of Quatre Bras, this meant the French must have crossed the river Sambre in force. Secondly although Charleroi and Fleurus were picketed by the Prussians, the area directly south of Quatre Bras was picketed by the Anglo-allies and this meant that units of his own command were now head-to-head with the French.
- "In the course of the evening the duke asked my father for a map of the country and went into his study, which was on the same floor as the ball-room, to look at it. He put his finger on Waterloo, saying the battle would be fought there. My father marked the spot with his pencil, but alas! That map was lost or stolen for it never returned from Canada with his other possessions" (Dowager Lady De Ros 1889, p. 43).
- "The following list of the invited guests was given by my mother to Lord Verulam, who sent me a copy of it. Several of the officers were not present, being on duty" — Georgiana, Dowager Lady De Ros (Swinton 1893, pp. 124–132).
- A number of entries have been adjusted using the list provided by the Royal Armouries 2015. The adjustments includes assigning ranks and regiments to those present as well as casualties.
- Lady De Ros annotated her list with this comment "(from their house we saw the wounded brought in: Lord Uxbridge, Lord F. Somerset, etc.)" (Swinton 1893, p. 125).
- Countess Dowager Anne-Henriette d'Oultremont (nee de Neuf; 1757–1830) was the mother of Count Emile d'Oultremont (Miller 2005, pp. 76–77)
- The daughter, Lady Elizabeth Conyngham, married Charles Gordon, 10th Marquess of Huntly (Bulloch 1902, p. 42).
- Duke of Wellington's liaison officer at the Prince of Orange's headquarters (Hofschröer 2006, p. 2).
- Lady Sutton was the widow of Sir Thomas Sutton, 1st Baronet (Miller 2005, p. 61).
- Rev. Samuel Briscall name is spelt "Brixall" in the Lady De Ros list (Swinton 1893, p. 132).
- Hastings 1986, pp. 230.
- Bulloch 1902, p. 42.
- Arden 1898, Letter.
- Dowager Lady De Ros 1889, p. 40.
- Miller 2005, p. 67.
- Rust 2013, p. 69.
- Clayton 2014, p. 77.
- Hastings 1986, pp. 233–234.
- Forbes 1896, Chapter: "The inner history of the Waterloo Campaign" cites the Letters of the First Earl of Malmesbury
- Dowager Lady De Ros 1889, pp. 40, 43.
- Dowager Lady De Ros 1889, p. 39.
- Fraser 1902, pp. 304–310.
- Fraser 1902, pp. 270–273.
- Lord Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Canto the Third, stanza XXIII.
- Wit 2014 cites Fleischman & Aerts 1956, pp. 234–237
- Royal Armouries 2015.
- Eupedia 2013.
- Summerville 2007, p. 4.
- Lady Alvanley, and daughters Katherine and Fanny (Arden 1898, Letter).
- Fuller-Sessions 2008.
- Mount 2015.
- Grandson of George Gordon, 3rd Earl of Aberdeen (Bulloch 1902, p. 42).
- Royal Armouries 2015; Mount 2015
- Urban 1838, p. 443.
- Gray 1966.
- Glover 1968.
- Fraser 1902, p. 272.
- Scott 1841, p. 16.
- wikisource has the original text of this poem.
- Hart 2010.
- FM Staff 1934.
- Higgins 2007, p. 48.
- Higgins 2007, Chapter 3.
- Bulloch 1902, p. 43; New York Times 1897, p. 7; and Eastern Michigan University 2009
- Hansard 1965
- Robinson 2011; and Committee of the Duchess of Richmond Ball 2013
- Arden, Katherine (1898), Smith, George; Thackeray, William Makepeace (eds.), "Letter", The Cornhill Magazine, Smith, Elder and company, 77: 72, and also: Making of America Project (1898), The Living Age …, 216
- Bulloch, John Malcolm (September 1902), Gordon book; published for the Bazaar of the Fochabers Reading Room, Aberdeen: Rosemount Press, pp. 42–43
- The Duchess of Richmond's Ball – Brussels, Committee of the Duchess of Richmond Ball, 10 December 2013, retrieved 5 September 2018
- Clayton, Tim (2014), Waterloo: Four Days that Changed Europe’s Destiny, Little, Brown Book Group, pp. 76–77, ISBN 978-0-7481-3412-0
- Dowager Lady De Ros, Georgina (1889), "Personal Recollections of the Great Duke of Wellington", Murray's Magazine, Part I (January or February): 39–43
- Adelphi Theatre 1806–1900, Eastern Michigan University, archived from the original on 16 April 2009
- Ducal and princely families of Belgium: House of Beaufort-Spontin, Eupedia, 14 April 2013, retrieved 5 September 2018
- FM Staff (October 1934), "What? Color in the Movies Again?", Fortune Magazine — reproduced on the website of The American WideScreen Museum
