Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)

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Duchy of Estonia
Hertigdömet Estland (Swedish)
Eestimaa hertsogkond (Estonian)
Herzogtum Estland (German)
Coat of arms of Estonia, Duchy of, (1561–1721)
Coat of arms
Baltic provinces of Swedish Empire in the 17th century.
Baltic provinces of Swedish Empire in the 17th century.
StatusDominion of the Swedish Empire
CapitalReval (Tallinn)
Common languagesGerman, Estonian, Swedish
• 1674–1681
Anders Torstenson
• 1687–1704
Axel Julius de la Gardie
• Established
June 4 1561
September 10 1721
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Livonian Confederation
Governorate of Estonia
Today part ofEstonia
The Swedish Empire

The Duchy of Estonia (Swedish: Hertigdömet Estland, Estonian: Eestimaa hertsogkond, German: Herzogtum Estland), also known as Swedish Estonia,[1] (Swedish: Svenska Estland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1561 until 1721 during the time that most or all of Estonia was under Swedish rule. The land was eventually ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad, following its capitulation, during the plague, in the Great Northern War.

The dominion arose during the Livonian War, when the northern parts of present-day EstoniaReval (Tallinn) and the counties of Harjumaa, Western Virumaa, Raplamaa and Järvamaa — submitted to the Swedish king in 1561, and Läänemaa in 1581. It is also colloquially known as the "good old Swedish times"[2] (Estonian: vana hea Rootsi aeg) by Estonians, but this expression was not used before the following Russian rule, in the beginning of which the situation of Estonian peasantry declined rapidly; to gain the support of the German Baltic nobility, Russia gave them more power over the peasantry.

Head of Dominion[edit]

Governors (1561–1674)
Governors-General (1674–1728)
Livonian ConfederationTerra MarianaEstonian SSRDuchy of Livonia (1721–1917)Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)Duchy of Livonia (1561–1621)Duchy of Estonia (1721–1917)Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)Danish EstoniaDanish EstoniaEstoniaAncient EstoniaHistory of Estonia

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Michael Roberts (March 8, 1984). The Swedish imperial experience 1560–1718. p. 30. ISBN 0-521-27889-9.
  2. ^ Kelertas, Violeta (October 25, 2006). Baltic Postcolonialism. Rodopi. ISBN 9789042019591 – via Google Books.


Coordinates: 59°26′N 24°45′E / 59.433°N 24.750°E / 59.433; 24.750