- Forbes, Archibald (June 1896), "The inner history of the Waterloo Campaign", Camps, Quarters, and Casual Places (Project Gutenberg ed.), London
- Fraser, William Augustus (1902), Words on Wellington; the duke — Waterloo — the ball, London: John C. Nimmo, pp. 256–312
- Fuller-Sessions, Ruth (19 June 2008), "Unseen for 100 years, the sad love story of a wife and the final days with her husband who died at Waterloo", Daily Mail
- Gray, Nancy (1966), "Dumaresq, William John (1793–1868)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, 1, MUP
- Glover, Michael Glover (August 1968), "An Excellent Young Man: the Reverend Samuel Briscall 1788-1848", History Today, 18 (8)
- "Brussels (Waterloo Ball) — HC Deb 02 July 1965 vol 715 cc138-9W", Hansard, 2 July 1965
- Hastings, Max (1986), "Anecdote 194", The Oxford Book of Military Anecdotes, Oxford University Press US, pp. 230–234, ISBN 978-0-19-520528-2
- Hart, Martin B. (11 August 2010), Technicolor: Early Live Action Films: All singing, All dancing, All Color!], The American WideScreen Museum, retrieved 23 February 2010
- Higgins, Scot (2007), "Chapter 3: A Feature-Length Demonstration: Becky Sharp", Harnessing the Technicolor rainbow: color design in the 1930s, University of Texas Press, pp. 48, ff., ISBN 978-0-292-71628-5
- Hofschröer, Peter (2006), Did the Duke of Wellington deceive his Prussian Allies in the Campaign of 1815?, website of A. W. Cockerill, p. 2, archived from the original on 30 August 2007
- Miller, David (2005), The Duchess of Richmond's Ball: 15 June 1815, Spellmount, ISBN 978-1-86227-229-3
- "'In the Days of the Duke'; Successful Presentation of the New Melodrama in London" (PDF), The New York Times, p. 7, 10 September 1897
- Mount, Harry (3 August 2015), "The fancy party ruined by Napoleon: Goodwood House exhibition", The Telegraph
- Robinson, Frances (10 June 2011), "Real Time Brussels Friday History Club: Champagne, Frocks and Warfare", Wall Street Journal blog, Insight and analysis from The Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones team in Brussels
- "Dancing into battle: The Duchess of Richmond's Ball", Royal Armouries, 15 June 2015, retrieved 5 September 2018
- Rust, Frances (2013), Dance In Society Ils 85, Routledge, p. 69, ISBN 978-1-134-55407-2
- Scott, Sir Walter (1841), Paul's Letters to His Kinsfolk, R. Cadell, p. 16
- Swinton, Georgiana (1893), A Sketch of the Life of Georgiana, Lady de Ros: With Some Reminiscences of her friends, including the Duke of Wellington, London: John Murry
- Summerville, Christopher J. (2007), "Alava", Who was who at Waterloo: A Biography of the Battle, Longman, p. 4, ISBN 978-0-582-78405-5
- Urban, Sylvanuss, ed. (July – December 1838), The Gentleman's Magazine (PDF), New, London: William Pickering, and others, p. 443
- Wit, Pierre de (19 May 2014), Het onderzoek naar de plaats waar het bal van Richmond heeft plaatsgevonden (The Ball of Richmond) (PDF), waterloo-campaign.nl Endnotes:
- Cf. Fonds Duvivier. Ce que devint l’hotel de la rue de la Blanchisserie. In: LMB. Archieffonds Franse periode Vol.III Box 25 I.3 Chapter 5 pp. 53–57
- Fleischman, Théo; Aerts, Winand (1956), Bruxelles pendant la bataille de Waterloo, Brussels: Renaissance du Livre, pp. 234–237
- "Dresses worn at the Duchess of Richmond's Ball". Waterloo 200. 19 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- Eveleig, Lisa. Beauty and Chivalry: The Duchess of Richmond's Ball, Brussels 1815. ISBN 9781514746677.
- Bradford, Isabella (15 June 2014). "The Duchess of Richmond's Ball, 1815". — Commenting on the paintings "First off, of course, the dresses and hairstyles of the women are much more fashionable for the 1860s-70s than 1815. The grandly appointed settings are at odds with Lady de Ros's description of the ball taking place …"
- Hibbert, Christopher (1998). Waterloo: Napoleon's last campaign. Wordsworth. ISBN 1-85326-687-6. pp. 154–156
- Josh (16 April 2016). "The most famous Ball in History". Adventures In Historyland. — contains a timeline on the most notable events
- contemporary location, Google Map. compare with the diagram on page 307, of Fraser's book (cited in the References section above).
- Wit, Pierre de (25 March 2006). The guest-list of the ball of Richmond (PDF). waterloo-campaign.nl. Cites Cf. Dalton, Ch. "The Waterloo roll call".
- Media related to Duchess of Richmond's ball at Wikimedia Commons